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English language - Dictionaries - Preface

                         Oxford English Reference

                      British Library Cataloguing Data
         The concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed.
                     1. English language--Dictionaries
                 I. Allen, R. E. (Robert Edward), 1944-423
                       ISBN 0-19-861243-5 thumb index
                          ISBN 0-19-861200-1 plain

                    Library of Congress Cataloging Data
   The Concise Oxford dictionary of current English.--8th ed./edited by R. E. Allen.
                                   p. cm.
              'First edited by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler.'
       ISBN 0-19-861200-1: њ10.95.--ISBN 0-19-861243-5 (thumb index)
      1. English language--Dictionaries. I. Allen, R. E.  II. Fowler,
       H. W. (Henry Watson), 1858-1933.  III. Fowler, F. G. (Francis
                            George), 1870-1918.
                              PE1628.C68 1990
                           423--dc20 89-72114 CIP

CONTENTS Table of Contents

 Title Page    TITLE

 Edition Notice    EDITION

 Notices    NOTICES

 Table of Contents    CONTENTS

 Preface    PREFACE
 Guide to the Use of the Dictionary    PREFACE.1
 Abbreviations used in the Dictionary    PREFACE.2
 Note on Proprietary Status    PREFACE.3


PREFACE.1 Guide to the Use of the Dictionary

   1.  Use of conventions

       In this edition, a great deal of the information given in the
       dictionary entries is self-explanatory, and the use of special
       conventions has been kept to a minimum. The following pages are meant
       to explain the editorial approach and to assist the user by explaining
       the principles involved in assembling the information.

   2.  Headword

       a.  Headwords are highlighted by one of the two methods displayed in
           the following examples. Highlighting in the second example
           indicates the word is not naturalized in English and is usually
           found in italics in printed matter.

               Example 1:

               saddle    n. & v.  --n. 1 a seat of leather etc., usu. raised
                         at the front and rear, fastened on a horse etc. for
                         riding. 2 a seat for the rider of a bicycle etc.  3
                         a joint of meat consisting of the two loins, 4 a
                         ridge rising to a summit at each end. 5 the part of

               Example 2:

               souvlaki  n.  (pl.  souvlakia) a Greek dish of pieces of meat
                         grilled on a skewer.  [mod. Gk]

       b.  Variant spellings are given before the definition; in all such
           cases the form given as the headword is the preferred form.
           Variant forms are also given at their own places in the dictionary
           when these are three or more entries away from the main form:

               saguaro   n. (also sahuaro) (pl. -os) a giant cactus,
                         Carnegiea gigantea, of the SW United States and
                         Mexico. [Mex. Sp.]

           Variant spellings given at the beginning of an entry normally
           apply to the whole entry, including any phrases and undefined
           derivatives (see below, 9 -- 11).

           When variants apply only to certain functions or senses of a word,
           these are given in brackets at the relevant point in the entry.

           Words that are normally spelt with a capital initial are given in
           this form as the headword; when they are in some senses spelt with
           a small initial and in others with a capital initial this is
           indicated by repetition of the full word in the appropriate form
           within the entry.

           Variant American spellings are indicated by the designation US.
           These variants are often found in American use in addition to the
           main forms given:

               sabre     n. & v. (US saber) --n. 1 a cavalry sword with a
                         curved blade. 2 a cavalry soldier and horse. 3 a
                         light fencing-sword with a tapering blade.  --v.tr.
                         cut down or wound with a sabre.

       c.  Words that are different but spelt the same way (homographs) are
           distinguished by superior numerals:

               bat(1)    n. & v.  --n. 1 an implement with a handle, usu. of
                         wood and with a flat or curved surface, used for
                         hitting balls in games. 2 a turn at using this.  3 a
                         batsman, esp. in cricket, usu. described in some way
                         (an excellent bat). 4 (usu. in pl.) an object like a
                         table-tennis bat used to guide aircraft when
                         taxiing.  --v.  (batted, batting) 1 tr. hit with or
                         as with a bat.  2 intr. take a turn at batting, Ьbat
                         around 1 sl.  potter aimlessly. 2 US discuss (an
                         idea or proposal).  off one's own bat unprompted,
                         unaided. right off the bat US immediately.  [ME f.
                         OE batt club, perh.  partly f. OF batte club f.
                         battre strike]

               bat(2)    n. any mouselike nocturnal mammal of the order
                         Chiroptera, capable of flight by means of membranous
                         wings extending from its forelimbs.  Ьhave bats in
                         the belfry be eccentric or crazy. like a bat out of
                         hell very fast. [16th c., alt. of ME bakke f.

               bat(3)    v.tr. (batted, batting) wink (one's eyelid) (now
                         usu. in phr.).  Ьnot (or never) bat an eyelid
                         colloq. show no reaction or emotion.  [var. of obs.
                         bate flutter]

