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English language - Dictionaries - Preface
Oxford English Reference
British Library Cataloguing Data
The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
1. English language--Dictionaries
I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain
Library of Congress Cataloging Data
The Concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed./edited by R. E. Allen.
'First edited by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler.'
ISBN 0-19-861200-1: њ10.95.--ISBN 0-19-861243-5 (thumb index)
1. English language--Dictionaries. I. Allen, R. E. II. Fowler,
H. W. (Henry Watson), 1858-1933. III. Fowler, F. G. (Francis
423--dc20 89-72114 CIP
CONTENTS Table of Contents
Title Page TITLE
Edition Notice EDITION
Table of Contents CONTENTS
Guide to the Use of the Dictionary PREFACE.1
Abbreviations used in the Dictionary PREFACE.2
Note on Proprietary Status PREFACE.3
PREFACE.1 Guide to the Use of the Dictionary
1. Use of conventions
In this edition, a great deal of the information given in the
dictionary entries is self-explanatory, and the use of special
conventions has been kept to a minimum. The following pages are meant
to explain the editorial approach and to assist the user by explaining
the principles involved in assembling the information.
a. Headwords are highlighted by one of the two methods displayed in
the following examples. Highlighting in the second example
indicates the word is not naturalized in English and is usually
found in italics in printed matter.
saddle n. & v. --n. 1 a seat of leather etc., usu. raised
at the front and rear, fastened on a horse etc. for
riding. 2 a seat for the rider of a bicycle etc. 3
a joint of meat consisting of the two loins, 4 a
ridge rising to a summit at each end. 5 the part of
souvlaki n. (pl. souvlakia) a Greek dish of pieces of meat
grilled on a skewer. [mod. Gk]
b. Variant spellings are given before the definition; in all such
cases the form given as the headword is the preferred form.
Variant forms are also given at their own places in the dictionary
when these are three or more entries away from the main form:
saguaro n. (also sahuaro) (pl. -os) a giant cactus,
Carnegiea gigantea, of the SW United States and
Mexico. [Mex. Sp.]
Variant spellings given at the beginning of an entry normally
apply to the whole entry, including any phrases and undefined
derivatives (see below, 9 -- 11).
When variants apply only to certain functions or senses of a word,
these are given in brackets at the relevant point in the entry.
Words that are normally spelt with a capital initial are given in
this form as the headword; when they are in some senses spelt with
a small initial and in others with a capital initial this is
indicated by repetition of the full word in the appropriate form
within the entry.
Variant American spellings are indicated by the designation US.
These variants are often found in American use in addition to the
main forms given:
sabre n. & v. (US saber) --n. 1 a cavalry sword with a
curved blade. 2 a cavalry soldier and horse. 3 a
light fencing-sword with a tapering blade. --v.tr.
cut down or wound with a sabre.
c. Words that are different but spelt the same way (homographs) are
distinguished by superior numerals:
bat(1) n. & v. --n. 1 an implement with a handle, usu. of
wood and with a flat or curved surface, used for
hitting balls in games. 2 a turn at using this. 3 a
batsman, esp. in cricket, usu. described in some way
(an excellent bat). 4 (usu. in pl.) an object like a
table-tennis bat used to guide aircraft when
taxiing. --v. (batted, batting) 1 tr. hit with or
as with a bat. 2 intr. take a turn at batting, Ьbat
around 1 sl. potter aimlessly. 2 US discuss (an
idea or proposal). off one's own bat unprompted,
unaided. right off the bat US immediately. [ME f.
OE batt club, perh. partly f. OF batte club f.
bat(2) n. any mouselike nocturnal mammal of the order
Chiroptera, capable of flight by means of membranous
wings extending from its forelimbs. Ьhave bats in
the belfry be eccentric or crazy. like a bat out of
hell very fast. [16th c., alt. of ME bakke f.
bat(3) v.tr. (batted, batting) wink (one's eyelid) (now
usu. in phr.). Ьnot (or never) bat an eyelid
colloq. show no reaction or emotion. [var. of obs.
