ЭЛЕКТРОННАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА КОАПП
Сборники Художественной, Технической, Справочной, Английской, Нормативной, Исторической, и др. литературы.



                The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors

                   The Oxford English Dictionary Department


CONTENTS Table of Contents
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


 Title Page    TITLE

 Edition Notice    EDITION

 Security Notice    SECURITY

 Notices    NOTICES

 Table of Contents    CONTENTS

 Figures    FIGURES

 Conventions used in the Dictionary    FRONT_1

 Abbreviations    FRONT_2

 Proprietary terms    FRONT_3

 Plates    FRONT_4

 A    1.0
 A...    1.1
 AA...    1.2
 AB...    1.3
 AC...    1.4
 AD...    1.5
 A.E....    1.6
 AF...    1.7
 AG...    1.8
 AH...    1.9
 AI...    1.10
 Ajaccio...    1.11
 AK...    1.12
 AL...    1.13
 AM...    1.14
 AN...    1.15
 AO...    1.16
 AP...    1.17
 aqua...    1.18
 AR...    1.19
 AS...    1.20
 AT...    1.21
 AU...    1.22
 AV...    1.23
 a/w...    1.24
 ax....    1.25
 ay...    1.26
 AZ...    1.27

 B    2.0
 B...    2.1
 BA...    2.2
 BB...    2.3
 BC...    2.4
 BD...    2.5
 BE...    2.6
 b.f....    2.7
 BGC    2.8
 Bhagavadgita...    2.9
 Bi...    2.10
 Bk...    2.11
 BL...    2.12
 BM...    2.13
 bn....    2.14
 BO...    2.15
 BP...    2.16
 Bq    2.17
 BR...    2.18
 BS...    2.19
 Bt....    2.20
 BU...    2.21
 BV...    2.22
 BWI...    2.23
 by...    2.24
 bzw.    2.25

 C    3.0
 C...    3.1
 CA...    3.2
 CB...    3.3
 CC...    3.4
 CD...    3.5
 CE...    3.6
 CF...    3.7
 CG...    3.8
 CH...    3.9
 CI...    3.10
 CJ    3.11
 Cl...    3.12
 CM...    3.13
 CNAA...    3.14
 CO...    3.15
 CP...    3.16
 CR...    3.17
 CS...    3.18
 CT...    3.19
 CU...    3.20
 cv....    3.21
 Cwlth...    3.22
 cybernetics...    3.23
 CZ...    3.24

 D    4.0
 D...    4.1
 DA...    4.2
 DB...    4.3
 DC...    4.4
 DD...    4.5
 DE...    4.6
 DF...    4.7
 DG...    4.8
 Dhaka...    4.9
 DI...    4.10
 DJ...    4.11
 DL...    4.12
 DM...    4.13
 DN...    4.14
 do...    4.15
 DP...    4.16
 DR...    4.17
 DS...    4.18
 Du....    4.19
 DV...    4.20
 d.w....    4.21
 Dy...    4.22
 dzho...    4.23

 E    5.0
 E...    5.1
 each...    5.2
 EB...    5.3
 EC...    5.4
 ed....    5.5
 EE...    5.6
 effect...    5.7
 e.g....    5.8
 eh...    5.9
 ei...    5.10
 ejector...    5.11
 El...    5.12
 EM...    5.13
 en...    5.14
 EO...    5.15
 EP...    5.16
 eq....    5.17
 ER...    5.18
 ES...    5.19
 ET...    5.20
 Eu...    5.21
 eV...    5.22
 Ew....    5.23
 ex...    5.24
 Eyck...    5.25
 Ezekiel...    5.26

 F    6.0
 F...    6.1
 FA...    6.2

 G    7.0
 G...    7.1
 GA...    7.2
 GB...    7.3
 GC...    7.4
 GD...    7.5
 Ge...    7.6
 GFS...    7.7
 GG...    7.8
 Ghadames...    7.9
 GI...    7.10
 Gk.    7.11
 glace...    7.12
 GM...    7.13
 gn....    7.14
 GO...    7.15
 GP...    7.16
 GR...    7.17
 GS...    7.18
 GT...    7.19
 gu....    7.20
 Gwalior...    7.21
 Gy...    7.22

 H    8.0
 H...    8.1
 HA...    8.2
 HB...    8.3
 HC...    8.4
 hd....    8.5
 HE...    8.6
 HF...    8.7
 HG...    8.8
 HH...    8.9
 HI...    8.10
 HJ...    8.11
 HK    8.12
 HL...    8.13
 HM...    8.14
 HNC, HND    8.15
 HO...    8.16
 HP...    8.17
 HQ    8.18
 HR...    8.19
 HS...    8.20
 ht....    8.21
 HU...    8.22
 h.w....    8.23
 Hy...    8.24
 Hz    8.25

 I    9.0
 I...    9.1
 IA...    9.2
 IBA...    9.3
 IC...    9.4
 ID...    9.5
 ie...    9.6
 IF...    9.7
 IG...    9.8
 i.h....    9.9
 II...    9.10
 IJ...    9.11
 ikon    9.12
 IL...    9.13
 IM...    9.14
 IN...    9.15
 I/O...    9.16
 IP...    9.17
 IQ...    9.18
 IR...    9.19
 IS...    9.20
 It....    9.21
 IU...    9.22
 IV...    9.23
 IW...    9.24
 IX    9.25
 Izaak...    9.26

 J    10.0
 J...    10.1
 JA...    10.2
 Jb.    10.3
 JC...    10.4
 JD    10.5
 je...    10.6
 Jg.    10.7
 Jhelum...    10.8
 jib...    10.9
 JJ.    10.10
 Jno....    10.11
 JO...    10.12
 JP    10.13
 JR...    10.14
 jt....    10.15
 Juan...    10.16
 j'y suis, j'y reste    10.17

 K    11.0
 K...    11.1
 Kaaba...    11.2
 KB...    11.3
 KC...    11.4
 KD    11.5
 KE...    11.6
 KG...    11.7
 Khachaturyan (Aram Ilyich)...    11.8
 kiak...    11.9
 Kk....    11.10
 kleistogamic...    11.11
 km....    11.12
 KN...    11.13
 KO...    11.14
 KP...    11.15
 KR...    11.16
 KS...    11.17
 KT...    11.18
 Ku...    11.19
 kV...    11.20
 kW...    11.21
 KY...    11.22

 L    12.0
 L...    12.1
 LA...    12.2
 lb....    12.3
 LC...    12.4
 LD...    12.5
 њE...    12.6
 LF    12.7
 LG...    12.8
 l.h....    12.9
 LI...    12.10
 LJ...    12.11
 LL...    12.12
 LM...    12.13
 ln...    12.14
 LO...    12.15
 LP...    12.16
 lr....    12.17
 LS...    12.18
 Lt....    12.19
 Lu...    12.20
 LV...    12.21
 Lw...    12.22
 lx...    12.23
 Lyadov...    12.24

 M    13.0
 M...    13.1
 MA...    13.2
 MB...    13.3
 MC...    13.4
 MD...    13.5
 ME...    13.6
 MF...    13.7
 MG...    13.8
 MH...    13.9
 MI...    13.10
 MJI    13.11
 Mk....    13.12
 ML...    13.13
 MM...    13.14
 MN...    13.15
 MO...    13.16
 MP...    13.17
 MR...    13.18
 MS...    13.19
 MT...    13.20
 mucus...    13.21
 MV...    13.22
 MW...    13.23
 Mx    13.24
 MY...    13.25

 N    14.0
 N...    14.1
 NA...    14.2
 NB...    14.3
 NC...    14.4
 ND...    14.5
 NE...    14.6
 NF...    14.7
 NG...    14.8
 NH...    14.9
 NI...    14.10
 NJ    14.11
 NKGB...    14.12
 NL...    14.13
 NM...    14.14
 nn....    14.15
 NO...    14.16
 NP...    14.17
 NR...    14.18
 NS...    14.19
 NT...    14.20
 n.u....    14.21
 NV...    14.22
 NW...    14.23
 NY...    14.24
 NZ    14.25

 O    15.0
 O...    15.1
 o/a...    15.2
 OB...    15.3
 OC...    15.4
 OD...    15.5
 OE...    15.6
 OF...    15.7
 O.Gael....    15.8
 OH...    15.9
 oidium...    15.10
 Ojibwa...    15.11
 OK...    15.12
 OL...    15.13
 OM...    15.14
 ON...    15.15
 Oodeypore...    15.16
 OP...    15.17
 OR...    15.18
 OS...    15.19
 OT...    15.20
 OU...    15.21
 ovenware...    15.22
 Owens College...    15.23
 Ox....    15.24
 oyez!    15.25
 oz....    15.26

 P    16.0
 P...    16.1
 PA...    16.2
 PB...    16.3
 PC...    16.4
 PD...    16.5
 PE...    16.6
 PF...    16.7
 PG...    16.8
 pH...    16.9
 PI...    16.10
 PJ    16.11
 PK...    16.12
 PL...    16.13
 PM...    16.14
 p.n....    16.15
 PO...    16.16
 PP...    16.17
 PQ    16.18
 PR...    16.19
 PS...    16.20
 PT...    16.21
 Pu...    16.22
 PVC    16.23
 Pwllheli...    16.24
 pyaemia...    16.25

 Q    17.0
 Q...    17.1
 QAB...    17.2
 QB...    17.3
 QC    17.4
 q.e....    17.5
 QF    17.6
 qibla    17.7
 QKt    17.8
 q.l....    17.9
 QM...    17.10
 QN...    17.11
 Qom    17.12
 QP...    17.13
 QR...    17.14
 QS...    17.15
 qt....    17.16
 qu....    17.17
 q.v.    17.18
 qwerty keyboard    17.19
 qy    17.20

 R    18.0
 R...    18.1
 RA...    18.2
 Rb...    18.3
 RC...    18.4
 RD...    18.5
 RE...    18.6
 RF...    18.7
 RGS    18.8
 RH...    18.9
 RI...    18.10
 RL...    18.11
 RM...    18.12
 RN...    18.13
 RO...    18.14
 RP...    18.15
 RQMS    18.16
 RRC...    18.17
 RS...    18.18
 RT...    18.19
 RU...    18.20
 RV    18.21
 RW...    18.22
 Rx.    18.23
 Ry....    18.24

 S    19.0
 S...    19.1
 SA...    19.2
 Sb...    19.3
 SC...    19.4
 SD...    19.5
 SE...    19.6
 SF...    19.7
 S.-G....    19.8
 sh....    19.9
 SI...    19.10
 SJ...    19.11
 Skagerrak...    19.12
 SL...    19.13
 SM...    19.14
 Sn...    19.15
 SO...    19.16
 Sp....    19.17
 sq....    19.18
 SR...    19.19
 SS...    19.20
 St...    19.21
 Suabia...    19.22
 SV...    19.23
 SW...    19.24
 SY...    19.25
 Szczecin...    19.26

 T    20.0
 T...    20.1
 TA...    20.2
 TB...    20.3
 Tc...    20.4
 TD    20.5
 Te...    20.6
 t.g....    20.7
 Th...    20.8
 Ti...    20.9
 TKO    20.10
 Tl...    20.11
 TM...    20.12
 TN...    20.13
 TO...    20.14
 Tpr.    20.15
 Tr....    20.16
 TS...    20.17
 TT...    20.18
 TU...    20.19
 TV...    20.20
 TWA...    20.21
 TX    20.22
 TYC...    20.23
 tzar...    20.24

 U    21.0
 U...    21.1
 UAE...    21.2
 U-boat    21.3
 UC...    21.4
 Udaipur...    21.5
 UEA...    21.6
 UFAW...    21.7
 Uganda...    21.8
 UHF...    21.9
 u.i....    21.10
 UJD    21.11
 UK...    21.12
 Ullswater...    21.13
 Umbala...    21.14
 UN...    21.15
 UP...    21.16
 uraemia...    21.17
 US...    21.18
 UT...    21.19
 UU    21.20
 UV    21.21
 U/W...    21.22
 uxor    21.23
 Uzbekistan    21.24

 V    22.0
 V...    22.1
 VA...    22.2
 vb.    22.3
 VC...    22.4
 VD...    22.5
 VE...    22.6
 v.f.    22.7
 VG...    22.8
 VHF    22.9
 v.i....    22.10
 VJ    22.11
 v.l....    22.12
 v.M....    22.13
 v.n.    22.14
 VO...    22.15
 VP    22.16
 VR...    22.17
 VS...    22.18
 VT...    22.19
 vudu...    22.20
 vv....    22.21
 VW    22.22
 v.y....    22.23

 W    23.0
 W...    23.1
 WA...    23.2
 Wb...    23.3
 WC...    23.4
 WD    23.5
 w/e...    23.6
 WFEO...    23.7
 W.G....    23.8
 Wh...    23.9
 WI...    23.10
 wk.    23.11
 W. long.    23.12
 Wm....    23.13
 WNW    23.14
 WO...    23.15
 WP...    23.16
 WR...    23.17
 WS...    23.18
 WT...    23.19
 wunderkind...    23.20
 WV...    23.21
 w/w    23.22
 WY...    23.23

 X    24.0
 X...    24.1
 Xanthippe...    24.2
 XC...    24.3
 x.d.    24.4
 Xe...    24.5
 x-height...    24.6
 x.i.    24.7
 XL...    24.8
 Xmas    24.9
 Xn....    24.10
 XP    24.11
 X-ray    24.12
 Xt.    24.13
 XX...    24.14
 xylography...    24.15

 Y    25.0
 Y...    25.1
 yacht...    25.2
 YB...    25.3
 YC...    25.4
 yd.    25.5
 Yeames (William Frederick)...    25.6
 Yggdrasil    25.7
 YHA    25.8
 Yiddish...    25.9
 ylang-ylang    25.10
 YMCA...    25.11
 Ynca...    25.12
 yobbo...    25.13
 Ypres    25.14
 Yquem    25.15
 yr....    25.16
 Ysaye (EugЉne)...    25.17
 YT    25.18
 Yucat n...    25.19
 Yvetot    25.20
 YWCA    25.21

 Z    26.0
 Z...    26.1
 zabaglione...    26.2
 z.B.    26.3
 Zealand...    26.4
 zho...    26.5
 zibet...    26.6
 zloty    26.7
 Zn    26.8
 zo...    26.9
 ZPG    26.10
 Zr    26.11
 Zs    26.12
 zucchetto...    26.13
 Zwingli (Ulrich)    26.14

FIGURES Figures
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

    1.  Meters in English Poetry.   FRONT_4
    2.  Apothecaries signs.   FRONT_4
    3.  Planetary and zodiacal signs.   FRONT_4
    4.  Crosses and ecclesiastical signs.   FRONT_4
    5.  Reference marks.   FRONT_4

FRONT_1 Conventions used in the Dictionary
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

   The reader will appreciate that in a work of this size a number of special
   conventions are adopted in the interests of saving space. The most
   important of these are listed below.