   3.  Part of speech

       a.  The grammatical identity of words as noun, verb, adjective, and so
           on, is given for all headwords and derivatives, and for compounds
           and phrases when necessary to aid clarity. The same part-of-speech
           label is used of groups of more than one word when the group has
           the function of that part of speech, e.g. ad hoc, Parthian shot.

       b.  When a headword has more than one part of speech, a list is given
           at the beginning of the entry, and the treatment of the successive
           parts of speech (in the same order as the list) is introduced by a
           dash (--) in each case:

               safe      adj. & n.  --adj. 1 a free of danger or injury. b
                         (often foll. by from) out of or not exposed to
                         danger (safe from their enemies), 2 affording
                         security or not involving danger or risk (put it in
                         a safe place).  3 reliable, certain; that can be
                         reckoned on (a safe catch; a safe method; is safe to
                         win).  4 prevented from escaping or doing harm (have
                         got him safe).  5 (also safe and sound) uninjured;
                         with no harm done.  6 cautious and unenterprising;
                         consistently moderate.  --n, 1 a strong lockable
                         cabinet etc.  for valuables.  2 = meat safe

       c.  The standard part-of-speech names are used, and the following
           additional explanations should be noted:

           1)  Nouns used attributively are designated attrib. when their
               function is not fully adjectival (e.g. model in a model
               student; the student is very model is not acceptable usage).

               a)  Adjectives are labelled attrib.  (= attributive) when they
                   are placed before the word they modify (as in a blue car),
                   and predic.  (= predicative) when they occur (usually
                   after a verb) in the predicate of a sentence (as in the
                   car is blue).

               b)  Some adjectives are restricted in such use: for example
                   aware is normally used predicatively and undue is normally
                   used attributively.

           2)  The designation absol.  (= absolute) refers to uses of
               transitive verbs with an object implied but not stated (as in
               smoking kills and let me explain).

           3)  The designation 'in comb.' (= in combination), or 'also in
               comb.', refers to uses of words (especially adjectives) as an
               element joined by a hyphen with another word, as with crested,
               which often appears in forms such as red-crested,
               large-crested, and so on.

   4.  Inflection

       a.  Inflection of words (i.e. plurals, past tenses, etc.)  is  given
           after  the part of speech concerned:

               safari    n, (pl. safaris) 1 a hunting or scientific
                         expedition, esp. in E. Africa (go on safari).  2 a
                         sightseeing trip to see African animals in their
                         natural habitat.

               sag       v. & n. --v.intr.  (sagged, sagging) 1 sink or
                         subside under weight or pressure, esp. unevenly.  2
                         have a downward bulge or curve in the middle. 3 fall
                         in price. 4 (of a ship) drift from its course, esp.
                         to leeward.

           The forms given are normally those in use in British English.
           Variant American forms are identified by the label US; these
           variants are often found in American use in addition to the main
           forms given.

       b.  In general, the inflection of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and
           adverbs is given when it is irregular (as described further below)
           or when, though regular, it causes difficulty (as with forms such
           as budgeted, coos, and taxis).

       c.  Plurals of nouns: nouns that form their plural regularly by adding
           -s (or -es when they end in s, -x, z, -sh, or soft -ch) receive no
           comment.  Other plural forms are given, notably:

           1)  nouns ending in -i or -o.

           2)  nouns ending in -y.

           3)  nouns ending in Latinate forms such as -a and -um.

           4)  nouns with more than one plural form, e.g.  fish and aquarium.

           5)  nouns with plurals involving a change in the stem, e.g. foot,

           6)  nouns with a plural form identical to the singular form, e.g.

           7)  nouns in -ful, e.g. handful.

       d.  Forms of verbs:

           The following forms are regarded as regular:

           1)  third person singular present forms adding -s to the stem (or
               -es to stems ending in -s, -x, -z, -sh, or soft -ch).

           2)  past tenses and past participles adding -ed to the stem,
               dropping a final silent e (e.g. changed, danced).

           3)  present participles adding -ing to the stem, dropping a final
               silent e (e.g. changing, dancing).

           4)  Other forms are given, notably:

               a)  doubling of a final consonant, e.g. bat, batted, batting.

               b)  strong and irregular forms involving a change in the stem,
                   e.g.  come, came, come, and go, went, gone.

       e.  Comparative and Superlative of Adjectives and Adverbs:

           1)  Words of one syllable adding -er or -est, those ending in
               silent e dropping the e (e.g.  braver, bravest) are regarded
               as regular. Most one-syllable words have these forms, but
               participial adjectives (e.g.  pleased) do not.