3. Part of speech
a. The grammatical identity of words as noun, verb, adjective, and so
on, is given for all headwords and derivatives, and for compounds
and phrases when necessary to aid clarity. The same part-of-speech
label is used of groups of more than one word when the group has
the function of that part of speech, e.g. ad hoc, Parthian shot.
b. When a headword has more than one part of speech, a list is given
at the beginning of the entry, and the treatment of the successive
parts of speech (in the same order as the list) is introduced by a
dash (--) in each case:
safe adj. & n. --adj. 1 a free of danger or injury. b
(often foll. by from) out of or not exposed to
danger (safe from their enemies), 2 affording
security or not involving danger or risk (put it in
a safe place). 3 reliable, certain; that can be
reckoned on (a safe catch; a safe method; is safe to
win). 4 prevented from escaping or doing harm (have
got him safe). 5 (also safe and sound) uninjured;
with no harm done. 6 cautious and unenterprising;
consistently moderate. --n, 1 a strong lockable
cabinet etc. for valuables. 2 = meat safe
c. The standard part-of-speech names are used, and the following
additional explanations should be noted:
1) Nouns used attributively are designated attrib. when their
function is not fully adjectival (e.g. model in a model
student; the student is very model is not acceptable usage).
a) Adjectives are labelled attrib. (= attributive) when they
are placed before the word they modify (as in a blue car),
and predic. (= predicative) when they occur (usually
after a verb) in the predicate of a sentence (as in the
car is blue).
b) Some adjectives are restricted in such use: for example
aware is normally used predicatively and undue is normally
2) The designation absol. (= absolute) refers to uses of
transitive verbs with an object implied but not stated (as in
smoking kills and let me explain).
3) The designation 'in comb.' (= in combination), or 'also in
comb.', refers to uses of words (especially adjectives) as an
element joined by a hyphen with another word, as with crested,
which often appears in forms such as red-crested,
large-crested, and so on.
a. Inflection of words (i.e. plurals, past tenses, etc.) is given
after the part of speech concerned:
safari n, (pl. safaris) 1 a hunting or scientific
expedition, esp. in E. Africa (go on safari). 2 a
sightseeing trip to see African animals in their
sag v. & n. --v.intr. (sagged, sagging) 1 sink or
subside under weight or pressure, esp. unevenly. 2
have a downward bulge or curve in the middle. 3 fall
in price. 4 (of a ship) drift from its course, esp.
The forms given are normally those in use in British English.
Variant American forms are identified by the label US; these
variants are often found in American use in addition to the main
b. In general, the inflection of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and
adverbs is given when it is irregular (as described further below)
or when, though regular, it causes difficulty (as with forms such
as budgeted, coos, and taxis).
c. Plurals of nouns: nouns that form their plural regularly by adding
-s (or -es when they end in s, -x, z, -sh, or soft -ch) receive no
comment. Other plural forms are given, notably:
1) nouns ending in -i or -o.
2) nouns ending in -y.
3) nouns ending in Latinate forms such as -a and -um.
4) nouns with more than one plural form, e.g. fish and aquarium.
5) nouns with plurals involving a change in the stem, e.g. foot,
6) nouns with a plural form identical to the singular form, e.g.
7) nouns in -ful, e.g. handful.
d. Forms of verbs:
The following forms are regarded as regular:
1) third person singular present forms adding -s to the stem (or
-es to stems ending in -s, -x, -z, -sh, or soft -ch).
2) past tenses and past participles adding -ed to the stem,
dropping a final silent e (e.g. changed, danced).
3) present participles adding -ing to the stem, dropping a final
silent e (e.g. changing, dancing).