   1.  highlighting:  Contrasting highlighting has been applied to headwords
       normally to be printed in italics.

   2.  oblique stroke: An oblique stroke (/) is used to mark the end of that
       part of the headword to which highlighted elements introduced with a
       dash or a hyphen later in the same entry should be attached. Thus the
       entry collegi/um, ...pl -a shows that the plural form should be
       collegia, and the inflexions given as gallop/, ...-ed, -er, ing are to
       be understood as galloped, galloper, and galloping

   3.  dash: A dash (--) is used to stand for the repetition of a single word
       already given, and the oblique stroke again marks the end of a common
       element. Use of more than one dash indicates the repetition of a
       corresponding number of words.

   4.  hyphen:  In headwords the hyphen (-) serves two purposes: to indicate
       that a compound is normally hyphenated whenever used, and to introduce
       a further second element to form a compound with a first element
       marked off earlier in the entry by means of an oblique stroke

   5.  Being a dictionary and not a descriptive handbook, this book is
       designed to provide information whenever possible at the point in the
       alphabetical sequence to which the reader may be expected to refer
       with a particular word in mind. The compilers have thought it useful
       however to include general entries on broader aspects of usage,
       especially where this has enabled them to group together
       representative examples of words and uses of which total coverage in
       their respective places in the dictionary is precluded for reasons of
       space. Appended below is a list of longer entries which deal with the
       broader aspects of usage:

           abbreviations and contractions
           -able
           Acts of Parliament
           Arabic
           Assemblies
           astronomy
           authorities
           book sizes
           botany
           BSI
           capitalization
           Chinese
           creole
           date
           decimal currency
           decimal fractions
           diphthongs
           division of words
           Dutch
           edition
           -ei-
           elision
           ellipsis
           footnotes
           fractions
           French
           German
           Greek
           headlines or running titles
           Hebrew
           -ie-
           impression
           imprint
           Italian
           italic
           -ize and -ise
           Japanese
           Latin
           ligature
           -like
           Mac
           manuscript
           mathematics
           names of persons and places
           neo-
           non-
           numerals
           pagination
           poetry
           Polish
           possessive case
           preliminary matter
           proof
           proof-correction marks
           punctuation
           quotation marks
           quotations
           re-
           reference marks
           Russian
           Saint
           SI
           Swedish
           Syriac
           titles (cited)
           US spellings
           well-
           Welsh
           -yse
           zoology

   All dates given in the dictionary are after Christ unless otherwise
   specified.

FRONT_2 Abbreviations
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   Abbreviations used regularly in the rulings and explanations are listed
   below; others are given in the dictionary itself. Abbreviations of
   subjects (anthropology, botany, etc.) are also valid for their
   corresponding adjectival forms (anthropological, botanical, etc.).

   abbr.          abbreviation
   absol.         absolute, (used) absolutely
   adj.           adjective
   adv.           adverb
   Afr.           Africa(n)
   Afrik.         Afrikaans
   anat.          anatomy
   anc.           ancient
   anthrop.       anthropology
   apos.          apostrophe
   Arab.          Arabic
   arch.          archaic
   archaeol.      archaeology
   archit.        architecture
   astr.          astronomy
   attrib.        attributive, (used) attributively
   b.             born
   bacteriol.     bacteriology
   bibliog.       bibliography
   bind.          binding
   bot.           botany
   Brit.          British
   c.             century
   c. (italic)    circa
   campan.        campanology
   Can.           Canada, -ian
   cap.           capital
   cc.            centuries
   Ch.            Church
   chem.          chemistry, chemical
   Chin.          China, Chinese
   class.         classical
   collect.       collective(ly)
   colloq.        colloquial(ly)
   comb.          combination, combining
   comp.          computer typesetting
   cook.          cookery
   d.             died
   Dan.           Danish
   dau.           daughter
   d‚p.           d‚partement (Fr.)
   derog.         derogatory
   dress.         dressmaking
   Du.            Dutch
   dyn.           dynamics
   eccl.          ecclesiastical
   elec.          electrical
   esp.           especially
   exclam.        exclamation
   f., fem.       feminine
   fam.           family
   fig.           figurative(ly)
   Fl.            Flemish
   foot.          football
   Fr.            French
   gen.           general
   geog.          geography
   geol.          geology
   geom.          geometry
   Ger.           German
   Gr.            Greek
   gram.          grammar
   her.           heraldry
   hist.          history
   hort.          horticulture
   hunt.          hunting
   Ind.           India(n)
   indep.         independent
   Ins.           Insurance
   Ir.            Irish
   It.            Italian
   ital.          italic
   joc.           jocular(ly)
   Lat.           Latin
   lit.           literary
   liturg.        liturgical, liturgy
   m.             masculine
   mag.           magnetism
   math.          mathematics
   mech.          mechanics
   med.           medicine
   meteor.        meteorology
   mfr.           manufacture
   mil.           military
   mod.           modern
   mt.            mountain
   mus.           music
   myth.          mythology
   n., neut.      neuter
   naut.          nautical
   obs.           obsolete
   off.           official
   orig.          original(ly)
   ornith.        ornithology
   Parl.          Parliament(ary)
   partic.        participle, participial
   path.          pathology
   philos.        philosophy
   photog.        photography
   phys.          physics, physical
   physiol.       physiology
   pl.            plural
   poet.          poetical
   polit.         political
   Port.          Portuguese
   predic.        predicative (used) predicatively
   prep.          preposition
   pron.          pronounced
   propr.         proprietary
   pseud.         pseudonym
   psych.         psychology
   RC(C)          Roman Catholic (Church)
   relig.         religion
   rhet.          rhetoric(al)
   Rom.           Roman
   Russ.          Russian
   s.             small
   S. Afr.        South Africa(n)
   S. Amer.       South America(n)
   Sc.            Scottish
   Scan.          Scandinavian
   sci.           science
   Scrip.         Scripture
   sig.           signature
   sing.          singular
   Skt.           Sanskrit
   Sp.            Spanish
   spec.          specifically
   Swed.          Swedish
   techn.         technical
   theat.         theatre
   theol.         theology
   trop.          tropical
   Turk.          Turkish
   typ.           typography
   US             United States, America(n)
   usu.           usually
   zool.          zoology

FRONT_3 Proprietary terms
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   This dictionary includes some words which are or are asserted to be
   proprietary names or trade marks.

   Their inclusion does not imply that they have acquired for legal purposes
   a non-proprietary or general significance, nor is any other judgement
   implied concerning their legal status.

   In cases where the compilers have some evidence that a word is used as a
   proprietary name or trade mark this is indicated by the words 'propr.
   term', but no judgement concerning the legal status of such words is made
   or implied thereby.

FRONT_4 Plates
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   Figure 5. Reference marks.

1.0 A
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1.1 A...
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   A         Advanced (Level examination), ampere, avancer (on timepiece
             regulator), the first in a series; film-censorship
             classification

   A.        Academician, Academy, Acting (rank), alto, amateur, anna,
             answer, artillery, Associate

   a         are (unit of area) (no point in scientific and technical work),
             atto-, year

   a.        accepted (Fr. accept‚, Ger.  acceptiert), on bills of exchange;
             acre, active (in grammar), adjective, anna, area, arrive, (Lat.)
             ante (before)

   a         not an, before all words beginning with a consonant (except
             silent h: e.g. a horse, a hotel; but an heir, an hour) or with a
             vowel that is pronounced with the sound of w or y: e.g. a one, a
             European, a union. Similarly with abbreviations: e.g. an FA Cup
             match, a Unesco post

   Ћ, „      in German, Swedish, etc., may not be replaced by Ae, ae (except
             in some proper names), A, a, or ligatured Ae, ae. The first only
             of two vowels takes the umlaut sign, as „u

   Џ         †ngstr”m

   †         the "Swedish a", used in Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish

   @         at, the "commercial a" used in calculating from prices

   A0        ("A nought" or "A zero"), paper size. See DIN

   A1        first class; see Lloyd's

1.2 AA...
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   AA        Advertising Association, Alcoholics Anonymous, anti-aircraft,
             Architectural Association, Associate in Arts, Automobile
             Association; film-censorship classification

   AAA       Amateur Athletic Association, American Automobile Association

   AAC       anno ante Christum (in the year before Christ) (s. caps.)

   Aachen    W. Germany; cf. Aix-la-Chapelle

   AAF       Auxiliary Air Force (till 1957), (US) Army Air Force

   AAG       Assistant Adjutant-General

   AAIA      Associate of the Association of International Accountants

   AAMI      Association of Assistant Mistresses, Incorporated (usu.  called
             AAM). See also IAAM

   A. & M.   (Hymns) Ancient and Modern

   A. & N.   Army and Navy (Stores, Club)

   a.a.O.    (Ger.), am angefЃhrten Orte (at the place quoted)

   AAR       against all risks (Ins.)

   aard/vark, -wolf
             different animals (one word)

   Aarhus    Denmark.

   AAS       Academiae Americanae Socius (Fellow of the American Academy of
             Arts and Sciences), Acta Apostolicae Sedis (Acts of the
             Apostolic See), Agnostics' Adoption Society

   AAU       (US), Amateur Athletic Union

1.3 AB...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   AB        Artium Baccalaureus (US Bachelor of Arts); able-bodied (seaman)

   ab        (Lat.), from

   ABA       Amateur Boxing Association, American Bankers' Association,
             American Bar Association, Antiquarian Booksellers' Association,
             Association of British Archaeologists

   ABAA      Associate of British Association of Accountants and Auditors

   abac/us   pl. -uses, counting-frame, (archit.) plate at top of columns

   abalone   shellfish … bas (Fr.), down with

   abattoir  slaughter-house Abb.  (Ger.), Abbildung

   abb.      abbess, abbey, abbot

   Abbasid   Baghdad caliphs, not Abassid

   abb‚      (Fr. m.) eccl. title (not ital.)

   Abbildung/
             (Ger. typ. f.), an illustration (cap.); pl. -en; abbr.  Abb.

   Abbotsinch Airport
             Glasgow

   abbr.     abbreviat/ed, -ion

   abbreviat/e, -or


   abbreviations and contractions
             See the many instances in this book for rulings in individual
             cases.  Subject to these, the following leading types may be
             noted for guidance:

             (a)  Abbreviations with several even full or even small
                  capitals, and acronyms in initial capitals and lower case,
                  take no points (BBC, TUC, MA, QC, NW, OHG, OED, BC, AD,
                  Aslef, Sogat); similarly the numerical abbreviations 8vo,
                  4to, etc., 1st, 2nd, etc., but not initials of personal
                  names (H. G. Wells, G.B.S.).

             (b)  Abbreviations having a single capital letter take full
                  points (J. Austen, five miles S.); but C, F (of
                  temperature) and chemical symbols do not.

             (c)  Abbreviations and contractions in a mixture of upper and
                  lower case take full points (A. & M., M.o.D., B.Litt., Kt.,
                  Sun., Jan., Yorks.); Dr, Revd, Mr, Mrs, Ms, Mme, Mlle, St
                  (Saint), Hants, Northants do not.

             (d)  Single-letter lower-case abbreviations take the full point
                  (l. 5, p. 7, don't be a b. fool); but p (new pence) does
                  not (price 50p).

             (e)  Measures of length, weight, time, etc. take the full point
                  except when used in specialist scientific or technical
                  writing (cm., min., lb.)

   ABC       the alphabet, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, Associated British
             Cinemas, Audit Bureau of Circulations, Australian Broadcasting
             Commission

   ABCA      Army Bureau of Current Affairs, now BCA, Bureau of Current
             Affairs

   ABC Guide

   abdicat/e, -ion, -or


   abecedarian
             (adj.), arranged alphabetically; (noun), person learning
             alphabet

   … Becket (Thomas)
             ?1118-70, Abp.  (one t)

   Abendlied (Ger.), evening song (cap.)

   Aberdeen Angus
             (two caps.)

   Aberdeen terrier
             (one cap.)

   Aberdonian
             (native) of Aberdeen

   Abergavenny
             Gwent

   Abernethy biscuit
             (one cap.)

   Aberystwyth
             Dyfed, not -ith

   abest     (Lat.), he, she, or it, is absent; pl. absunt

   abett/er  in law -or

   ab extra  (Lat.), from outside

   abgk., abk., abgekЃrzt
             (Ger.) = abbreviated

   Abhandlungen
             (Ger. f. pl.), Transactions (of a Society); abbr.  Abh.