           2)  Those that double a final consonant (e.g. hot, hotter,
               hottest) are given, as are two-syllable words that have
               comparative and superlative forms in -er and -est (of which
               very many are forms ending in -y, e.g.  happy, happier,
               happiest), and their negative forms (e.g. unhappier,

           3)  It should be noted that specification of these forms indicates
               only that they are available; it is usually also possible to
               form comparatives with more and superlatives with most (as in
               more happy, most unhappy), which is the standard way of
               proceeding with adjectives and adverbs that do not admit of

       f.  Adjectives in -able formed from Transitive Verbs:

           These are given as derivatives when there is sufficient evidence
           of their currency; in general they are formed as follows:

           1)  Verbs drop silent final -e except after c and g (e.g. movable
               but changeable).

           2)  Verbs of more than one syllable ending in -y (preceded by a
               consonant or qu) change y to i (e.g. enviable, undeniable).

           3)  A final consonant is often doubled as in normal inflection
               (e.g.  conferrable, regrettable).

   5.  Definition

       a.  Definitions are listed in a numbered sequence in order of
           comparative familiarity and importance, with the most current and
           important senses first:

               sail      n. & v.  --n. 1 a piece of material (orig.  canvas,
                         now usu. nylon etc.) extended on rigging to catch
                         the wind and propel a boat or ship.  2 a ship's
                         sails collectively. 3 a a voyage or excursion in a
                         sailing-ship. b a voyage of specified duration.  4 a
                         ship, esp. as discerned from its sails, 5 (collect.)
                         ships in a squadron or company (a fleet of twenty
                         sail).  6 (in pl.) Naut.  a sl. a maker or repairer
                         of sails.  b hist, a chief petty officer in charge
                         of rigging. 7 a wind-catching apparatus, usu. a set
                         of boards, attached to the arm of a windmill.  8 a
                         the dorsal fin of a sailfish. b the tentacle of a
                         nautilus. c the float of a Portuguese man-of-war.
                         --v.  1 intr. travel on water by the use of sails or
                         engine-power. 2 tr. a navigate (a ship etc.). b
                         travel on (a sea).  3 tr. set (a toy boat) afloat. 4
                         intr. glide or move smoothly or in a stately manner.
                         5 intr. (often foll. by through) colloq. succeed
                         easily (sailed through the exams).

       b.  They are subdivided into lettered senses (a, b, etc.) when these
           are closely related or call for collective treatment.

   6.  Illustrative examples

       Many examples of words in use are given to support, and in some cases
       supplement, the definitions. These appear in italics in brackets.
       They  are meant  to  amplify  meaning  and  (especially  when
       following  a  grammatical point) illustrate how the word is used in
       context, as in the following sense of saint:

                     a very virtuous person; a person of great real or
                     affected holiness (would try the patience of a saint).

   7.  Grammatical information

       a.  Definitions are often accompanied by explanations in brackets of
           how the word or phrase in question is used in context. Often, the
           comment refers to words that usually follow (foll. by) or precede
           (prec. by) the word being explained, For example, at sack(1):

               sack(1)   n. & v.  --n.  1 a a large strong bag, usu. made of
                         hessian, paper, or plastic, for storing or conveying
                         goods.  b (usu. foll. by of) this with its contents
                         (a sack of potatoes).  c a quantity contained in a
                         sack.  2 (prec. by the) colloq. dismissal from
                         employment.  3 (prec. by the) US sl. bed.  4 a a
                         woman's short loose dress with a sacklike
                         appearance.  b archaic or hist. a woman's loose
                         gown, or a silk train attached to the shoulders of
                         this.  5 a man's or woman's loose-hanging coat not
                         shaped to the back.  --v.tr.  1 put into a sack or
                         sacks.  2 colloq. dismiss from employment.  Ьsack
                         race a race between competitors in sacks up to the
                         waist or neck.  ЬЬsackful n.  (pl.  -fuls).
                         sacklike adj.  [OE sacc f. L saccus f. Gk sakkos, of
                         Semitic orig.]

           sense 1b usually appears as a sack of (something), as the example
           further shows; and senses 2 and 3 always appear as the sack.

       b.  With verbs, the fact that a sense is transitive or intransitive
           can affect the construction.  In the examples given below, prevail
           is intransitive (and the construction is prevail on a person) and
           urge is transitive (and the construction is urge a person on).

               prevail   v.intr.  1 (often foll. by against, over) be
                         victorious or gain mastery.  2 be the more usual or
                         predominant.  3 exist or occur in general use or
                         experience; be current.  4 (foll. by on, upon)

               urge      v. & n.  --v.tr.  1 (often foll. by on) drive
                         forcibly; impel; hasten (urged them on; urged the
                         horses forward).  2 (often foll. by to + infin. or
                         that + clause) encourage or entreat earnestly or
                         persistently (urged them to go; urged them to
                         action; urged that they should go).

       c.  The formula (foll. by to + infin.) means that the word is followed
           by a normal infinitive with to, as in want to leave and eager to

       d.  The formula (foll. by that + clause) indicates the routine
           addition of a clause with that, as in said that it was late. (For
           the omission of that, as in said it was late, see the usage note
           in the entry for that.)

       e.  'pres. part.' and 'verbal noun' denote verbal forms in -ing that
           function as adjectives and nouns respectively, as in set him
           laughing and tired of asking.