4) Other forms are given, notably:
a) doubling of a final consonant, e.g. bat, batted, batting.
b) strong and irregular forms involving a change in the stem,
e.g. come, came, come, and go, went, gone.
e. Comparative and Superlative of Adjectives and Adverbs:
1) Words of one syllable adding -er or -est, those ending in
silent e dropping the e (e.g. braver, bravest) are regarded
as regular. Most one-syllable words have these forms, but
participial adjectives (e.g. pleased) do not.
2) Those that double a final consonant (e.g. hot, hotter,
hottest) are given, as are two-syllable words that have
comparative and superlative forms in -er and -est (of which
very many are forms ending in -y, e.g. happy, happier,
happiest), and their negative forms (e.g. unhappier,
3) It should be noted that specification of these forms indicates
only that they are available; it is usually also possible to
form comparatives with more and superlatives with most (as in
more happy, most unhappy), which is the standard way of
proceeding with adjectives and adverbs that do not admit of
f. Adjectives in -able formed from Transitive Verbs:
These are given as derivatives when there is sufficient evidence
of their currency; in general they are formed as follows:
1) Verbs drop silent final -e except after c and g (e.g. movable
2) Verbs of more than one syllable ending in -y (preceded by a
consonant or qu) change y to i (e.g. enviable, undeniable).
3) A final consonant is often doubled as in normal inflection
(e.g. conferrable, regrettable).
a. Definitions are listed in a numbered sequence in order of
comparative familiarity and importance, with the most current and
important senses first:
sail n. & v. --n. 1 a piece of material (orig. canvas,
now usu. nylon etc.) extended on rigging to catch
the wind and propel a boat or ship. 2 a ship's
sails collectively. 3 a a voyage or excursion in a
sailing-ship. b a voyage of specified duration. 4 a
ship, esp. as discerned from its sails, 5 (collect.)
ships in a squadron or company (a fleet of twenty
sail). 6 (in pl.) Naut. a sl. a maker or repairer
of sails. b hist, a chief petty officer in charge
of rigging. 7 a wind-catching apparatus, usu. a set
of boards, attached to the arm of a windmill. 8 a
the dorsal fin of a sailfish. b the tentacle of a
nautilus. c the float of a Portuguese man-of-war.
--v. 1 intr. travel on water by the use of sails or
engine-power. 2 tr. a navigate (a ship etc.). b
travel on (a sea). 3 tr. set (a toy boat) afloat. 4
intr. glide or move smoothly or in a stately manner.
5 intr. (often foll. by through) colloq. succeed
easily (sailed through the exams).
b. They are subdivided into lettered senses (a, b, etc.) when these
are closely related or call for collective treatment.
6. Illustrative examples
Many examples of words in use are given to support, and in some cases
supplement, the definitions. These appear in italics in brackets.
They are meant to amplify meaning and (especially when
following a grammatical point) illustrate how the word is used in
context, as in the following sense of saint:
a very virtuous person; a person of great real or
affected holiness (would try the patience of a saint).
7. Grammatical information
a. Definitions are often accompanied by explanations in brackets of
how the word or phrase in question is used in context. Often, the
comment refers to words that usually follow (foll. by) or precede
(prec. by) the word being explained, For example, at sack(1):
sack(1) n. & v. --n. 1 a a large strong bag, usu. made of
hessian, paper, or plastic, for storing or conveying
goods. b (usu. foll. by of) this with its contents
(a sack of potatoes). c a quantity contained in a
sack. 2 (prec. by the) colloq. dismissal from
employment. 3 (prec. by the) US sl. bed. 4 a a
woman's short loose dress with a sacklike
appearance. b archaic or hist. a woman's loose
gown, or a silk train attached to the shoulders of
this. 5 a man's or woman's loose-hanging coat not
shaped to the back. --v.tr. 1 put into a sack or
sacks. 2 colloq. dismiss from employment. Ьsack
race a race between competitors in sacks up to the
waist or neck. ЬЬsackful n. (pl. -fuls).
sacklike adj. [OE sacc f. L saccus f. Gk sakkos, of
sense 1b usually appears as a sack of (something), as the example
further shows; and senses 2 and 3 always appear as the sack.