   Abidjan   Ivory Coast

   abigail   lady's maid

   Abilene   Kan., Tex., US

   ab incunabulis
             (Lat.), from the cradle

   Abingdon  Oxon. and Va., US

   Abington  Cambs., Northampton, Strathclyde, Limerick, and Mass., US

   ab/ initio
             (Lat.), from the beginning, abbr. ab init.; -- intra, from
             within

   Abl.      (Sp.), abril (April)

   abl.      ablative

   ablaut    variation in root vowel of a word (e.g. sing, sang, sung)

   -able     (the suffix). Words ending in silent -e tend to drop the e
             before-able, as conceivable, debatable. It is retained when it
             serves to prevent the modification of the preceding consonant,
             as changeable, peaceable. In practice the following words also
             often retain the e: blameable, giveable, hireable, likeable,
             liveable, nameable, rateable, saleable, sizeable, tameable,
             timeable, tuneable, unshakeable. Many verbs of more than two
             syllables ending in -ate drop this ending before -able, as
             alienable, calculable, tolerable. See the list in Hart's Rules,
             p. 83

   able-bodied
             (hyphen)

   ABM       anti-ballistic-missile missile

   A-bomb    atomic bomb (no point, hyphen)

   aboriginal
             (adj.), indigenous (with init. cap., in techn. sense in
             Australia); aborigin/es (pl. noun, for sing. use -al) also with
             init.  cap. in Australia

   ab origine
             (Lat.), from the beginning

   aboul/ia  loss of will-power, not abulia; adj. -ic

   above/-board, -mentioned, -named
             (hyphens)

   ab ovo    (Lat.), from the beginning

   Abp.      Archbishop

   abr.      abridged, abridgement

   abr‚g‚    (Fr. m.), abridgement

   abr‚viation
             (Fr. f.), abbreviation

   abridgement
             abbr. abr.

   abs.      absolute(ly), abstract

   abscess

   Abschnitt/
             (Ger. typ. m.), section, part, chapter, or division (cap.)  pl.
             -e

   absciss/a (math.), pl. -ae

   absente reo
             (Lat.), the defendant being absent; abbr. abs. re.

   absenter  not -or

   absent-minded/
             (hyphen), -ly, -ness

   absinth/  the plant; -e, the liqueur

   absit/    (Lat.), let him, her, or it be absent; -- omen, let there be no
             (ill) omen

   absolute(ly)
             abbr. abs.

   absorption
             not -btion

   abs. re.  absente reo, q.v.

   abstract  abbr. abs.

   absunt    see abest

   Abt.      (Ger.), Abteilung (division)

   abt.      about

   ABTA      Association of British Travel Agents

   Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates

   abulia    use aboulia

   ab/ uno disce omnes
             (Lat.), from one (sample) judge the rest; -- urbe condita, AUC
             (but A.U.C. in printing classical Latin texts), from the
             foundation of Rome, 753 BC

   Abu Simbel
             site of Egyptian rock-temples

   abut/, -ment, -ted, -ter
             (law), -ting

   abys/s    deep cavity, -mal

   abyssal   deep in sea; (geol.)  plutonic

   Abyssinia now Ethiopia

1.4 AC...
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   AC        Alpine Club, (or A/C) Aircraftman, Assistant Commissioner,
             Athletic Club, Companion of the Order of Australia

   A/C       (current) account; in printing use acct.

   AC        ante Christum (before Christ) (s. caps.)

   Ac        actinium (no point)

   a.c.      alternating current (elec.), author's correction

   ACA       Associate of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England
             and Wales; (or Ireland)

   Academician
             abbr. A.

   Acad‚mie fran‡aise
             (one cap.)

   Academy   a learned body; abbr. A. or Acad. (cap.)

   Academy (the)
             the Platonic school of philosophy

   Acadian   of Nova Scotia (Fr. Acadie)

   a cappella
             (It.) (mus.), unaccompanied, not alla cappella

   ACAS      Advisory, Conciliation, and Arbitration Service

   ACC       Army Catering Corps

   acc.      acceptance (bill), accusative

   Acca      Israel, use Acre

   Accademia (It.), Academy

   Accadian  use Akkadian

   acced/e, -er


   accedence a giving consent

   accelerando/
             (mus.), accelerating; as noun, pl. -s; abbr. accel.

   accelerat/e, -or


   acceptance
             abbr. acc.

   accept/er in law and science -or

   accessary use accessory

   accessible


   access/it (Lat.), he, she or it, came near; pl. -erunt

   accessory (noun and adj.), use now in all senses, not -ary

   access time
             (computing)

   acciaccatura
             (mus.), a grace-note

   accidence inflexions of words

   accidental
             (mus.)

   accidentally
             not -tly

   accidie, acedia
             listlessness

   acclimatize
             not -ise

   ACCM      Advisory Council for the Church's Ministry (formerly CACTM)

   Acco      Israel, use Acre

   accolade

   accommodat/e, -ion
             (two cs, two ms)

   accompanist
             not -yist

   accouche/ment, ur, -use
             (not ital.)

   account   abbr. A/C; in printing use acct.

   Accountant-General
             abbr. A.-G.

   Accra     Ghana, not Akkra

   acct.     account, or account current

   accumulat/e
             (two cs), -or

   accusative
             abbrs. acc., accus.

   ACE       after Christian (or Common) era (non-Christian usage in place of
             AD)

   ACF       Army Cadet Force

   ACGB      Arts Council of Great Britain

   ACGBI     Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland

   ACGI      Associate of the City and Guilds of London Institute

   Achaemenid
             not Achai-

   Acheson (Dean Gooderham)
             1893-1971, US diplomat

   … cheval  (Fr.), on horseback

   Achilles/' heel
             (apos.); -- tendon (no apos.)

   Achin     Sumatra, Indonesia, not Atchin

   Achnashellach
             Highland

   achy      (adj.), not achey

   ACI       Army Council Instruction

   ACIA      Associate of the Corporation of Insurance Agents

   ACIB      Associate of the Corporation of Insurance Brokers

   acid rain (two words)

   ACII      Associate of the Chartered Insurance Institute

   ACIS      Associate of the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and
             Administrators

   acknowledgement
             not -ledgment

   ACMA      Associate of the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants

   acolyte   not -ite

   acoustics (noun sing.) the science of sound, (noun pl.) acoustic
             properties

   ACP       Associate of the College of Preceptors; Association of Clinical
             Pathologists; Association of Correctors of the Press, now part
             of NGA, q.v.

   acquit/, -tal
             (verdict), -tance (settlement of debt)

   Acre      Israel, not Acca, Acco

   acre      abbr. a.

   acriflavine
             an antiseptic, not -n

   Acrilan   propr. term (cap.)

   acronym   word formed from initials, as Anzac, q.v.

   acrylic   (chem.)

   ACS       Association of Commonwealth Students

   ACSA      Associate of the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and
             Administrators

   ACT       Australian Capital Territory

   act.      active

   Actaeon   a mythical hunter

   ACTH      adrenocorticotrophic hormone

   actini/a  (zool.), pl. -ae

   actinium  symbol Ac

   actinomy/ces
             (bot.), pl. -cetes

   actionnaire
             (Fr. m.), a shareholder

   active    abbrs. a., act.

   actor     (person), but one-acter (play)

   acts of a play
             (typ.), cap. A only when number follows, as Hamlet, Act I, sc.
             ii. See also authorities

   Acts of Parliament
             (cap. A), cited thus: Factory and Workshop Act, 1891; use arabic
             numerals for chapter numbers in Public (General) and Private
             Acts (e.g. 3 & 4 Geo.  V, c. 12, ss. 18, 19) and lower-case
             roman numerals in Public (Local) Acts (e.g. 3 & 4 Geo. V, c.
             xii, ss. 18, 19). See also Hart's Rules, p. 53

   Acts of Sederunt
             (Scots law)

   Acts of the Apostles
             abbr. Acts

   ACTT      Association of Cinematograph, Television and Allied Technicians

   actualit‚ (Fr. f.), present state

   actuel/   (Fr.), fem. -le, present

   ACW       Aircraftwoman

1.5 AD...
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   AD        (anno Domini) should always be placed before the numerals; BC
             after (s. caps.)

   ad        advertisement (no point)

   ad.       adapted, adapter

   a.d.      after date

   a.d.      ante diem (before the day)

   adagio/   (mus.), slow; as noun, pl.  -s

   Adams (John)
             1735-1826, US statesman, President 1797-1801; -- (John Quincy),
             his son, 1767-1848, President 1825-9

   Adam's Peak
             Sri Lanka

   adapt/able, -er
             (person), -or (device)

   a dato    (Lat.), from date

   ADC       aide-de-camp

   ad captandum vulgus
             (Lat.), to catch the rabble, claptrap

   Addams (Charles Samuel)
             1912-88, US cartoonist; -- (Jane), 1860-1935, US social worker
             and writer

   addend/um something to be added; pl. -a (not ital.)

   addio     (It.), goodbye

   Addis Ababa
             capital of Ethiopia

   additive  (something) in the nature of an addition

   addorsed  (her.), not adorsed, adossed

   Addressograph
             propr. term for addressing-machine (cap.)

   adducible not -eable

   Adelie/ Land
             Antarctica; -- penguin

   Adenauer (Konrad)
             1876-1967, German statesman, Chancellor of W. Germany 1949-63

   ad eundem (gradum)
             (Lat.), to the same degree at another university

   … deux/   (Fr.), of (or between) two; -- -- temps (see valse)

   ad/ extra (Lat.), in an outward direction; -- extremum, to the last; --
             finem, near the end, abbr.  ad fin.; -- hanc vocem, at this
             word; -- hoc, for this (purpose); -- hominem, to the (interests
             of the) man, personal; -- hunc locum, on this passage, abbr.
             a.h.l.; -- idem, to the same (point)

   adieu/    pl. -s (not ital.)

   ad/ infinitum
             (Lat.), to infinity; -- interim, meanwhile, abbr. ad int.

   adiўs     (Sp.), goodbye

   Adirondack Mountains
             (US), not -dac

   Adj.      Adjutant

   Adj.-Gen. Adjutant-General

   adjectiv/e
             abbr. a., adj.; -al, -ally

   adjudicator
             not -er

   adjutage  a nozzle, not aj-

   Adjutant/ abbr. Adj. (rank, cap.); ---General, abbr. A.-G. or Adj.  Gen.

   adjuvant

   Adler (Alfred)
             1870-1937, Austrian psychologist

   ad lib    (adv., noun, and verb)

   ad/ libitum
             (Lat.), at pleasure; -- litem, appointed for a lawsuit

   ad locum  (Lat.), at the place, abbr.  ad loc. (not ital.)

   Adm.      Admiral, Admiralty

   adman     (one word)

   admin     short for administration (no point)

   administrable
             not -atable

   administrat/or
             abbr. admor.; -rix, abbr. admix.

   Admiral   in Fr. amir/al, pl. -aux; abbr. Adm.

   Admiralty, the
             abbr. Adm.; see M.o.D.

   admiration (note of)
             exclamation mark, ! See punctuation VII

   ad misericordiam
             (Lat.), appealing to pity

   admiss/ible
             not -able, but admittable

   admix.    administratrix

   ad modum  (Lat.), after the manner of

   admonitor/
             not -er; -y

   admor.    administrator

   ad nauseam
             (Lat.), to a sickening degree

   ado       work, trouble (one word)

   adobe      (Sp.), sun-dried brick

   Adonai    (Heb.), the Lord

   Adonais   Keats, in Shelley's elegy, 1821

   Adonis    (myth.), beloved of Venus

   adopter   not -or

   adorable  not -eable

   adorsed, adossed
             use addorsed

   ADP       automatic data processing

   ad/ personam
             (Lat.), personal; -- referendum, for further consideration; --
             rem, to the point

   adrenalin not -ine

   adresse   (Fr. f.), address

   Adrianople
             now Edirne

   … droite  (Fr.), to the right

   adscriptus glebae
             (Lat.), bound to the soil (of serfs)

   adsorb, adsorption
             condensing, condensation, of gases etc. on surface of solid;
             adsorbent

   adsum     (Lat.), I am present

   adulator  not -er

   ad/ unguem
             (Lat.), perfectly; -- unum omnes, all, to a man; -- usum,
             according to custom, abbr. ad us.

   adv.      adverb, -ially, advocate

   adv.      adversus (against)

   ad valorem
             (Lat.), according to value; abbr. ad val.

   adverb/, -ially
             abbr. adv.

   ad verbum (Lat.), to a word, verbatim

   adversus  (Lat.), against; abbr. adv.

   advertise not -ize

   advertisement
             abbr. ad, or advt., pl. ads, or advts.advis/e, not -ize; -able,
             not eable

   advis/er  not -or; -ory

   ad/ vitam aut culpam
             (Lat.), for lifetime or until fault; -- vivum, lifelike

   advocaat  liqueur

   advocate  abbr. adv.

   Advocates (Faculty of)
             the Bar of Scotland

   advocatus diaboli
             (Lat.), devil's advocate (q.v.) (not ital.)

   advt/., -s.
             advertisement, -s

1.6 A.E....
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   A.E.      or AE, pseud. of George Russell (1867-1935)

   ’         in numismatics = copper

   AEA       Atomic Energy Authority

   AEC       Army Educational Corps (now RAEC), (US) Atomic Energy Commission
             (since 1975 ERDA)

   aedile    not e-

   AEF       Amalgamated Union of Engineering and Foundry Workers

   Aegean Sea
             the Mediterranean between Greece and Turkey

   aegis     a shield, protection, not e-

   aegrot/at he, she, is ill (certificate that exam. candidate is ill, or
             degree thus awarded); pl. -ant

   AEI       Associated Electrical Industries

   Aemilius

   Aeneas;   Aeneid

   Aeolian, Aeolic
             (caps.), not E-

   aeon      not eon

   aepyornis (zool.), not epi-, epy-

   aequales  (Lat.) equal (pl. adj.), (pl. noun) equals (in age or
             performance); abbr. aeq.