   8.  Usage

       a.  If the use of a word is restricted in any way, this is indicated
           by any of various labels printed as follows:

       b.  Geographical

           1)  Brit. indicates that the use is found chiefly in British
               English (and often also in Australian and New Zealand English,
               and in other parts of the Commonwealth) but not in American

           2)  US indicates that the use is found chiefly in American English
               (often including Canada and also in Australian and New Zealand
               English) but not in British English except as a conscious

           3)  Other geographical designations (e.g.  Austral., NZ, S.Afr.)
               restrict uses to the areas named.

           4)  These usage labels should be distinguished from comments of
               the type '(In the UK)' or '(in the US)' preceding definitions,
               which denote that tee thing defined is associated with the
               country named. For example, Pentagon is a US institution, but
               the term is not restricted to American English.

       c.  Register

           1)  Levels of usage, or registers, are indicated as follows:

           2)  formal indicates uses that are normally restricted to formal
               (esp.  written) English, e.g. commence.

           3)  colloq. (= colloquial) indicates a use that is normally
               restricted to informal (esp. spoken) English.

           4)  sl. (= slang) indicates a use of the most informal kind,
               unsuited to written English and often restricted to a
               particular social group.

           5)  archaic indicates a word that is restricted to special
               contexts such as legal or religious use, or is used for
               special effect.

           6)  literary indicates a word or use that is found chiefly in

           7)  poet. (= poetic) indicates uses confined to poetry or other
               contexts with romantic connotations.

           8)  joc.  (= jocular) indicates uses that are intended to be
               humorous or playful.

           9)  derog.  (= derogatory) denotes uses that are intentionally

           10) offens. (=  offensive) denotes uses that cause offence,
               whether intentionally or not.

           11) disp. (= disputed) indicates a use that is disputed or
               controversial.  Often this is enough to alert the user to a
               danger or difficulty; when further explanation is needed a
               usage note (see 8e below) is used as well or instead.

           12) hist. (= historical) denotes a word or use that is confined to
               historical reference, normally because the thing referred to
               no longer exists.

           13) propr. (= proprietary) denotes a term that has the status of a
               trade mark (see "Note on Proprietary Status" in
               topic PREFACE.3)

       d.  Subject

           The many subject labels, e.g.  Law, Math., Naut., show that a word
           or sense is current only in a particular field of activity, and is
           not in general use.

       e.  Usage Notes

           These are added to give extra information not central to the
           definition, and to explain points of grammar and usage. They are
           introduced by the symbol °. The purpose of these notes is not to
           prescribe usage but to alert the user to a difficulty or
           controversy attached to particular uses.

   9.  Phrases and idioms

       a.  These are listed (together with compounds) in alphabetical order
           after the treatment of the main senses, introduced by the symbol
           Ь. The words a, the, one, and person do not count for purposes of
           alphabetical order:

                         Ьon the safe side with a margin of security against
                         risks.  safe bet a bet that is certain to succeed.
                         safe-breaker (or -blower or -cracker) a person who
                         breaks open and robs safes.  safe conduct 1 a
                         privilege of immunity from arrest or harm, esp. on a
                         particular occasion.  2 a document securing this.
                         safe deposit a building containing strongrooms and
                         safes let separately.  safe house a place of refuge
                         or rendezvous for spies etc.  safe keeping
                         preservation in a safe place.  safe light Photog.  a
                         filtered light for use in a darkroom.  safe period
                         the time during and near the menstrual period when
                         conception is least likely.  safe seat a seat in
                         Parliament etc. that is usually won with a large
                         margin by a particular party.

       b.  They are normally defined under the earliest important word in the
           phrase, except when a later word is more clearly the key word or
           is the common word in a phrase with variants (in which case a
           cross-reference often appears at the entry for the earliest word):

                         make do 1 manage with the limited or inadequate
                         means available.  2 (foll. by with) manage with
                         (something) as an inferior substitute.  make an
                         example of punish as a warning to others.  make a
                         fool of see FOOL(1).  make for 1 tend to result in
                         (happiness etc.).  2 proceed towards (a place).  3
                         assault; attack.  4 confirm (an opinion).  make
                         friends (often foll. by with) become friendly.  make
                         fun of see FUN.  make good see GOOD.  make a habit
                         of see HABIT.  make a hash of see HASH(1).  make hay
                         see HAY(1).  make head or tail of see HEAD.  make a
                         House Polit.  secure the presence of enough members
                         for a quorum or support in the House of Commons.
                         make it colloq.  1 succeed in reaching, esp. in
                         time.  2 be successful.  3 (usu. foll. by with) sl.
                         have sexual intercourse (with).  make it up 1 be
                         reconciled, esp. after a quarrel.  2 fill in a
                         deficit.  make it up to remedy negligence, an
                         injury, etc. to (a person).  make light of see
                         LIGHT(2).  make love see LOVE.  make a meal of see
                         MEAL(1).  make merry see MERRY.