b. With verbs, the fact that a sense is transitive or intransitive
can affect the construction. In the examples given below, prevail
is intransitive (and the construction is prevail on a person) and
urge is transitive (and the construction is urge a person on).
prevail v.intr. 1 (often foll. by against, over) be
victorious or gain mastery. 2 be the more usual or
predominant. 3 exist or occur in general use or
experience; be current. 4 (foll. by on, upon)
urge v. & n. --v.tr. 1 (often foll. by on) drive
forcibly; impel; hasten (urged them on; urged the
horses forward). 2 (often foll. by to + infin. or
that + clause) encourage or entreat earnestly or
persistently (urged them to go; urged them to
action; urged that they should go).
c. The formula (foll. by to + infin.) means that the word is followed
by a normal infinitive with to, as in want to leave and eager to
d. The formula (foll. by that + clause) indicates the routine
addition of a clause with that, as in said that it was late. (For
the omission of that, as in said it was late, see the usage note
in the entry for that.)
e. 'pres. part.' and 'verbal noun' denote verbal forms in -ing that
function as adjectives and nouns respectively, as in set him
laughing and tired of asking.
a. If the use of a word is restricted in any way, this is indicated
by any of various labels printed as follows:
1) Brit. indicates that the use is found chiefly in British
English (and often also in Australian and New Zealand English,
and in other parts of the Commonwealth) but not in American
2) US indicates that the use is found chiefly in American English
(often including Canada and also in Australian and New Zealand
English) but not in British English except as a conscious
3) Other geographical designations (e.g. Austral., NZ, S.Afr.)
restrict uses to the areas named.
4) These usage labels should be distinguished from comments of
the type '(In the UK)' or '(in the US)' preceding definitions,
which denote that tee thing defined is associated with the
country named. For example, Pentagon is a US institution, but
the term is not restricted to American English.
1) Levels of usage, or registers, are indicated as follows:
2) formal indicates uses that are normally restricted to formal
(esp. written) English, e.g. commence.
3) colloq. (= colloquial) indicates a use that is normally
restricted to informal (esp. spoken) English.
4) sl. (= slang) indicates a use of the most informal kind,
unsuited to written English and often restricted to a
particular social group.
5) archaic indicates a word that is restricted to special
contexts such as legal or religious use, or is used for
6) literary indicates a word or use that is found chiefly in
7) poet. (= poetic) indicates uses confined to poetry or other
contexts with romantic connotations.
8) joc. (= jocular) indicates uses that are intended to be
humorous or playful.
9) derog. (= derogatory) denotes uses that are intentionally
10) offens. (= offensive) denotes uses that cause offence,
whether intentionally or not.
11) disp. (= disputed) indicates a use that is disputed or
controversial. Often this is enough to alert the user to a
danger or difficulty; when further explanation is needed a
usage note (see 8e below) is used as well or instead.
12) hist. (= historical) denotes a word or use that is confined to
historical reference, normally because the thing referred to
no longer exists.
13) propr. (= proprietary) denotes a term that has the status of a
trade mark (see "Note on Proprietary Status" in
The many subject labels, e.g. Law, Math., Naut., show that a word
or sense is current only in a particular field of activity, and is
not in general use.
e. Usage Notes
These are added to give extra information not central to the
definition, and to explain points of grammar and usage. They are
introduced by the symbol °. The purpose of these notes is not to
prescribe usage but to alert the user to a difficulty or
controversy attached to particular uses.