   AERA      Associate Engraver, Royal Academy

   aer/ate   etc., -ial, -ify,-obic, -onaut, not a‰-

   AERE      Atomic Energy Research Establishment

   aerie     use eyrie

   aerodrome (US and increasingly Brit., airfield)

   aerodynamics
             (one word)

   aero/-elastic, -engine
             (hyphens)

   aerofoil  (one word)

   aeronaut/, -ical


   aeroplane tending to be superseded by aircraft in some contexts

   aerosol

   aerospace (one word)

   Aeschylus 525-456 BC, Greek playwright

   Aesculapi/us
             Latin form of the Greek god Asclepius (q.v.); -an, not E-

   Aesop     6th c. BC, Greek fable-writer

   aesthete  etc., not e-

   aestiv/al, -ation
             not e-

   aet. or aetat.
             anno aetatis suae (of age, aged)

   aetheling use atheling

   aether    in all meanings use e-

   aetiology not e-

   Aetna     use Etna

   AEU       Amalgamated Engineering Union

1.7 AF...
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   AF        audio frequency

   AFA       Associate of the Faculty of Actuaries

   Afars and Issas (French Territory of the)
             formerly Fr. Somaliland, now Jibuti

   AFAS      Associate of the Faculty of Architects and Surveyors

   AFC       Air Force Cross, Association Football Club

   aff.      affirmative, affirming

   affaire/ d'amour
             (Fr. f.), love-affair; -- (de coeur), affair of the heart; --
             d'honneur, duel

   affair‚   (Fr.), busy (accent)

   affenpinscher
             dog (not ital.)

   affettuoso
             (mus.), with feeling

   affidavit abbr. afft.

   affranchise
             not -ize

   afft.     affidavit

   Afghan    (hound); afghan (blanket or shawl)

   Afghanistan
             abbr. Afghan.

   aficionado/
             (Sp.), enthusiast for sport or hobby; pl. -s

   afield    (one word)

   AFM       Air Force Medal

   … fond/   (Fr.), thoroughly; -- de train, at full speed

   aforethought
             (one word)

   a fortiori
             (Lat.), with stronger reason, not … -- (ital.)

   Afr.      Africa, -n

   A.F.R.Ae.S.
             Associate Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society

   Africander
             use Afrikander or Afrikaner

   Afridi    tribe of Cent. Asia

   Afrikaans S. African Dutch language, abbr. Afrik.

   Afrikander
             S. African breed of cattle or sheep

   Afrikaner Afrikaans-speaking white S. African; formerly Africander

   afterbirth
             (one word)

   after/-care, -effect
             (hyphens)

   afternoon abbr. aft. or p.m.

   aftershave
             (one word)

   afterthought
             (one word)

   AFV       armoured fighting vehicle

1.8 AG...
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   AG        Air Gunner, (Ger.)  Aktiengesellschaft (joint-stock company)

   A.-G.     Accountant-General, Adjutant-General, Agent-General (of
             Colonies), Attorney-General

   Ag        argentum (silver) (no point)

   Agadah    use Haggadah

   Aga Khan  leader of Ismaili Muslims

   agape     love-feast, divine love

   … gauche  (Fr.), to the left

   age-group (hyphen)

   ageing    not agi-

   agend/a   "things to be done", freq.  list of items for consideration: in
             this sense pl. -as

   agent     abbr. agt.

   Agent-General
             abbr. A.-G.

   agent provocateur
             (Fr.) (ital.); pl.  -ts -rs

   ages      (typ.), to be printed in numerals; but "he died in his fortieth
             year", and, in literary contexts, "a man of forty"

   aggiornamento
             (It.), bringing up to date

   aggrandize
             not -ise

   agitato   (mus.), hurried

   agitat/or not -er

   AGM       Annual General Meeting

   agnostic/, -ism
             (not cap.)

   agonize   not -ise

   agouti    S. American rodent, not -y, aguti

   AGR       advanced gas-cooled reactor

   agreeable in Fr. agr‚able

   agric.    agricultur/e, -al,-ist

   agriculturist
             not -alist

   agrimony  (bot.)

   agronomy  rural economy

   AGSM      Associate of the Guildhall School of Music

   agt.      agent

   Agulhas   Cape (S. Africa), not L'A-

   aguti     use agouti

1.9 AH...
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   AH        anno Hegirae, the Muslim era (s.  caps.). See also hegira

   ah        when it stands alone, takes an exclamation mark (!). When it
             forms part of a sentence it is usually followed by a comma, the
             ! being placed at the end of the sentence:  as "Ah, no, it
             cannot be!"

   AHA       Area Health Authority

   aha       exclam. of surprise. See also haha

   ahimsa    (Skt.), non-violence

   a.h.l.    ad hunc locum (on this passage)

   Ahmad/abad, -nagar
             India, not Ahmed-, Amed-

   Ahmadu Bello University
             Nigeria

   AHMI      Association of Headmistresses, Incorporated. See also IAHM

   … huis clos
             (Fr.), in private

   Ahura-Mazda
             use Ormuzd

   a.h.v.    ad hanc vocem (at this word)

1.10 AI...
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   AI        American Institute, Anthropological Institute, artificial
             insemination

   AIA       Associate of the Institute of Actuaries, American Institute of
             Architects

   AIAA      Architect Member of the Incorporated Association of Architects
             and Surveyors

   AIAC      Associate of the Institute of Company Accountants

   AIAS      Surveyor Member of the Incorporated Association of Architects
             and Surveyors

   AIB       Associate of the Institute of Bankers

   AICC      All India Congress Committee

   AICS      Associate of the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers

   AID       Army Intelligence Department; artificial insemination by donor

   Aida      opera by Verdi, 1871 (no diaeresis)

   aide-de-camp
             abbr. ADC; pl. aides -de-camp

   aide-m‚moire
             (Fr. m.), aid to memory; pl. aides---

   Aids      acquired immune deficiency syndrome

   aigrette  a spray, not ei-, -et (see also egret)

   AIH       artificial insemination by husband

   Ailesbury (Marquess of)
             (see also Ayl-)

   A.I.Loco.E.
             Associate of the Institute of Locomotive Engineers

   A.I.Mech.E.
             Associate of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

   A.I.Min.E.
             Associate of the Institution of Mining Engineers

   AIMM      Associate of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy

   AIMTA     Associate of the Institute of Municipal Treasurers and
             Accountants

   Ain       d‚p. France

   aЊn/‚     (Fr.), fem. -‚e, elder, senior; opposed to puЊn‚, fem.  puЊn‚e,
             or cadet/, -te, younger

   A.Inst.P. Associate of the Institute of Physics

   AIQS      Associate of the Institute of Quantity Surveyors

   air/-bed, -blast
             (hyphens)

   airborne  (one word)

   airbus    (one word)

   Air Commodore
             abbr. Air Cdre. See also Commodore

   air-conditioning
             (hyphen)

   aircraft/ sing. and pl. (one word); -carrier (hyphen)

   aircraft/man, -woman
             not aircrafts- (one word)

   Airedale/ W. Yorks., and terrier; -- (Baron)

   air/field, -flow
             (one word)

   Air Force see Navy

   airgun    (one word)

   Air Gunner
             abbr. AG

   airlift, airline, airmail
             (no hyphens)

   Air Ministry
             see M.o.D.

   Air (Point of)
             Clwyd. See also Ayre

   airport   (one word)

   air raid  (two words)

   airship, airsick, airspace, airtight
             (one word)

   air-to-air
             (adj., hyphens)

   airworthy (adj.), of aircraft (one word)

   AISA      Associate of the Incorporated Secretaries Association

   Aisne     d‚p. France

   ait       islet, not eyot (cap. when part of name)

   aitchbone (one word), not H-, edge-

   Aix-la-Chapelle
             (hyphens), properly Aachen

   Aix-les-Bains
             (hyphens)

1.11 Ajaccio...
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   Ajaccio   Corsica

   Ajax      pl. Ajaxes

   ajutage   use adj-

1.12 AK...
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   AK        Alaska (off. postal abbr.), Knight of the Order of Australia

   AKC       Associate of King's College (London)

   akimbo    (one word)

   Akkadian  not Acc-

   Akkra     Ghana, use Accra

   Aktiengesellschaft
             (Ger. f.), joint-stock company; abbr. AG

1.13 AL...
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   AL        Alabama (off. postal abbr.), autograph letter

   Al        aluminium (no point)

   ALA       Associate of the Library Association

   Ala.      Alabama (off. abbr.)

   … la carte
             (a meal) that must be ordered from a wide range of available
             dishes (not ital.). See also table d'h“te

   Aladdin   not Alladin

   … la mode in fashion (not ital.)

   Alanbrooke (Viscount)
             (one word)

   Џland Islands
             Baltic Sea

   … la page (Fr.), up to date

   alarm/    not alarum except in alarums and excursions; -- clock (two
             words)

   … la russe
             in the Russian style (not cap.)

   Alas.     Alaska

   alas      when it stands alone, takes an exclamation mark (!). When it
             forms part of a sentence it is usually followed by a comma, the
             ! being placed at the end of the sentence:  as "Alas, it is
             true!"

   Alaska (baked)
             (cap.)

   Alb.      Albanian

   Alba.     Alberta, use Alta.

   Alban.    formerly signature of Bp. of St Albans (full point); now St
             Albans: (colon)

   albedo/   fraction of radiation reflected; pl. -s

   Albee (Edward)
             b. 1928, US playwright

   Albigens/es
             Manichaean sect; adj.  -ian

   albin/o   pl. -os, fem. -ess; -ism, not -oism; -otic (adj.)

   Albrighton
             Shropshire

   album/en  natural white of egg; -in, its chief constituent; adj. -inous

   Albuquerque
             New Mexico, US

   Albury    Herts., Oxon., Surrey

   Alcaeus of Mytilene
             (b. c.620 BC), Greek lyric poet

   alcaic    metre

   alcalde   (in Spain) magistrate, mayor

   Alcatraz  US prison, San Francisco Bay, Calif.

   alcayde   (Sp. alcaide), governor, gaoler

   alc zar   (Sp.), palace, fortress, bazaar

   Alceste   opera by Gluck, 1767

   Alcestis, Alcibiades
             not Alk-

   ALCM      Associate of the London College of Music

   Alcoran   use Koran

   Alcyone   (myth.), not Hal-

   Aldborough
             Norfolk, N. Yorks.

   Aldbrough Humberside

   Aldbury   Herts.

   Aldeburgh Suffolk

   al dente  (It.), cooked but not soft

   Alderbury Wilts.

   Alderman  abbr. Ald.

   Aldermaston
             Berks.

   Alderney  Channel Islands; in Fr.  Aurigny

   Aldine    (adj.), printed by Manutius, q.v., who introduced italic type

   Aldis lamp
             a hand lamp for signalling

   Aldsworth Gloucester, W. Sussex

   Aldus Manutius
             printer, see Manutius

   Aldworth  Berks.

   Alecto    (myth.), one of the Furies

   alehouse  (one word)

   Alen‡on lace
             (‡)

   aleph     (Heb.), see accents

   Aleutian Islands
             Bering Sea

   A level   examination (no hyphen)

   alexandrine
             metre

   ALF       Automatic Letter Facer

   Alfa-Romeo
             Italian make of car

   Alford    Grampian, Lincs., Som.

   Alfred    abbr. A. or Alf.

   alfresco  (adj. and adv.), one word

   Alfreton  Derby.

   Alg.      Algernon, Algiers

   alg/a     (bot.), pl. -ae (not ital.)

   Algarve (the)
             Portugal

   algebra   abbr. alg. See also mathematics

   ALGOL     (comp.), Algorithmic Language

   algology  (hot.)

   Algonqui/an
             of a large group of N.  Amer. Indian tribes; -n, of one people
             in this group; not -nki-

   alguazil  (in Spain) a constable

   Alhambra  Moorish palace at Granada; adj. Alhambresque

   alia      (Lat. pl.), other things

   alias/    (noun), pl. -es; also adv.

   alibi/    (noun), pl. -s

   alienator not -er

   Aligarh   Uttar Pradesh, India

   Alighieri family name of Dante

   align/, -ment
             not aline

   alii      (Lat. pl.), other people

   alimentative/, -ness
             not alimentive, -ness

   aline     use align

   alin‚a    (Fr. m.), paragraph

   Alipore   India

   Alipur    India and Pakistan

   Alitalia  Italian airline

   ali/us    (Lat. m.), another person; pl. -i

   Aliwal    E. Punjab, India, also S.  Africa

   alkali/   pl. -s

   alkalize  not -ise

   Alkestis, Alkibiades
             use Alc-

   Alkoran   use Koran

   alla breve
             (mus.), 2 or 4 minims in bar

   alla cappella
             (mus.), use a cappella

   Alladin   use Aladdin

   Allahabad Uttar Pradesh, India

   Allah il Allah
             corruption of Arab.  la ilaha illa'llah, There is no god but God
             (Muslim prayer and war-cry)

   Allan-a-Dale
             minstrel hero

   allargando
             (mus.), broad, spread out

   all‚e     (Fr. f.), alley, avenue

   Allegheny mountains and river, US; but Allegany, Pittsburgh, Pa.

   allegretto/
             (mus.), fairly brisk; as noun, pl. -s

   allegro/  (mus.), brisk, merry; as noun, pl. -s

   allele    alternative genetic character, not -l

   alleluia  Lat. form (also liturgical) for Heb. (and biblical) hallelujah

   allemande Ger. dance

   Allendale Northumb.

   Allen (George) & Unwin, Ltd.
             publishers

   Allen (W. H.) & Co., Ltd.
             publishers

   allerg/y, -ic
             sensitive(ness) to certain foods, pollens, etc.

   alleviator
             not -er

   Alleynian member of Dulwich College

   All Fools' Day
             (caps., no hyphen)

   allg., allgm., allgemein
             (Ger.), general (adj.)

   All-Hallows
             All Saints' Day, 1 Nov.  (caps., hyphen)

   Allhallows
             Kent (one word)

   allineation
             not alin-

   Allingham (Margery)
             1904-66, English novelist

   allodium  estate held in absolute ownership, not alo-

   allons!   (Fr.), let us go!, come!

   allot/, -ment, -table, -ted, -ting


   all' ottava
             (mus.), an octave higher than written; abbr. all' ott.

   all right not alright, all-right

   all round ("all round the Wrekin"), prep.

   all-round ("an all-round man"), adj.

   All/ Saints' Day
             1 Nov.; -- Souls College, Oxford (no apos.); -- Souls' Day, 2
             Nov.; -- Souls' Eve, 1 Nov. (caps., no hyphens)

   allspice  (one word)

   all together
             (in a body); but altogether (entirely)

   alluvi/um pl. -a

   Alma-Ata  cap. of Kazakh Rep., USSR

   Alma Mater
             fostering mother, one's school or university

   almanac   but "Oxford", also "Whitaker's", Almanack

   Alma-Tadema (Sir Lawrence)
             1836-1912, Dutch-born English painter

   Almighty (the)
             (cap.)