   10. Compounds

       a.  Compound terms forming one word (e.g.  bathroom, newspaper) are
           listed as main entries; those consisting of two or more words
           (e.g.  chain reaction) or joined by a hyphen (e.g. chain-gang) are
           given under the first element or occasionally as main entries.

   11. Derivatives

       a.  Words formed by adding a suffix to another word are in many cases
           listed at the end of the entry for the main word, introduced by
           the symbol ЬЬ.  In this position they are not defined since they
           can be understood from the sense of the main word and that given
           at the suffix concerned:

               ЬЬ saintdom n. sainthood n. saintlike adj.  saintling n.
               saintship n.

           When further definition is called for they are given main entries
           in their own right (e.g. changeable).

       b.  For derivative words used in combination (e.g. -crested in
           red-crested), see 3c3 above.

   12. Etymology

       a.  A brief account of the etymology, or origin, of words is given in
           square brackets at the end of entries. It is not given for
           compound words of obvious formation (such as bathroom and
           jellyfish), for routinely formed derivatives (such as changeable,
           muddy, and seller), or for words consisting of clearly identified
           elements already explained (such as Anglo-Saxon, overrun, and many
           words in in-, re-, un-, etc.). It is also not always given for
           every word of a set sharing the same basic origin (such as the
           group from proprietary to propriety). Noteworthy features, such as
           an origin in Old English, are however always given.

       b.  More detailed information can be found in the Oxford Dictionary of
           English Etymology (ed. C. T. Onions et al., 1966) and the Concise
           Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (ed. T. F, Hoad, 1986).

       c.  The immediate source language is given first. Forms in other
           languages are not given if they are exactly or nearly the same as
           the English form given in the headword.

       d.  Words of Germanic origin are described as 'f. Gmc' or 'f. WG'
           (West Germanic) as appropriate; unrecorded or postulated forms are
           not normally given.

       e.  OE (Old English) is used for words that are known to have been
           used before AD 1150, and ME (Middle English) for words traceable
           to the period 1150-1500 (no distinction being made between early
           and late Middle English).

       f.  Words of Romance origin are referred to their immediate source,
           usually F (French) or OF (Old French before 1400), and then to
           earlier sources when known.

       g.  AF (Anglo-French) denotes the variety of French current in England
           in the Middle Ages after the Norman Conquest.

       h.  Rmc (Romanic) denotes the vernacular descendants of Latin that are
           the source of French, Spanish, Italian, etc. Romanic forms are
           almost always of the 'unrecorded' or 'postulated' kind, and are
           not specified except to clarify a significant change of form.
           Often the formula 'ult. f. L' etc.  (ultimately from Latin, etc.)
           is used to indicate that the route from Latin is via Romanic

       i.  L (Latin) denotes classical Latin up to about AD 200; OL (Old
           Latin) Latin before about 75 BC; LL (Late Latin) Latin of about
           200-600; med.L (medieval Latin) Latin of about 600-1500; mod.L
           (modern Latin) Latin in use (mainly for technical purposes) since
           about 1500.

       j.  Similar divisions for 'late', 'medieval', and 'modern' are made
           for Greek.

       k.  Many English words have corresponding forms in both French and
           Latin, and it cannot always be established which was the immediate
           source. In such cases the formula 'F or L' is used (e.g.
           section...F section or L sectio); in these cases the Latin form is
           the source of the French word
             and (either directly or indirectly) of the English word.

       l.  Some words are derived from languages which are not in wide enough
           use for them to be included as entries in the dictionary. These
           languages are listed below by regions; further information about
           them can be found in encyclopaedias and other reference books.

           1)  Those spoken in America are Aleutian (related to Eskimo),
               Surinam Negro (a Creole based on English), and the following
               American Indian languages: Abnaki, Araucan, Aymar , Chinook,
               Creek, Dakota, Fox, Galibi, Hopi, Miskito, Narragansett,
               Nootka, Ojibwa, Paiute, Penobscot, Renape, and Taino.

           2)  Those spoken in Africa are Bangi, Fiot, Foulah, Khoisan,
               Kongo, Lingala, Mandingo, Mbuba, Mende, Nguni, Temne, and Twi.

           3)  Those spoken in Asia are Ambonese (spoken in Indonesia),
               Assamese (in India), Batti (in Tibet), Maldive (in the Maldive
               Islands), Mishmi (in India), Sundanese (in Indonesia), and
               Tungus (in Siberia).