9. Phrases and idioms
a. These are listed (together with compounds) in alphabetical order
after the treatment of the main senses, introduced by the symbol
Ь. The words a, the, one, and person do not count for purposes of
Ьon the safe side with a margin of security against
risks. safe bet a bet that is certain to succeed.
safe-breaker (or -blower or -cracker) a person who
breaks open and robs safes. safe conduct 1 a
privilege of immunity from arrest or harm, esp. on a
particular occasion. 2 a document securing this.
safe deposit a building containing strongrooms and
safes let separately. safe house a place of refuge
or rendezvous for spies etc. safe keeping
preservation in a safe place. safe light Photog. a
filtered light for use in a darkroom. safe period
the time during and near the menstrual period when
conception is least likely. safe seat a seat in
Parliament etc. that is usually won with a large
margin by a particular party.
b. They are normally defined under the earliest important word in the
phrase, except when a later word is more clearly the key word or
is the common word in a phrase with variants (in which case a
cross-reference often appears at the entry for the earliest word):
make do 1 manage with the limited or inadequate
means available. 2 (foll. by with) manage with
(something) as an inferior substitute. make an
example of punish as a warning to others. make a
fool of see FOOL(1). make for 1 tend to result in
(happiness etc.). 2 proceed towards (a place). 3
assault; attack. 4 confirm (an opinion). make
friends (often foll. by with) become friendly. make
fun of see FUN. make good see GOOD. make a habit
of see HABIT. make a hash of see HASH(1). make hay
see HAY(1). make head or tail of see HEAD. make a
House Polit. secure the presence of enough members
for a quorum or support in the House of Commons.
make it colloq. 1 succeed in reaching, esp. in
time. 2 be successful. 3 (usu. foll. by with) sl.
have sexual intercourse (with). make it up 1 be
reconciled, esp. after a quarrel. 2 fill in a
deficit. make it up to remedy negligence, an
injury, etc. to (a person). make light of see
LIGHT(2). make love see LOVE. make a meal of see
MEAL(1). make merry see MERRY.
a. Compound terms forming one word (e.g. bathroom, newspaper) are
listed as main entries; those consisting of two or more words
(e.g. chain reaction) or joined by a hyphen (e.g. chain-gang) are
given under the first element or occasionally as main entries.
a. Words formed by adding a suffix to another word are in many cases
listed at the end of the entry for the main word, introduced by
the symbol ЬЬ. In this position they are not defined since they
can be understood from the sense of the main word and that given
at the suffix concerned:
ЬЬ saintdom n. sainthood n. saintlike adj. saintling n.
When further definition is called for they are given main entries
in their own right (e.g. changeable).
b. For derivative words used in combination (e.g. -crested in
red-crested), see 3c3 above.
a. A brief account of the etymology, or origin, of words is given in
square brackets at the end of entries. It is not given for
compound words of obvious formation (such as bathroom and
jellyfish), for routinely formed derivatives (such as changeable,
muddy, and seller), or for words consisting of clearly identified
elements already explained (such as Anglo-Saxon, overrun, and many
words in in-, re-, un-, etc.). It is also not always given for
every word of a set sharing the same basic origin (such as the
group from proprietary to propriety). Noteworthy features, such as
an origin in Old English, are however always given.
b. More detailed information can be found in the Oxford Dictionary of
English Etymology (ed. C. T. Onions et al., 1966) and the Concise
Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (ed. T. F, Hoad, 1986).
c. The immediate source language is given first. Forms in other
languages are not given if they are exactly or nearly the same as
the English form given in the headword.
d. Words of Germanic origin are described as 'f. Gmc' or 'f. WG'
(West Germanic) as appropriate; unrecorded or postulated forms are
not normally given.
e. OE (Old English) is used for words that are known to have been
used before AD 1150, and ME (Middle English) for words traceable
to the period 1150-1500 (no distinction being made between early
and late Middle English).
f. Words of Romance origin are referred to their immediate source,
usually F (French) or OF (Old French before 1400), and then to
earlier sources when known.
g. AF (Anglo-French) denotes the variety of French current in England
in the Middle Ages after the Norman Conquest.
h. Rmc (Romanic) denotes the vernacular descendants of Latin that are
the source of French, Spanish, Italian, etc. Romanic forms are
almost always of the 'unrecorded' or 'postulated' kind, and are
not specified except to clarify a significant change of form.