   Almondbury
             W. Yorks.

   Almondsbury
             Avon

   Alnmouth  Northumb.

   Alnwick   Northumb.

   alodium   use allodium

   A.L.O.E.  A Lady of England (Charlotte M. Tucker, 1821-93)

   … l'outrance
             should be … outrance, to the bitter end

   ALP       Australian Labor Party

   Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
             d‚p. France (hyphens)

   Alpes-Maritimes
             d‚p. France; abbr.  A.M.

   Alphaeus  Apostle James's father

   alphanumeric
             (comp.), of instructions containing alphabetic, numerical, and
             other characters (one word)

   alpha/ particle, -- ray
             (two words)

   alright   use all right

   ALS       Associate of the Linnean Society; autograph letter signed

   Alsace-Lorraine


   Alsirat   (Arab.), bridge to paradise

   alt       (mus.), high note

   alt.      alternative, altitude

   Alta.     Alberta, Canada, not Alba.

   alter/ ego
             (Lat.), one's second self, pl. -- egos; -- idem, another self

   Altesse   (Fr. f.), Altezza (It.), Highness

   Althing   the Icelandic parliament

   Althorpe  Humberside

   Althorp Library
             and Park (Northants)

   altitude  abbr. alt.

   alto/     (mus.), pl. -s; abbr. A.

   altogether
             see all together

   alto-relievo/
             high relief; pl. -s; Anglicized version of It. alto rilievo

   aluminium symbol Al (no point); US aluminum

   alumn/us  pl. -i, fem. -a, pl. -ae; abbr. alum.

1.14 AM...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   AM        Air Ministry, Albert Medal, amplitude modulation, Artium
             Magister (US Master of Arts); Ave Maria (Hail, Mary!) (caps.):
             Member of the Order of Australia

   A.-M.     d‚p. France, Alpes-Maritimes

   AM        anno mundi (in the year of the world) (s. caps.)

   Am        americium (no point)

   Am.       American

   a.m.      (Lat.), ante meridiem (before noon) (lower case, points)

   AMA       Assistant Masters' Association, officially IAAM; American
             Medical Association

   amah      child's nurse (in Far East)

   Amalek    not -ech, -eck

   amanuens/is
             pl. -es

   amateur   abbr. A.

   Ambala    India, not Umbal(l)a

   ambassad/or
             fem. -ress

   ambassy   use embassy

   ambergris waxy substance used in perfumery

   ambiance  French spelling of ambience (q.v.), used in English esp. of
             accessory details in a work of art

   ambidextrous
             not -erous

   ambienc/e the surroundings (not -y). See also ambiance

   ambivalen/t, -ce


   amblyop/ia
             impaired vision; adj.  -ic

   Amboina   Indon., properly Ambon, not Amboyna

   amboyna   (wood)

   ambry     use aumbry

   AMDG      ad majorem Dei gloriam (for the greater glory of God)

   ѓme damn‚e
             (Fr.), a "cat's paw", devoted adherent

   Amedabad  Amednagar, India, use Ahmad-

   Ameer     use Amir for Arabic, Emir for Turkish and Indian titles

   amend     to correct an error, make minor improvements. See also emend

   amende honorable
             (Fr. f.), honourable reparation

   a mensa et toro
             (Lat.), from bed and board, a legal separation, not -- -- --
             thoro

   Amer.     American

   Americanize
             not -ise

   American spellings
             see US spellings

   America's Cup (the)
             yachting trophy

   americium symbol Am

   Amerindian
             American Indian

     merveille
             (Fr.), perfectly, wonderfully

   AMG(OT)   Allied Military Government (of Occupied Territory) (Second World
             War)

   Amharic   official lang. of Ethiopia

   amicus curiae
             (Lat.), a friend of the Court, a disinterested adviser; pl.
             amici --

   amidships not -ship (one word)

   amino acid
             (chem., two words)

   Amir      Arab. title, not Ameer. See also Emir

   Amis (Kingsley)
             b. 1922, English writer

   Ammal     (Ind.), suffix used to indicate that a name belongs to a woman,
             e.g. Dr E. K. Janaki Ammal

   Amman     Jordan

   Ammergau  Bavaria

   ammeter   for measuring electric current

   amoeb/a   pl. -as (not ital.)

   … moiti‚  (Fr.), half

   amok      not amuck

   Amoor     use Amur

   amortize  not -ise

   amour propre
             (Fr.), self-respect, proper pride

   amp       ampere

   AmpЉre (Andr‚ Marie)
             1775-1836, French physicist (accent)

   ampere    elec. unit of current (no accent), abbr. A (sing. and pl.) or
             amp (no point)

   ampersand = &, may be used in names of firms as Smith & Co., and in Acts
             of Parliament, q.v. In general use and. For &c. use etc.

   amphetamine
             (med.)

   amphibian (zool.) member of the Amphibia; vehicle adapted for land and
             water

   amphor/a  a jar; pl. -ae

   ampoule   glass container for hypodermic dose

   Amritsar  India, not Umritsur

   amt.      amount

   amuck     use amok

   Amundsen (Roald)
             1872-1928, Norwegian explorer; S. Pole, 1911

   Amur      Siberia, not -oor

   amygdalin/
             not -e

1.15 AN...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   AN        Anglo-Norman, autograph note

   an        see a, not an

   an        (arch. or dial.), if (so spelt)

   ana/      sayings, collective pl.; or sing. with pl. -s

   -ana      suffix denoting anecdotes or other publications concerning, as
             Shakespeariana, Victoriana

   anacoluth/on
             (gram.), pl. -a, not -outhon,-kolouthon, -koluthon

   Anacreon/ 6th c. BC, Greek poet; abbr. Anacr.

   anacreontic
             metre

   anaemi/a, -c


   anaerob/e,-ic


   anaesthetize
             not -ise

   anal.     analog/y, -ous, analys/e, -er, -is, analytic, -al

   analogous abbr. anal.

   analys/e, -er, -is
             pl. -es; abbr.  anal.

   analystanalytic/, -al;
             abbr. anal.

   Anam      use Annam

   anamorphos/is
             pl. -es

   anapaest  foot of three syllables (See Figure 1 in topic FRONT_4)

   anastase  use anatase

   anastomos/is
             communication by cross-connections; pl. -es;-ist

   anat.     anatom/y, -ical

   anatase   a mineral, not anastase

   anathema/ a curse, pl. -s;-tize

   anatomize dissect, not -ise

   anatom/y, -ical, -ist;
             abbr. anat.

   anatta    (bot.), use annatto

   anc.      ancient

   ancest/or fem. -ress, not -rix

   anchor/ite
             hermit, not -et; adj.  -etic

   anchylosis
             use ank-

   ancien r‚gime
             (Fr. m.), the old order of things

   ancient   abbr. anc.

   Ancient Mariner (Rime of the)
             by S. T. Coleridge, 1798

   Ancient Order of Druids
             abbr. AOD; -- -- -- Foresters, AOF; -- -- -- Hibernians, AOH

   and       (gram.). Where and joins two or more subjects in the singular
             number the verb must be in the pl., e.g. Jack and Jill are
             going. Where and joins two single words the comma is generally
             omitted. Where and joins the last two words of a list a comma
             should precede it; e.g. black, white, and green. See also
             ampersand

   Andalusia Spain; in Sp. AndalucЎa

   andante   (mus.), moving easily, steadily

   andantino/
             (mus.), rather quicker (formerly slower) than andante; as noun,
             pl. -s

   Andersen (Hans Christian)
             1805-75, Danish story-teller

   Andhra Pradesh
             Indian state

   and/or    signifying either or both of the stated alternatives

   Andrea del Sarto
             1486-1531, Italian painter

   Androcles not -kles

   aneurysm  not -ism

   Angeles (Victoria de los)
             b. 1923, Spanish soprano

   Angelico (Fra)
             1387-1455, Italian painter

   anglais/  (Fr.), fem. -e, English (not cap.); but Anglais/, -e,
             Englishman, Englishwoman

   Anglesey  Wales, not -ea; in Welsh Ynys Mon

   Anglesey (Marquess of)


   anglice   in English (no accent); abbr. angl.

   Anglicize not -ise (cap.)

   Anglo/-French
             abbr AF; ---Norman, abbr. AN; ---Saxon, abbr. AS

   Angora    Turkey, now Ankara

   Џngstrom (A. J.)
             1814-74, Swedish physicist

   †ngstr”m  unit of length; abbr. Џ

   Angst     (Ger. f.), fear, anxiety

   aniline   source of dyes. Also adj.

   animalcule/
             pl. -s, not -ae

   animalcul/um
             pl. -a

   anim‚     W. Ind. resin (not ital.)

   anim‚     (Fr., mus.), animated

   anion     (elec.), ion carrying negative charge of electricity

   Ankara    Turkey, formerly Angora

   ankylos/is
             fusion of bones, not anch-; pl. -es

   Anmerkung/
             (Ger. f.), a note (cap.); pl. -en; abbr. Anm.

   ann.      annals, anni (years), anno, annual

   anna/     pl. -s, formerly 16 to rupee, now replaced by decimal coinage
             (Ind. and Pak.); abbr. a.

   annales   (Fr. pl. f), annals; abbr.  ann.

   annals    abbr. ann.

   Annam     not Anam, formerly kingdom within Fr. Indo-China, now merged in
             Vietnam

   Annan     Dumfries & Galloway

   Ann Arbor Mich., US

   annatto   (bot.), orange-red dye, not an-, -a

   Anne of Cleves
             1515-57, fourth wife of Henry VIII of England

   Anne of Geierstein
             by Sir W. Scott, 1829

   Anne (Queen)
             1702-14, b. 1665

   Anne (Saint)


   annex     verb; annexe, noun

   anno/     (Lat.), in the year, abbr.  ann.; -- aetatis suae, aged, abbr.
             aet., or aetat.; -- Hegirae (Muslim era), abbr. AH (s. caps.);
             -- mundi, in the year of the world, abbr. AM (s. caps.); all
             three abbrs. to be placed before the numerals

   Anno Domini
             abbr. AD (s. caps.)

   annonce   (Fr. f), advertisement

   annotat/ed, -or
             not -er; abbr.  annot.

   annual    abbr. ann.

   annul/ar  ringlike; -ate,-ated, -et, -oid

   ann/us    (Lat.), year; pl. -i; -us mirabilis, remarkable year

   anonymous abbr. anon.

   Anouilh (Jean)
             1910-88, French playwright

   anschluss union (cap. A in Ger.)

   answer    abbr. A. or ans.

   Ant.      Anthony, Antigua

   ant.      antonym

   Antaeus

   antagonize
             not -ise

   Antananarivo
             Madagascar

   Antarctic/, -a


   ante      (not ital.), stake in card-game

   ante/     (Lat.), before; -- bellum, before the war

   antechamber
             not anti-

   ante diem (Lat.), before the day; abbr. a.d.

   antediluvian
             (one word)

   antemeridian
             (one word)

   ante meridiem
             (Lat.), before noon; abbr. a.m.

   ante-mortem
             (adj., hyphen)

   antenatal (one word)

   antenn/a  (zool.), pl. -ae; (US) radio, pl. -as

   ante-post in racing (hyphen)

   ante-room (hyphen)

   Anthony   Anglicized from Lat.  Antonius (NB Antony and Cleopatra); abbr.
             Ant.

   anthropolog/y, -ical;
             abbr. anthrop.

   anthropomorphize
             not -ise

   anthropophag/us
             (noun), cannibal; pl. -i; adj. -ous

   antichamber
             use ante-

   Antichrist
             (cap.), but antichristian

   anticline (geol.)

   anticlockwise
             (one word)

   antifreeze
             (one word)

   Antigua   abbr. Ant.

   anti-hero principal character lacking traditional heroic qualities

   antilogarithm
             (one word), abbr.  antilog

   antimatter
             (one word)

   antimony  symbol Sb

   antinomy  conflict of authority

   antiparticle
             (one word)

   antipathize
             not -ise

   antiq.    antiquar/y, -ian

   antiqs.   antiquities

   Antiqua   (Ger. typ. f.), roman type (cap.)

   antique paper
             a moderately bulky, opaque book paper with roughish surface

   antisabbatarian


   anti-Semit/e
             (hyphen, one cap.); adj. -ic; noun -ism

   antistrophe
             stanza corresponding to the strophe in Greek dramatic chorus

   antistrophon
             (rhetoric), a retort

   antitetanus
             (adj., one word)

   antithes/is
             pl. -es

   antithesize
             not -ise

   antitoxin (one word)

   antitype  not ante-; that which corresponds to the type

   Antony    see Anthony

   antonym   a word of opposite meaning; abbr. ant.

   antrycide (against tsetse fly), not -tri-

   Anvers    Fr. for Antwerp, Belgium, in Fl. Antwerpen

   Anwick    Lincs.

   anybody   any person

   any body  any group of persons

   any/how, -one, -thing, -where
             (one word)

   any one   (person, thing), when each word to retain its meaning (see
             Hart's Rules, p. 77)

   anyway    one word in conventional sense, but note you can do it any way
             you like (two words)

   Anzac     Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (First World War)

   Anzeige/  (Ger. f.), notice, advertisement; pl. -n

1.16 AO...
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   AO        Accountant Officer, Army Order, Officer of the Order of
             Australia

   A.O.C.-in-C.
             Air Officer Commanding in Chief

   AOD       Army Ordinance Department, Ancient Order of Druids

   AOF       Ancient Order of Foresters

   AOH       Ancient Order of Hibernians

   aorist    abbr. aor.

   aort/a    (anat.), pl. -ae

   ao–t      (Fr. m.), August (not cap.)