           4)  Tongan is a Polynesian language.

       m.  When the origin of a word cannot be reliably established, the
           forms 'orig. unkn.' (= origin unknown) and 'orig. uncert.' (=
           origin uncertain) are used, even if frequently canvassed
           speculative derivations exist (as with gremlin and pommy). In
           these cases the century of the first recorded occurrence of the
           word in English is given.

       n.  An equals sign (=) precedes words in other languages that are
           parallel formations from a common source (cognates) rather than
           sources of the English word.

   13. Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms

       a.  A large selection of these is given in the main body of the text;
           prefixes are given in the form ex-, re-, etc., and suffixes in the
           form -ion, -ness, etc. These entries should be consulted to
           explain the many routinely formed derivatives given at the end of
           entries (see above, 11).

       b.  Combining forms (e.g.  bio-, -graphy) are semantically significant
           elements that can be attached to words or elements as explained in
           the usage note at the entry for combine.

       c.  The pronunciation given for a prefix, suffix, or combining form is
           an approximate one for purposes of articulating and (in some
           cases) identifying the headword; pronunciation and stress may
           change considerably when they form part of a word.

   14. Cross-references

       a.  These are introduced by any of a number of reference types, as

           1)  '='denotes that the meaning of the item at which the
               cross-reference occurs is the same as that of the item
               referred to.

           2)  'see' indicates that the information sought will be found at
               the point referred to, and is widely used in the idiom
               sections of entries to deal with items that can be located at
               any of a number of words included in the idiom (see also
               above, 9b).

           3)  'see also' indicates that further information can be found at
               the point referred to.

           4)  'cf' denotes an item related or relevant to the one being
               consulted, and the reference often completes or clarifies the
               exact meaning of the item being treated.

           5)  'opp.' refers to a word or sense that is opposite to the one
               being treated, and again often completes or clarifies the

           6)  References of the kind 'pl. of' (= plural of), 'past of' (=
               past tense of), etc., are given at entries for inflections and
               other related forms.

       b.  Cross-references preceded by any of these reference types appear
           in small capitals if the reference is to a main headword, and in
           italics if the reference is to a compound or idiom within an

       c.  References in italics to compounds and defined phrases are to the
           entry for the first word unless another is specified.

PREFACE.2 Abbreviations used in the Dictionary

   Some abbreviations (especially of language-names) occur only in
   etymologies. Others may appear in italics.  Abbreviations in general use
   (such as etc., i.e., and those for books of the Bible are explained in the
   dictionary itself.