Often the formula 'ult. f. L' etc. (ultimately from Latin, etc.)
is used to indicate that the route from Latin is via Romanic
i. L (Latin) denotes classical Latin up to about AD 200; OL (Old
Latin) Latin before about 75 BC; LL (Late Latin) Latin of about
200-600; med.L (medieval Latin) Latin of about 600-1500; mod.L
(modern Latin) Latin in use (mainly for technical purposes) since
j. Similar divisions for 'late', 'medieval', and 'modern' are made
k. Many English words have corresponding forms in both French and
Latin, and it cannot always be established which was the immediate
source. In such cases the formula 'F or L' is used (e.g.
section...F section or L sectio); in these cases the Latin form is
the source of the French word
and (either directly or indirectly) of the English word.
l. Some words are derived from languages which are not in wide enough
use for them to be included as entries in the dictionary. These
languages are listed below by regions; further information about
them can be found in encyclopaedias and other reference books.
1) Those spoken in America are Aleutian (related to Eskimo),
Surinam Negro (a Creole based on English), and the following
American Indian languages: Abnaki, Araucan, Aymar , Chinook,
Creek, Dakota, Fox, Galibi, Hopi, Miskito, Narragansett,
Nootka, Ojibwa, Paiute, Penobscot, Renape, and Taino.
2) Those spoken in Africa are Bangi, Fiot, Foulah, Khoisan,
Kongo, Lingala, Mandingo, Mbuba, Mende, Nguni, Temne, and Twi.
3) Those spoken in Asia are Ambonese (spoken in Indonesia),
Assamese (in India), Batti (in Tibet), Maldive (in the Maldive
Islands), Mishmi (in India), Sundanese (in Indonesia), and
Tungus (in Siberia).
4) Tongan is a Polynesian language.
m. When the origin of a word cannot be reliably established, the
forms 'orig. unkn.' (= origin unknown) and 'orig. uncert.' (=
origin uncertain) are used, even if frequently canvassed
speculative derivations exist (as with gremlin and pommy). In
these cases the century of the first recorded occurrence of the
word in English is given.
n. An equals sign (=) precedes words in other languages that are
parallel formations from a common source (cognates) rather than
sources of the English word.
13. Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms
a. A large selection of these is given in the main body of the text;
prefixes are given in the form ex-, re-, etc., and suffixes in the
form -ion, -ness, etc. These entries should be consulted to
explain the many routinely formed derivatives given at the end of
entries (see above, 11).
b. Combining forms (e.g. bio-, -graphy) are semantically significant
elements that can be attached to words or elements as explained in
the usage note at the entry for combine.
c. The pronunciation given for a prefix, suffix, or combining form is
an approximate one for purposes of articulating and (in some
cases) identifying the headword; pronunciation and stress may
change considerably when they form part of a word.
a. These are introduced by any of a number of reference types, as
1) '='denotes that the meaning of the item at which the
cross-reference occurs is the same as that of the item
2) 'see' indicates that the information sought will be found at
the point referred to, and is widely used in the idiom
sections of entries to deal with items that can be located at
any of a number of words included in the idiom (see also
3) 'see also' indicates that further information can be found at
the point referred to.
4) 'cf' denotes an item related or relevant to the one being
consulted, and the reference often completes or clarifies the
exact meaning of the item being treated.
5) 'opp.' refers to a word or sense that is opposite to the one
being treated, and again often completes or clarifies the
6) References of the kind 'pl. of' (= plural of), 'past of' (=
past tense of), etc., are given at entries for inflections and
other related forms.
b. Cross-references preceded by any of these reference types appear
in small capitals if the reference is to a main headword, and in
italics if the reference is to a compound or idiom within an
c. References in italics to compounds and defined phrases are to the
entry for the first word unless another is specified.