   … outrance
             (Fr.), to the bitter end, not … l'outrance

1.17 AP...
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   AP        Associated Press

   Ap.       Apostle

   a.p.      above proof, author's proof

   Apache    (US) Indian tribe; apache, Paris ruffian

   apanage   not app-

   … part    (Fr.), apart

   apartheid (Afrik.), segregation

   ap/e, -ed, -ing, -ish


   Apelles   4th c. BC, Greek painter

   Apennines Italy (one p, three ns), in It. Appennini

   aper‡u    (Fr. m.), outline

   aperitif/ an alcoholic appetizer, pl. -s (not ital., no accent)

   APEX      Association of Professional, Executive, Clerical, and Computer
             Staff

   apex/     pl. -es; adj. apical

   apfelstrudel
             baked apples in pastry (not ital., not cap.)

   aphaere/sis
             removal of a sound from the beginning of a word; adj. -tic

   apheli/on (astr.), pl. -a

   aphid/    pl. -s

   aphi/s    pl. -des

   apical    see apex

   ap. J.-C. (Fr.), AD

   … plaisir (Fr.), at pleasure

   Apocalypse
             (NT), abbr. Apoc.

   Apocrypha (cap. A) abbr. Apocr. (for abbrs. of books see under names);
             adj. apocryphal

   apodictic clearly established; not -deictic

   apodos/is (gram.), pl. -es

   apog/ee   (astr.), abbr. apog.; adj.  -ean

   Apollinaire (Guillaume)
             1880-1918, French poet

   Apollinaris (water)
             mineral water from Ahr Valley, Germany

   Apollin/arius
             (sometimes -aris), Christian heretic, c.310-c.390; -arianism

   Apollo/   Greek god; -- Belvedere, statue in Vatican; adj.  -nian

   Apollonius Rhodius
             Greek poet, c.25O BC

   Apollos   Acts 18:24, follower of St Paul

   Apollyon  the Devil

   apologize not -ise

   apophthegm
             pithy maxim

   a-port    (hyphen)

   apostasy  not -cy

   apostatize
             not -ise

   a posteriori
             (reasoning) from effects to causes

   Apostle   abbr. Ap., pl. App.

   Apostles' Creed
             (caps.)

   Apostroph/
             (Ger. m.), apostrophe; pl. -e (cap.)

   apostrophe
             see possessive case, punctuation VIII, quotations

   apostrophize
             not -ise

   apothecaries' weight, signs
             (See Figure 2 in topic FRONT_4) Print quantities in lower case
             letters close up behind symbol:  final i becomes j, as vij = 7,
             j = 1

   apothegm  use apophthegm

   apotheos/is
             pl. -es

   apotropaic
             averting ill luck

   App.      Apostles

   app.      appendix

   appal/, -led, -ling


   Appalachian Mts.
             E. North America

   appanage  use apa-

   apparatus/
             pl. -es, not -ati (but use an alternative, e.g.  appliances,
             when possible)

   apparatus criticus
             variant readings; abbr. app. crit.

   apparel/, -led, -ling


   apparitor officer of ecclesiastical court, not -er

   app. crit.
             apparatus criticus

   appeal/, -ed, -ing


   appeasement
             not -sment

   appell/ant, -ate, -ation, -ative


   append/ix abbr. app.; pl. -ices, zool. and general, abbr. apps.

   appetiz/e not -ise; -er, -ing

   appliqu‚  Eng. noun, adj., and verb; past partic. appliqu‚d

   appoggiatura
             (mus.), type of grace-note, leaning note

   appreciat/or
             not -er; adjs. -ive, -ory

   apprentice
             abbr. appr.

   apprise   (to inform)

   apprize   (to value)

   appro     (on) approval (no point)

   appro.    approbation

   approver  one who turns Queen's evidence

   approximat/e, -ely, -ion;
             abbr.  approx.

   appurts.  appurtenances

   Apr.      April

   APRC      anno post Romam conditam (in the year after the building of Rome
             in 753 BC) (s. caps.); but use AUC, q.v.

   aprЉs/    (Fr.), after; -- coup, after the event; ---midi, afternoon
             (hyphen); -- moi (or nous) le d‚luge, after me (or us) the
             deluge; -- ski, (of) time after day's skiing

   April     abbr. Apr.; in Fr. avril (not cap.)

   a/ primo  (Lat.), from the first; -- principio, from the beginning

   a priori  (reasoning) from causes to effects (not ital.)

   apriorism doctrine of a priori ideas (one word, not ital.)

   apropos (of);
             … propos de bottes (Fr.), beside the mark

   APS       Associate of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

   apse/     semicircular recess, esp. in church; pl. -s

   apsi/s    in an orbit, point of greatest or least distance from central
             body; pl. -des

   apud      (Lat.), according to, in the work, or works, of

   Apuleius (Lucius)
             2nd c. AD, Roman satirist

   Apulia    Italy; in It. Puglia

1.18 aqua...
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   aqua/ fortis, -- regia
             (chem.), -- vitae (two words, not ital.)

   aquarium/ pl. -s

   … quatre mains
             (Fr. mus.), for two performers

   Aquinas (St Thomas)
             1225-74, Italian theologian

1.19 AR...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   AR        Arkansas (off. postal abbr.)

   AR        anno regni (in the year of the reign) (s. caps.)

   Ar        argon (no point)

   a/r       all risks

   ARA       Associate of the Royal Academy, London

   Arabi/a, -an, -c;
             abbr. Arab.

   Arabian Nights' Entertainments (The)


   Arabic    (typ.), 28 letters (all consonants, each with several forms
             according to position) and many accents (representing vowel
             sounds and other phonetic features). It is read from right to
             left; hence if any passage is divided, the right-hand words must
             go in the first line, and the left-hand words in the second
             line. See also BSI

   arabic numerals
             numerals used in ordinary computation, as, 1, 2, 3 (not cap.).
             See also numerals

   arach.    arachnology

   arachnid  (zool.) member of the Arachnida

   arachnoid (bot.) having long hairs, (anat.) one of meninges

   ARAD      Associate of the Royal Academy of Dancing

   Aragon    not Arr-; in Sp. Aragўn

   Araldite  propr. term (cap.)

   ARAM      Associate of the Royal Academy of Music

   Aramaic   Semitic language; abbr.  Aram.

   Aran, Island of
             Donegal, Ireland.  See also Arran

   Aran Islands
             Galway Bay, Ireland.  See also Arran

   ARAS      Associate of Royal Astronomical Society

   ARB       Air Registration Board, Air Research Burcati

   ARBA      Associate of the Royal Society of British Artists

   arbit/er, -rary, -ration
             abbr. arb.

   arbiter elegantiae
             (Lat.), a judge of taste

   arbitr/ament
             not -ement

   arbitrator
             legal or official word for arbiter

   arbor     spindle, axis

   arboretum (bot.), tree-garden; pl.  -a

   arboriculture
             abbr. arbor.

   arbor vitae
             conifer

   arbour    bower

   ARBS      Associate of the Royal Society of British Sculptors

   ARC       Aeronautical Research Council, Agricultural Research Council,
             Architects' Registration Council

   ARCA      Associate of the Royal College of Art

   Arcades ambo
             (Lat.), two with like tastes

   arcan/um  pl. -a

   Arc de Triomphe
             Paris

   arced     (elec.), not arck-

   arc-en-ciel
             (Fr. m.), rainbow; pl.  arcs-en-ciel

   arch.     archa/ic, -ism, archery, archipelago, architect,-ural, -ure

   archaeolog/y, -ical;
             abbr. archaeol.

   archangel (one word)

   Archangel USSR; in Russ.  Arkhangel'sk

   Archbishop
             abbr. Abp.

   Archd.    Archdeacon, Archduke

   archetype not archi-

   archidiaconal
             not archide-

   archiepiscopal


   Archimed/ean
             not -ian

   archipelago/
             pl. -s; abbr. arch.

   architect/, -ural, -ure;
             abbr.  arch., archit., archt.

   architype use archetype

   arcing    (elec.), not arck-

   ARCM      Associate of the Royal College of Music

   ARCO      Associate of the Royal College of Organists

   ARCS      Associate of the Royal College of Science

   arctic    (not cap.), cold

   Arctic Circle
             (two caps.); Arctic regions (one cap.)

   Ardleigh  Essex

   Ardley    Oxon.

   ARE       Associate of the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers,
             Arab Republic of Egypt

   are       unit of square measure, 100 square metres

   aren't    to be printed close up

   areol/a   a small area; pl. -ae (not ital.)

   Arequipa  Peru

   ar€te     mountain ridge

   argent    (her.), silver, abbr. arg.

   Argentina the country, or Argentine Republic

   Argentine (adj.); also (noun) the inhabitant. See also Argentinian

   Argentinian
             (adj.); also (noun) the inhabitant; tending to replace
             Argentine; not -ean

   argentum  silver, symbol (chem.) Ag

   argon     symbol Ar

   argot     slang (not ital.)

   arguable  not -eable

   argumentum ad/ crumenam
             (Lat.), argument to the purse; -- -- hoc, -- for this (purpose);
             -- -- hominem, -- to the man's interests; -- ignorantiam, --
             based on the adversary's ignorance; -- -- invidiam, -- to men's
             hatreds or prejudices; -- -- rem, -- to the purpose; --
             verecundiam, appeal to modesty; argumentum baculinum, or -- ad
             baculum, -- of the stick, club-law; argumentum e silentio, --
             from silence

   argy-bargy
             dispute, wrangle, not argle-bargle (hyphen)

   Argyle    Minnesota, US

   Argyll/and Bute District; -- and Sutherland Highlanders; -- and the Isles
             (Bp. of); -- (Duke of)


   Argyllshire
             (former county of) Scotland

   Arian     (theol.), a follower of Arius; (one) born under Aries

   ARIBA     Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects.  See
             also RIBA

   ARICS     Professional Associate of the Royal Institution of Chartered
             Surveyors

   AriЉge    d‚p. France

   Aristotel/ian
             not -ean

   Arius     c.250-c.336, Christian heretic

   Ariz.     Arizona (off. abbr.)

   Ark.      Arkansas (off. abbr.)

   Arlay     d‚p. Jura, France

   Arle      Glos.

   Arles     d‚p. Bouches-du-Rh“ne, France

   Arm.      Armenian, Armoric

   armadillo/
             pl. -s

   armchair  (one word)

   Armenia   ancient country, now in part a Soviet Socialist Republic; adj.
             Armenian (geog., ethnic, or eccl.). See also USSR

   armes blanches
             (Fr.), side-arms (bayonet, sabre, sword)

   armful/   pl. -s

   armhole   (one word)

   Arminians followers of Arminius

   Arminius (Jacobus)
             Latinized form of Jacob Harmen, 1560-1609, Dutch theologian

   armory    heraldry

   armoury   collection of arms

   armpit    (one word)

   ARMS      Associate of the Royal Society of Miniature Painters

   arm's length
             (two words)

   Army      see Navy

   Army/ Dental Corps
             now RADC; -- Nursing Service, ANS; -- Order, AO; -- Ordnance
             Corps, now RAOC; -- Service Corps, later RASC, now RCT; --
             Veterinary Department, AVD, now RAVC

   Arnold (Edward)
             (Publishers), Ltd.

   Arnold (E. J.) & Son, Ltd.
             publishers

   arnotto   use annatto

   Arola     Piedmont, Italy

   Arolla    Switzerland

   Arolo     Lombardy, Italy

   Aroostook War
             1842, settled border of Maine and New Brunswick

   ARP       air-raid precautions

   arpeggio/ (mus.), striking of notes of chord in (usu. upward) succession;
             pl. -s

   ARPS      Associate of the Royal Photographic Society

   arquebus  use harq-

   ARR       anno regni Regis or Reginae (in the year of the King's or
             Queen's reign) (s. caps.)

   arr.      arranged, arriv/e, -ed,-es, -als

   Arragon   use Aragon

   Arran (Earl of)


   Arran (Isle of)
             Scotland. See also Aran

   arr€t     (Fr. m.), decree

   Arrhenius (Svante August)
             1859-1927, Swedish scientist

   arriЉre/-garde
             (Fr. f.), rearguard; ---pensee/, a mental reservation, pl. -s

   arrivis/me
             (Fr. m.), ambitious behaviour; -te, one who behaves thus

   arrondissement
             (Fr. m.), division of department

   arrowhead (one word)

   Arrows of the Chace
             by Ruskin, not Chase

   ARSA      Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, ditto Royal Society of
             Arts

   ARSCM     Associate of the Royal School of Church Music

   arsenic   symbol As

   ars est celare artem
             (Lat.), the art is to conceal art

   ARSL      Associate of the Royal Society of Literature

   ARSM      Associate of the Royal School of Mines

   ARSS      Antiquariorum Regiae Societatis Socius, Fellow of the Royal
             Society of Antiquaries

   ARSW      Associate of the Royal Scottish Society of Painting in Water
             Colours

   art.      article, artillery, artist

   art deco  decorative art-style of 1920s

   artefact  not arti-

   arteriosclerosis
             hardening of the arteries (one word)

   arthropod/
             member of Arthropoda, animals with jointed body and limbs; pl.
             -s

   article   abbr. art.

   articles of roup
             (Sc. law), conditions of sale (by auction)

   articles (titles of)
             (typ.), when cited, to be roman quoted

   artifact  use artefact

   artillery abbr. A. or art.

   artisan   not -zan

   artiste   (either sex), professional singer, dancer, or other performer

   artizan   use artisan

   art nouveau
             (Fr.), 19th-c.  ornamental art-style

   art paper a high quality coated paper used for illustrations

   artwork   (one word); abbr. a/w

   Arundel   W. Sussex

   Arundell of Wardour (Baron)
             title now extinct

   Arva      Cavan, not Arvagh

   ARWS      Associate of the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours

   Aryan     Indo-European, not -ian

1.20 AS...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   AS        Anglo Saxon

   As        arsenic (no point)

   As.       Asia, -n, -tic

   ASA       Amateur Swimming Association; Associate Member, Society of
             Actuaries

   asafoetida
             (med.), ill-smelling gum resin; not the many variants

   Asante    mod. form of Ashanti, q.v.

   a.s.a.p.  as soon as possible

   Asbj”rnsen (Peter Christian)
             1812-85, Norwegian writer

   ascendan/ce
             not -ence; -cy, -t

   ascender  (typ.), top part of letters such as b d f h k l

   Ascension/ Day
             (caps., two words); -- Island, S. Atlantic

   ascetic   austere

   Ascham (Roger)
             1515-68, English writer

   ascites   (sing. and pl.), abdominal dropsy

   Asclepiad metre, not Ask-

   Asclepius the Greek god, not Asklepios, except in Gr. contexts.  See also
             Aesculapius

   a/s de    (Fr.), aux soins de, c/o

   ASDIC     Anti-Submarine Detection Investigation Committee; used for a
             form of hydrophone (Asdic, now officially Sonar, q.v.)