   abbr.                    abbreviation
   ablat.                   ablative
   absol.                   absolute(ly)
   acc.                     according
   accus.                   accusative
   adj.                     adjective
   adv.                     adverb
   Aeron.                   Aeronautics
   AF                       Anglo-French
   Afr.                     Africa, African
   Afrik.                   Afrikaans
   Akkad.                   Akkadian
   AL                       Anglo-Latin
   alt.                     alteration
   Amer.                    America, American
   Anat.                    Anatomy
   anc.                     ancient
   Anglo-Ind.               Anglo-Indian
   Anthropol.               Anthropology
   Antiq.                   Antiquities, Antiquity
   app.                     apparently
   Arab.                    Arabic
   Aram.                    Aramaic
   arbitr.                  arbitrary, arbitrarily
   Archaeol.                Archaeology
   Archit.                  Architecture
   Arith.                   Arithmetic
   assim,                   assimilated
   assoc.                   associated, association
   Assyr.                   Assyrian
   Astrol.                  Astrology
   Astron.                  Astronomy
   Astronaut.               Astronautics
   attrib.                  attributive(ly)
   attrib.adj.              attributive adjective
   augment.                 augmentative
   Austral.                 Australia, Australian
   aux.                     auxiliary
   back-form.               back-formation
   Bibl.                    Biblical
   Bibliog.                 Bibliography
   Biochem.                 Biochemistry
   Biol.                    Biology
   Bot.                     Botany
   Braz.                    Brazil, Brazilian
   Bret.                    Breton
   Brit.                    British, in British use
   Bulg.                    Bulgarian
   Burm.                    Burmese
   Byz.                     Byzantine
   c.                       century
   c.                       circa
   Can.                     Canada, Canadian
   Cat.                     Catalan
   Celt.                    Celtic
   Ch.                      Church
   Chem.                    Chemistry
   Chin.                    Chinese
   Cinematog.               Cinematography
   class.                   classical
   coarse sl.               coarse slang
   cogn.                    cognate
   collect.                 collective(ly)
   colloq.                  colloquial(ly)
   comb.                    combination; combining
   compar.                  comparative
   compl.                   complement
   Conchol.                 Conchology
   conj.                    conjunction
   conn.                    connected
   constr.                  construction
   contr.                   contraction
   Corn.                    Cornish
   corresp.                 corresponding
   corrupt.                 corruption
   Criminol.                Criminology
   Crystallog.              Crystallography
   Da.                      Danish
   decl.                    declension
   def.                     definite
   Demog.                   Demography
   demons.                  demonstrative
   demons.adj.              demonstrative adjective
   demons.pron.             demonstrative pronoun
   deriv.                   derivative
   derog.                   derogatory
   dial.                    dialect
   different.               differentiated
   dimin.                   diminutive
   disp.                    disputed (use)
   dissim.                  dissimilated
   distrib.                 distributive
   Du.                      Dutch
   E                        English
   Eccl.                    Ecclesiastical
   Ecol.                    Ecology
   Econ.                    Economics
   EFris.                   East Frisian
   Egypt.                   Egyptian
   E.Ind.                   East Indian, of the East Indies
   Electr.                  Electricity
   elem.                    elementary
   ellipt.                  elliptical(ly)
   emphat.                  emphatic(ally)
   Engin.                   Engineering
   Engl.                    England; English
   Entomol.                 Entomology
   erron.                   erroneous(ly)
   esp.                     especial(ly)
   etym.                    etymology
   euphem.                  euphemism
   Eur.                     Europe, European
   ex.                      example
   exc.                     except
   exclam.                  exclamation
   F                        French
   f.                       from
   fam.                     familiar
   fem.                     feminine
   fig.                     figurative(ly)
   Finn.                    Finnish
   Flem.                    Flemish
   foll.                    followed, following
   form.                    formation
   Fr.                      French
   Frank.                   Frankish
   frequent.                frequentative(ly)
   G                        German
   Gael.                    Gaelic
   Gallo-Rom.               Gallo-Roman
   gen.                     general
   genit.                   genitive
   Geog.                    Geography
   Geol.                    Geology
   Geom.                    Geometry
   Ger.                     German
   Gk                       Greek
   Gk Hist.                 Greek History
   Gmc                      Germanic
   Goth.                    Gothic
   Gram.                    Grammar
   Heb.                     Hebrew
   Hind.                    Hindustani
   Hist.                    History
   hist.                    with historical reference
   Horol.                   Horology
   Hort.                    Horticulture
   Hung.                    Hungarian
   Icel.                    Icelandic
   IE                       Indo-European
   illit.                   illiterate
   imit.                    imitative
   immed.                   immediate(ly)
   imper.                   imperative
   impers.                  impersonal
   incept.                  inceptive
   incl.                    including; inclusive
   Ind.                     of the subcontinent comprising India,
                            Pakistan, and Bangladesh
   ind.                     indirect
   indecl.                  indeclinable
   indef.                   indefinite
   infin.                   infinitive
   infl.                    influence(d)
   instr.                   instrumental (case)
   int.                     interjection
   interrog.                interrogative(ly)
   interrog.adj.            interrogative adjective
   interrog.pron.           interrogative pronoun
   intr.                    intransitive
   Ir.                      Irish (language or usage)
   iron.                    ironical(ly)
   irreg.                   irregular(ly)
   It.                      Italian
   Jap.                     Japan, Japanese
   Jav.                     Javanese
   joc.                     jocular(ly)
   L                        Latin
   lang.                    language
   LG                       Low German
   LHeb.                    Late Hebrew
   lit.                     literal(ly)
   LL                       Late Latin
   M                        Middle (with languages)
   masc.                    masculine
   Math.                    Mathematics
   MDa.                     Middle Danish
   MDu.                     Middle Dutch
   ME                       Middle English
   Mech.                    Mechanics
   Med.                     Medicine
   med.                     medieval