PREFACE.2 Abbreviations used in the Dictionary
Some abbreviations (especially of language-names) occur only in
etymologies. Others may appear in italics. Abbreviations in general use
(such as etc., i.e., and those for books of the Bible are explained in the
Afr. Africa, African
Amer. America, American
Antiq. Antiquities, Antiquity
arbitr. arbitrary, arbitrarily
assoc. associated, association
attrib.adj. attributive adjective
Austral. Australia, Australian
Braz. Brazil, Brazilian
Brit. British, in British use
Can. Canada, Canadian
coarse sl. coarse slang
comb. combination; combining
demons.adj. demonstrative adjective
demons.pron. demonstrative pronoun
disp. disputed (use)
EFris. East Frisian
E.Ind. East Indian, of the East Indies
Engl. England; English
Eur. Europe, European
foll. followed, following
Gk Hist. Greek History
hist. with historical reference
incl. including; inclusive
Ind. of the subcontinent comprising India,
Pakistan, and Bangladesh
instr. instrumental (case)
interrog.adj. interrogative adjective
interrog.pron. interrogative pronoun
Ir. Irish (language or usage)
Jap. Japan, Japanese
LG Low German
LHeb. Late Hebrew
LL Late Latin
M Middle (with languages)
MDa. Middle Danish
MDu. Middle Dutch
ME Middle English
med.L medieval Latin
MFlem. Middle Flemish
MHG Middle High German
MLG Middle Low German
mod.L modern Latin
MSw. Middle Swedish
N.Amer. North America, North American
N.Engl. North of England
n.pl. noun plural
NZ New Zealand
O Old (with languages)
obj. object; objective
OBret. Old Breton
OBrit. Old British
OBulg. Old Bulgarian
OCelt. Old Celtic
ODa. Old Danish
ODu. Old Dutch
OE Old English
OF Old French
OFrank. Old Frankish
OFris. Old Frisian
OGael. Old Gaelic
OHG Old High German
OIcel. Old Icelandic
OIr. Old Irish
OIt. Old Italian
OL Old Latin
OLG Old Low German
ON Old Norse
ONF Old Northern French
ONorw. Old Norwegian
OPers. Old Persian
OPort. Old Portuguese
opp- (as) opposed (to); opposite (of)
OProv. Old Provencal
orig. origin; original(ly)
OS Old Saxon
OScand. Old Scandinavian
OSlav. Old Slavonic
OSp. Old Spanish
OSw. Old Swedish
Parl. Parliament; Parliamentary
past part. past participle
perf. perfect (tense)
Pharm. Pharmacy; Pharmacology
pop. popular, not technical
pop.L popular Latin, informal spoken Latin
poss.pron. possessive pronoun
prec. preceded, preceding
predic. predicate; predicative(ly)
predic.adj. predicative adjective
pres.part. present participle
prob. probable, probably
propr. proprietary term
RC Ch. Roman Catholic Church
rel. related; relative
rel.adj. relative adjective
rel.pron. relative pronoun
Rom.Hist. Roman History
S.Afr. South Africa, South African
S.Amer. South America, South American
Scand. Scandinavia, Scandinavian
Stock Exch. Stock Exchange
subj. subject; subjunctive
Theatr. Theatre, Theatrical
transf. in transferred sense
US American, in American use
v.aux. auxiliary verb
v.intr. intransitive verb
v.refl. reflexive verb
v.tr. transitive verb
WFris. West Frisian
WG West Germanic
W.Ind. West Indian, of the West Indies
WS West Saxon
WSlav. West Slavonic
PREFACE.3 Note on Proprietary Status
This dictionary includes some words which are, or are asserted to be,
proprietary names or trade marks. Their inclusion does not imply that they
have acquired for legal purposes a non-proprietary or general
significance, nor is any other judgement implied concerning their legal
status. In cases where the editor has some evidence that a word is used as
a proprietary name or trade mark this is indicated by the designation
propr., but no judgement concerning the legal status of such words is made
or implied thereby.
По низкой цене ифнс 46 всем желающим. Качественно.