   ASE       Amalgamated Society of Engineers

   ASEAN     Association of South East Asian Nations

   as follows:
             (use colon only, not :--)

   Asgard    the heaven of Norse mythology

   ash       Old-English letter ligatured ae, also used in phonetic script,
             Danish, and Norwegian

   Ashant/i  Ghana; not -ee; also Asante

   Ashby de la Zouch
             Leics. (no hyphens)

   Ashkenazim
             pl., East-European Jews, as distinct from Sephardim

   Ashkhabad cap. of Turkmenistan, USSR

   ashlar    (archit.), not -er

   Ashmolean Museum
             Oxford

   Ashtar/oth, -eth
             Bib. and Sem., otherwise use Astarte

   Ashton/-in-Makerfield, ---under-Lyne
             Gr. Manchester (hyphens), not -Lyme; Ashton upon Mersey, Gr.
             Manchester

   ashtray   (one word)

   Ash Wednesday
             first day of Lent (two words)

   Asian     (adj. and noun), (native) of Asia; not Asiatic, which is now
             freq. pejorative

   asinin/e  like an ass, not ass-; noun -ity

   Asir      ("the inaccessible"), see Saudi Arabia

   Asklepiad use Asclepiad; Asklepios, see Asclepius

   Aslef     Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen

   Aslib     Association of Special Libraries and Information Bureaux

   ASM       air-to-surface missile

   AsniЉres  Paris suburb

   Asola     Lombardy, Italy

   Asolo     Venetia, Italy

   asper     Greek rough breathing

   asperges  (noun sing.), sprinkling with blessed water

   asphalt   not ash-, -e

   asphodel  immortal flower in Elysium

   asphyxia  interruption of breathing

   aspic     a poisonous serpent, a savoury jelly

   ASR       (comp.), answer send and receive

   ass.      assistant

   assafoetida
             use asa-

   assagai   use assegai

   assai     (mus.), very

   assailant

   assassin

   assegai   spear, not assa-

   Assemblies, National and Federal.
             In addition to titles in English (Parliament, Assembly, Senate,
             Diet, etc.) in English-speaking countries and translation of
             foreign titles (National Assembly for Assembl‚e Nationale,
             etc.), the following titles are correct for particular
             countries:

             Bulgaria--Subranie.
             Denmark--Folketing.
             Finland--Eduskunta.
             Germany, Federal Republic
              of--Bundesrat (Upper House)
              and Bundestag (Lower House).
             Germany, Democratic Republic
              of--Volkskammer (not recognized
              by Western countries).
             Iceland--Althing.
             India--Rajya Sabha (Council of
              States) and Lok Sabha (House of
              the People).
             Iran--Senate and Majlis.
             Ireland, Republic of--Seanad
              ђireann (Senate) and D il ђireann
              (House of Representatives)
             Israel--Knesset.
             Netherlands--Staten Generaal,
              comprising Eerste Kamer (First
              Chamber) and Tweede Kamer (Second
              Chamber).
             Norway--Storting, comprising
              Lagting (Upper Council) and
              Odelsting (Lower Council).
             Poland--Sejm.
             Spain--Cortes.
             Sweden--Riksdag (or Diet).
             Switzerland--Nationalrat/Conseil
              National and St„nderat/Conseil des
              ђtats

   Assembly  (Church of Scotland) (cap.  A), properly General Assembly (also
             in other Presbyterian Churches).  See also Church Assembly

   assent/er one who assents; -or, one who subscribes to a nomination paper

   assert/er one who asserts; -or, an advocate

   assess/able, -or


   ASSET     Association of Supervisory Staffs, Executives, and Technicians

   assign/ee one to whom a right or property is assigned; -or, one who
             assigns

   Assiniboine
             Canada, not Assinn-

   Assisi    Italy

   assistant abbr. ass. or asst.

   assizer   officer with oversight of weights and measures; not -ser, -sor,
             -zor

   assoc.    associat/e, -ion

   ASSR      Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

   asst.     assistant

   Assuan    use Aswan

   assurance insurance of life (the technical term). See also life insurance

   assymmetry
             use asymmetry

   Assyr.    Assyrian

   a-starboard
             (hyphen)

   Astarte   Syrophoenician goddess; not Ashtar/oth, -eth

   astatine  symbol At

   Asterabad Iran

   asterisk  see reference marks

   Asti      Italian white wine

   ASTMS     Association of Scientific, Technical, and Managerial Staffs

   astr.     astronom/y, -er

   astrakhan lambskin from Astrakhan, USSR

   astrol.   astrolog/y, -er

   Astronomer Royal
             (caps., no hyphen)

   astronomy abbr. astr.  (See Figure 3 in topic FRONT_4)

   astrophysic/s
             (one word); -al, -ist

   Asturias  Spain, not The --

   Asunciўn  Paraguay

   ASVA      Associate of the Incorporated Society of Valuers and Auctioneers

   Aswan     Egypt; not the many variants

   asymmetry not ass-

   asymptote line approaching but not meeting a curve

   asyndeton omission of conjunction

   Asyut     Egypt

1.21 AT...
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   AT        (Ger.), Altes Testament (the Old --)

   At        astatine (no point)

   at.       atomic

   Atahualpa the last Inca

   Atalanta  (Gr. myth.)

   atar      use attar

   AtatЃrk (Kemal)
             1881-1938, Turkish statesman

   ATC       Air Traffic Control, Air Training Corps

   Atchin    Sumatra, Indonesia, use Ach-

   ATCL      Associate of Trinity College of Music, London

   atelier   studio (not ital.)

   a tempo   (mus.), in time; indicates that, after a change in time, the
             previous time must be resumed

   Athabasca Canada, not -ka

   Athanasi/us (St)
             d. 373, Greek Father; adj. -an

   atheling  not aeth-

   Athenaeum London club

   Athol     Canada, New Zealand

   Atholl (Duke of)


   Atl.      Atlantic

   Atlanta   Ga., US

   atmosphere
             gaseous envelope around the earth, the pressure exerted by it;
             abbr. atm.

   atoll     ring-shaped coral reef surrounding lagoon

   atomize   not -ise

   atonable  not -eable

   atri/um   hall of Roman house, cavity in heart; pl. -a or -ums

   Atropos   (Gr. myth.), the Fate that cuts the thread of life

   ATS       Auxiliary Territorial Service (superseded by WRAC)

   attach‚/  pl. -s (not ital.)

   attar     (as of roses), not atar, Otto, ottar

   Att.-Gen. Attorney-General

   Attic salt
             delicate wit (cap. A)

   Attila    c.406-43, king of the Huns

   attitudinize
             not -ise

   Attlee (Clement Richard, Earl)
             1883-1967, British politician, Prime Minister 1945-51

   attn.     for the attention of

   atto-     (as prefix) ten to the power of minus eighteen; abbr. a

   attorn    (law), to transfer

   Attorney-General
             abbr. A.-G. or Att.-Gen.

   attractor not -er

   ATV       Associated Television

   Atwood's machine
             (physics), not Att-

   at. wt.   atomic weight

1.22 AU...
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   AU        †ngstr”m unit, astronomical unit

   Au        aurum (gold) (no point)

   aubade    (Fr. f.), dawn-piece

   auberge   (Fr. f.), an inn; aubergiste (m. or f.), innkeeper

   aubergine fruit of egg-plant

   Aubign‚   d‚p. Deux-SЉvres, France

   Aubigny   d‚p. Nord, France

   aubr/ietia
             dwarf perennial, not -etia

   AUC       anno urbis conditae (in the year from the building of the city
             of Rome in 753 BC) (s. caps.; no points except in Latin
             composition); also ab urbe condita, from the foundation of the
             city

   Auchinleck (Field-Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre)
             1884-1981, British soldier

   Auchnashellach
             Highland, use Ach-

   au/ contraire
             (Fr.), on the contrary; -- courant de, fully acquainted with

   Audenarde see Oudenarde

   Audi      German make of car

   audio/ frequency, -- typist
             (two words), -visual adj. (hyphen)

   Auditor-General
             abbr. Aud.-Gen.

   auditori/um
             pl. -ums

   Audubon (John James)
             1785-1851, US ornithologist

   AUEW/     Amalgamated Union of Engineering Workers, -- (TASS), ditto
             (Technical and Supervisory Section)

   au fait   (Fr.), thoroughly conversant

   Aufkl„rung
             (Ger. f.), enlightenment, esp. the eighteenth-century
             intellectual movement

   Auflage/  (Ger. f.), edition, impression; pl. -n (cap.); abbr.  Aufl.;
             unver„nderte --, reprint; verbesserte und vermehrte --, revised
             and enlarged edition

   au fond   (Fr.), at the bottom

   auf Wiedersehen
             (Ger.), till we meet again

   Aug.      August

   aug.      augmentative

   Augean    (stables), filthy (cap.)

   auger     tool for boring

   aught     anything. See also nau-

   au/ grand serieux
             (Fr.), in all seriousness; -- gratin, browned with cheese etc.

   augur     Roman soothsayer; (verb) foresee, portend

   August    abbr. Aug.

   Augustan  of Augustus or an era compared to his

   Augustine Augustinian monk; St --, 354-430, Bp. of Hippo; St --, d.  604,
             first Abp. of Canterbury

   Augustinian
             monk of order following St Augustine of Hippo

   au jus    (Fr.), in gravy

   auk       diving bird, not awk

   auld lang syne
             (caps. for song title)

   Auld Reekie
             Old Smoky, that is, Edinburgh

   Aumale (duc d')


   aumbry    closed recess in wall of church, not ambry

   Aumerle, Duke of
             (in Shakespeare's Richard II)

   au/ mieux (Fr.), very intimate; -- naturel, in its natural state, plainly
             cooked

   aunty     not -ie

   au/ pair  (Fr.), at par, on mutual terms; au pair girl (not ital.); --
             pied de la lettre, literally

   Aurangzeb 1618-1707, Mogul emperor, not the many variants

   aurar     pl. of eyrir, q.v.

   aurea mediocritas
             (Lat.), the golden mean

   aureola   a saint's halo

   au/ reste (Fr.), besides; -- revoir, till we meet again

   Aurigny   Fr. for Alderney

   auror/a austral/is
             pl. -ae -es; -- boreal/is, pl. -ae -es

   aurum     gold, symbol (chem.) Au (no point)

   Aus.      Austria, - n

   Auschwitz German concentration camp in Poland in Second World War

   au s‚rieux
             (Fr.), seriously

   Ausgabe   (Ger. f.), edition; abbr.  Ausg. (cap.). See also compounds
             Buch-, Pracht-, Volks-

   Austen (Jane)
             1775-1817, English writer

   Austin    English form of the name Augustine; -- (Alfred), 1835-1913, Poet
             Laureate 1896-1913; -- (John Langshaw), 1911-60, English
             philosopher; --, Tex., US

   Austral/ia, -ian
             abbr. Austral.; -asia, -asian

   Australian Capital Territory
             abbr.  ACT

   Austrasia Frankish Kingdom of 6th- 8th cc.

   Austria   abbr. Aus.

   Austria-Hungary
             (but Austro-Hungarian); in Ger.  ™sterreich-Ungarn

   autarchy  absolute sovereignty

   autarky   self-sufficiency

   Auteuil   Paris suburb

   auteur    (Fr. m.), author

   auth.     authentic, author, -ess, -ity, -ized

   authorities
             at the end of quotations, or in notes:

             I.   In scientific and technical work use the Harvard system,
                  giving:

                  1.  Name of author in roman.
                  2.  Date of publication.
                  3.  a, b, c, etc. close up after date to distinguish
                      between works of same author and date.
                  4.  A full alphabetical list in the style of II below at
                      the end of the work, or of each chapter.

             II.  In general setting give:

                  1.  Name of author in roman.
                  2.  Name of book in italic, and, if necessary, the series
                      title in roman.
                  3.  Title of article roman in quotation marks, name of
                      journal in italic.

                  For detailed examples see Hart's Rules, pp. 50-4.

                  Act, scene, and line                          III. iii. 45
                  Book                                                   iii
                  Book and line (long poems)                         iii. 25
                  Canto and line                                     xvi. 25
                  Chapter and page                                   xiv. 25
                  Chapter and verse (biblical)                         2: 34
                   (formerly                                         ii. 34)
                  Chapter, section, and paragraph
                   (some scientific and philosophical works)         22.2.25
                  Paragraph                                              °68
                  Section                                                 °5
                  Volume, chapter, and page                       IV. vi. 97


                  Quote the minimum number of divisions consistent with
                  clarity; the smallest in arabic numerals, the next in lower
                  case roman, and so on

   authorize not -ise

   Authorized Version
             (of Bible) (caps.); abbr. AV

   autis/m   morbid absorption in fantasy, or mental condition obstructing
             response to environment; adj. -tic

   autobahn/ German arterial road (not cap., not ital. in Anglicized form);
             pl. -s

   autochthon/
             original inhabitant; pl. -s; adj. -ous

   autocracy absolute government

   auto/-da-f‚
             (Port.), pl. autos-da-f‚; (Sp.) -- de fe; "act of the faith",
             burning of heretic by Inquisition

   autogiro  not -gyro

   autolithography
             (typ.), printing by lithography from stones or plates prepared
             by the artist personally

   automaton/
             pl. -s (but automata when used collectively)

   autonomy  self-government

   autonym   a book published under author's real name

   auto/pista
             Spanish arterial road; -route, French ditto

   autore    (It.), author; abbr. aut.

   autostrad/a
             Italian arterial road; pl. -e

   autres temps, autres moeurs
             (Fr.), other times, other manners

   autumn    (not cap.)