   med.L                    medieval Latin
   metaph.                  metaphorical
   metath.                  metathesis
   Meteorol.                Meteorology
   Mex.                     Mexican
   MFlem.                   Middle Flemish
   MHG                      Middle High German
   Mil.                     Military
   Mineral.                 Mineralogy
   mistransl.               mistranslation
   MLG                      Middle Low German
   mod.                     modern
   mod.L                    modern Latin
   MSw.                     Middle Swedish
   Mus.                     Music
   Mythol.                  Mythology
   n.                       noun
   N.Amer.                  North America, North American
   Nat.                     National
   Naut.                    Nautical
   neg.                     negative(ly)
   N.Engl.                  North of England
   neut.                    neuter
   Norm.                    Norman
   north.                   northern
   Norw.                    Norwegian
   n.pl.                    noun plural
   num.                     numeral
   NZ                       New Zealand
   O                        Old (with languages)
   obj.                     object; objective
   OBret.                   Old Breton
   OBrit.                   Old British
   obs.                     obsolete
   Obstet.                  Obstetrics
   OBulg.                   Old Bulgarian
   occas.                   occasional(ly)
   OCelt.                   Old Celtic
   ODa.                     Old Danish
   ODu.                     Old Dutch
   OE                       Old English
   OF                       Old French
   offens.                  offensive
   OFrank.                  Old Frankish
   OFris.                   Old Frisian
   OGael.                   Old Gaelic
   OHG                      Old High German
   OIcel.                   Old Icelandic
   OIr.                     Old Irish
   OIt.                     Old Italian
   OL                       Old  Latin
   OLG                      Old Low German
   ON                       Old Norse
   ONF                      Old Northern French
   ONorw.                   Old Norwegian
   OPers.                   Old Persian
   OPort.                   Old Portuguese
   opp-                     (as) opposed (to); opposite  (of)
   OProv.                   Old Provencal
   orig.                    origin; original(ly)
   Ornithol.                Ornithology
   OS                       Old Saxon
   OScand.                  Old Scandinavian
   OSlav.                   Old Slavonic
   OSp.                     Old Spanish
   OSw.                     Old Swedish
   Palaeog.                 Palaeography
   Parl.                    Parliament; Parliamentary
   part.                    participle
   past part.               past participle
   Pathol.                  Pathology
   pejor.                   pejorative
   perf.                    perfect (tense)
   perh.                    perhaps
   Pers.                    Persian
   pers.                    person(al)
   Peruv.                   Peruvian
   Pharm.                   Pharmacy; Pharmacology
   Philol.                  Philology
   Philos.                  Philosophy
   Phoen,                   Phoenician
   Phonet.                  Phonetics
   Photog.                  Photography
   phr.                     phrase
   Phrenol.                 Phrenology
   Physiol.                 Physiology
   pl.                      plural
   poet.                    poetical
   Pol.                     Polish
   Polit.                   Politics
   pop.                     popular, not technical
   pop.L                    popular Latin, informal spoken Latin
   Port.                    Portuguese
   poss.                    possessive
   poss.pron.               possessive pronoun
   prec.                    preceded, preceding
   predic.                  predicate; predicative(ly)
   predic.adj.              predicative adjective
   prep.                    preposition
   pres.part.               present participle
   prob.                    probable, probably
   pron.                    pronoun
   pronunc.                 pronunciation
   propr.                   proprietary term
   Prov.                    Provencal
   Psychol.                 Psychology
   RC Ch.                   Roman Catholic Church
   redupl.                  reduplicated
   ref.                     reference
   refl.                    reflexive(ly)
   rel.                     related; relative
   rel.adj.                 relative adjective
   Relig.                   Religion
   rel.pron.                relative pronoun
   repr.                    representing
   Rhet.                    Rhetoric
   rhet.                    rhetorical(ly)
   Rmc                      Romanic
   Rom.                     Roman
   Rom.Hist.                Roman History
   Russ.                    Russian
   S.Afr.                   South Africa, South African
   S.Amer.                  South America, South American
   SC.                      Scottish
   Scand.                   Scandinavia, Scandinavian
   Sci.                     Science
   Shakesp.                 Shakespeare
   sing.                    singular
   Sinh.                    Sinhalese
   Skr.                     Sanskrit
   sl.                      slang
   Slav.                    Slavonic
   Sociol.                  Sociology
   Sp.                      Spanish
   spec.                    special(ly)
   Stock Exch.              Stock Exchange
   subj.                    subject; subjunctive
   superl.                  superlative
   Sw.                      Swedish
   syll.                    syllable
   symb.                    symbol
   syn.                     synonym
   techn.                   technical(ly)
   Telev.                   Television
   Teut.                    Teutonic
   Theatr.                  Theatre, Theatrical
   Theol.                   Theology
   tr.                      transitive
   transf.                  in transferred sense
   transl.                  translation
   Turk.                    Turkish
   Typog.                   Typography
   ult.                     ultimate(ly)
   uncert.                  uncertain
   unexpl.                  unexplained
   univ.                    university
   unkn.                    unknown
   US                       American, in American use
   usu.                     usual(ly)
   v.                       verb
   var.                     variant(s)
   v.aux.                   auxiliary verb
   Vet.                     Veterinary
   v.intr.                  intransitive verb
   voc.                     vocative
   v.refl.                  reflexive verb
   v.tr.                    transitive verb
   WFris.                   West Frisian
   WG                       West Germanic
   W.Ind.                   West Indian, of the West Indies
   WS                       West Saxon
   WSlav.                   West Slavonic
   Zool.                    Zoology

PREFACE.3 Note on Proprietary Status

   This dictionary includes some words which are, or are asserted to be,
   proprietary names or trade marks. Their inclusion does not imply that they
   have acquired for legal purposes a non-proprietary or general
   significance, nor is any other judgement implied concerning their legal
   status. In cases where the editor has some evidence that a word is used as
   a proprietary name or trade mark this is indicated by the designation
   propr., but no judgement concerning the legal status of such words is made
   or implied thereby.

По низкой цене ифнс 46 всем желающим. Качественно.