   Auvergne  (Fr.), not The --

   Auvers    d‚p. Seine-et-Oise, France

   Auverse   d‚p. Maine-et-Loire, France

   auxiliary abbr. aux. or auxil.

   Auxiliary Forces
             (caps.)

1.23 AV...
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   AV        Authorized Version (of Bible)

   a/v       ad valorem

   av.       average

   avant/-courier
             in Fr. m. -courrier or -cour/eur, fem. -euse, a forerunner;
             ---propos (m.), preface, pl. same (hyphens)

   avant-garde
             the advanced guard, the innovators

   av. C.    (It.), avanti Cristo (BC)

   avdp.     avoirdupois

   Ave.      Avenue

   ave atque vale
             (Lat.), hail and farewell

   Ave Maria (Hail, Mary!); abbr. AM

   Avenue    abbr. Ave.

   average   abbr. av.

   Averro‰s  1126-98, Muslim philosopher, not -oes

   avertible not -able

   avertissement
             (Fr. m.), notice, warning

   aviculture
             rearing of birds

   Avignon   d‚p. Vaucluse, France

   a vinculo matrimonii
             (Lat.), full (divorce)

   avis au lecteur
             (Fr.), notice to the reader

   avizandum (Sc. law), judge's consideration of case in private

   av. J.-C. (Fr.), BC

   AVM       Air Vice-Marshal

   avocad/o  pl. -os

   avocet    a bird, not -set

   Avogadro (Amedeo),
             1776-1856, Italian scientist, not Avro-

   avoirdupois
             abbr. avdp.

   …/ volont‚
             (Fr.), at pleasure, at will; -- votre sant‚! (here's) to your
             health!

   Avon/     county of England, and name of several English rivers; -- (Earl
             of)

   avril     (Fr. m., not cap.), April

1.24 a/w...
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   a/w       (typ.) artwork

   awesome   not aws-

   awhile    (adv.), but for a while

   awing     (partic. of awe), not aweing

   awk       use auk

   AWOL      absent without official leave

   AWRE      Atomic Weapons Research Establishment

1.25 ax....
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   ax.       axiom

   axe       not ax

   axel      jumping movement in skating

   ax/is     pl. -es; (cap., hist.) the German alliance formed in 1939

1.26 ay...
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   ay/       yes: "Ay, ay, sir"; pl. -es:  "The ayes have it"

   ayah      Indian nursemaid

   ayatollah Iranian religious leader (cap. when used as title)

   Aycliffe  Co. Durham, "new town", 1947

   aye       ever: "For ever and for aye"

   Aylesbury Bucks. See also Ail-

   Ayr       Strathclyde

   Ayre (Point of)
             Isle of Man

1.27 AZ...
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   AZ        Arizona (off. postal abbr.)

   az.       azure

   Azerbaijan/
             a Soviet Socialist Republic, see USSR, and province of NW Iran;
             -ian, the language

   Azores Islands;
             in Port. A‡ores

   Azov (Sea of)
             not -off, -of

   Azrael    (Muslim), the angel of death

   Aztec     one of a people dominant in Mexico before the Spanish conquest;
             adj. Aztec/, -ian

2.0 B
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2.1 B...
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   B         bel, boron, (chess) bishop, (pencils) black (see also BB, BBB),
             (mus.) B flat in German system, the second in a series

   B.        Bachelor, Baron, bass, basso, Bay, Blessed (Beat/us, -a),
             British

   b         (phys.), barn; (compass), by

   b.        base, billion, book, born, (cricket) bowled, (cricket) bye,
             (meteor.) blue sky

2.2 BA...
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   BA        Bachelor of Arts, Booksellers Association, British Academy, --
             Airways (combining BEA and BOAC 1973), -- America, --
             Association

   Ba        barium (no point)

   BAA       British Airports Authority, -- Astronomical Association

   Baalbek   Syria

   baas      (Afrik.), master, boss

   Ba'ath    Iraqi and Syrian political party

   Babbitt   by Sinclair Lewis, 1922 (rom. in allusive use)

   Babcock & Wilcox
             engineers

   babiroussa
             a wild hog, not baby-, -russa

   babu      Indian title, not baboo

   BAC       British Aerospace Corporation

   baccalaureate
             university degree of bachelor

   baccarat  a card-game; in Fr. m.  baccara

   Bacchanalia/
             festival of Bacchus, strictly pl. but used in Eng. as sing.; -n
             (not cap.), riotous or drunken

   Bacchant/ male or female follower of Bacchus; -e, female only

   Bach/     German musical family, more than fifty in number in seven
             generations, of whom the greatest was -- (Johann Sebastian),
             1685-1750 (of the fifth generation), composer of orchestral,
             instrumental, and choral music; also important were his father's
             cousin, -- (Johann Christoph), 1642-1703, composer; and of J. S.
             B.'s twenty children, -- (Wilhelm Friedemann), 1710-84; -- (Carl
             Philipp Emanuel, usu. referred to as C. P. E.), 1714-88,
             developer of sonata and symphony form; -- (Johann Christoph
             Friedrich), 1732-95; -- (Johann Christian), 1735-82, "the
             English Bach"

   Bacharach small Rhineland town (wine-producing); -- (Burt), b.  1929, US
             composer

   Bachelier Љs/ lettres
             (Fr.), Bachelor of Letters, abbr. B. Љs L.; -- -- sciences,
             ditto Science, B. Љs S. (no hyphens)

   Bachelor/ abbr. B.; -- of Agriculture, B.Agr. (US); -- -- Architecture,
             B.Arch.; -- -- Arts, BA; -- -- Canon and Civil Law, BUJ; -- --
             Civil Engineering, BCE; -- -- Civil Law, BCL; -- -- Commerce,
             B.Com.; -- -- Dental Surgery, BDS or B.Ch.D.; -- -- Divinity,
             BD; -- -- Education, B.Ed.; -- -- Engineering, BE or B.Eng. or
             B.A.I.  Dub. (Dublin); -- -- Law, BL: -- -- Laws, B LL; -- --
             Letters, B.Litt.  or Litt.B., in Fr. B. Љs L.; -- -- Medicine,
             BM or MB; -- -- Metallurgy, B.Met.; -- -- Mining Engineering,
             BME; -- -- Music, B.Mus. or Mus.B.; -- -- Obstetrics, BAO; -- --
             Philosophy, B.Phil.; -- -- Science, B.Sc., or BS (US), in Fr. B.
             Љs S.; -- -- Surgery, BC, B.Ch., BS, or Ch.B.; -- -- Technical
             Science, B.Sc. Tech.; -- -- Theology, B.Th.

   bacill/us pl. -i (not ital.)

   back      (typ.), see margins

   back-bench(er)
             (Parl.) (hyphen)

   Backhuysen (Ludolf)
             1631-1708, Dutch painter, not Bakhuisen

   backing up
             (typ.), printing on the second side

   backwoodsman
             (one word)

   Bacon (Sir Francis)
             (often incorrectly Lord), 1561-1626, Baron Verulam and Viscount
             St Albans

   Baconian  pertaining to Roger Bacon, died c.1292; or to Sir Francis Bacon;
             or to the theory that Sir Francis Bacon wrote Shakespeare's
             plays

   bacshish  use baksheesh

   bacteri/um
             microscopic organism; pl. -a; -cide

   bade      see bid

   Baden-Baden
             W. Germany (hyphen)

   Baden-Powell (Robert Stephenson Smyth, Baron)
             1857-1941, Founder of Boy Scouts, 1908 (hyphen)

   badinage  (Fr. m.), humorous ridicule

   Baedeker (Karl)
             1801-59, guidebook publisher

   Baffin/ Bay
             island, NE America, not -ns, -n's

   BAFU      Bakers', Food, and Allied Workers' Union

   bagarre   (Fr. m.), brawl

   Bagehot (Walter)
             1826-77, English writer

   Baghdad   Iraq, not Bagd-

   BagnЉres/ de Bigorre
             d‚p. Hautes-Pyrenees; -- de Luchon, d‚p Haute-Garonne, France

   bagnio/   bathing-house, oriental prison, brothel; pl. -s

   Bagnoles  d‚p. Orne, France

   Bagnols   d‚p. Gard, France

   bagpip/e(s), -er
             (one word)

   B.Agr.    (US), Bachelor of Agriculture

   Baha'/i   religion initiated by Bah 'u'll h (1817-92); -ism

   Baham/as  W. Indies, indep. 1973; adj. -ian

   Bahrain   islands, Persian Gulf, not -ein

   Baiae     Naples

   B.A.I. Dub.
             Bachelor of Engineering, Univ. of Dublin

   baignoire (Fr. f.), theatre box at stalls level

   Baikal (Lake)
             USSR

   bail      (noun) security for appearance of prisoner, cross-piece over
             stumps in cricket, (hist.) outer line of fortifications; (verb)
             to deliver goods in trust, (naut.) to scoop water out of; to
             secure release on bail. See also bale

   bailee    one to whom goods are entrusted for a purpose

   bailer    (naut.), one who bails water out, scoop used for bailing. See
             also bailor, bale

   bailey    outer wall of castle; Old Bailey, London's Central Criminal
             Court

   bailie    (Sc.), an alderman; bailiery, jurisdiction of a bailie, not
             -iary

   bailiwick office or jurisdiction of a bailiff

   Baillie (Joanna)
             1762-1851, Scottish poet

   BailliЉre, Tindall, Ltd.
             publishers

   bailor    (law), one who entrusts goods to a bailee. See also bailer

   Baily's/ Magazine; -- Directory


   bain-marie
             double saucepan; pl.  bains-

   Baireuth  Bavaria, use Bay-

   Bairut    Lebanon, use Beirut

   baklava   Turkish pastry with nuts and honey

   baksheesh (Arab., Turk.), a gratuity, not the many variants

   bal.      balance

   Balaclava not -klava

   balalaika Russian stringed instrument

   balanceable
             not -cable

   Balbriggan
             Co. Dublin; also knitted cotton goods

   bale/, -s abbr. bl. or bls.

   bale      (noun) a package, (arch.)  destruction, woe; (verb) to make into
             a package; -- out, to escape from an aircraft by parachute. See
             also bail

   Bѓle      Fr. for Basle

   Balfour/ (Baron, of Burleigh); --
             (Baron, of Inchrye); -- (Earl of).  (Three distinct titles)

   Bali/     Indonesia; adj. -nese

   Baliol    an Anglo-Norman family, not the Oxford College, Balliol

   balk      (verb), not baulk

   Balkan Mts.
             Bulgaria

   Balkhan Mts.
             Transcaspia

   Ballaarat Victoria, Australia, use -larat

   ballade   medieval French poem, also its imitation

   Ballantine (James)
             1808-77, artist and poet; -- (William), 1812-86, serjeant-at-law

   Ballantyne (James)
             1772-1833, and -- (John), 1774-1821, Sir W.  Scott's printers
             and publishers; -- Press, founded by them in 1796; -- (Robert
             Michael), 1825-94, Scottish writer for boys

   Ballarat  Victoria, Australia, not -aarat

   ballet-dancer
             (hyphen)

   ball game (two words)

   Balliol College
             Oxford. See also Baliol

   ballistic/
             (adj.); -s, pl., the science (two ls)

   ballon d'essai
             (Fr. m.), a "feeler" of any kind

   ballot/, -ed, -ing


   ballroom  (one word)

   Ballsbridge
             Co. Dublin (one word)

   ballyhoo  vulgar publicity

   baloney   use boloney

   BALPA     British Air Line Pilots' Association

   Baluchi   a native of Baluchistan, not Be-, Bi-

   baluster  upright supporting a rail, commonly of stone and outdoors, tbe
             whole structure being a balustrade.  See banister

   Balzac (Honor‚ de)
             1799-1850, French writer; -- (Jean Louis Guez de), 1596-1654,
             French writer

   Bamberg   W. Germany, not -burg

   Bamburgh  Northumberland

   banal     commonplace

   Banaras   Hindi for Benares

   Band      (Ger. m.), a volume, pl. B„nde; abbr. Bd., pl. Bde.

   bandanna  a handkerchief, not -ana

   b. & b.   bed and breakfast

   B. & F.B.S.
             British and Foreign Bible Society

   bandit/   pl. -s

   bandoleer a belt for cartridges, not -olier, -alier

   bandolero Spanish brigand

   Bandung   Indonesia, not Bandoeng

   bang      Indian hemp, use bh-

   Bangalore Mysore, India

   Bangkok   Thailand, not Bankok

   Bangladesh
             "Land of the Bengalis", formerly E. Pakistan; indep. 1972

   banister  upright supporting a rail; commonly of wood, indoors, on
             staircase, the whole structure being banisters (pl.). See
             baluster

   banjo/    pl. -s

   bank      abbr. bk.

   banking   abbr. bkg.

   banknote  (one word)

   Bankok    use Bangkok

   bank paper
             a thin, strong paper

   banlieue  (Fr. f.), precinct, suburb

   banneret  (law), a knight made on the field of battle

   bannerette
             small banner

   banns     not bans

   banquet/, -ed, -ing
             (one t)

   banquette a raised way behind firing-rampart; seat

   Bantu     designating a group of Central, E., and S. African native
             peoples and languages

   BAO       Bachelor of Art of Obstetrics

   BAOR      British Army of the Rhine

   bap.      baptized

   Baptist   abbr. Bapt.

   baptistery
             not -try

   baptize   not -ise

   Bar       called to the (cap.); bar, unit of pressure, 1/10 megapascal

   bar.      barley-corn, baromet/er, -ric, barrel

   Barbad/os not -oes, indep. 1966, abbr. Barb., adj. -ian

   barbarize not -ise

   Barbary   N. Africa

   barbecue  open-air roasting (party) (not -que)

   barberry  shrub of genus Berberis, not ber-, -ery

   barbet    tropical bird

   barbette  gun platform

   Barbirolli (Sir John)
             1899-1970, English conductor

   barcarole Venetian gondolier's song; in Fr. barcarolle

   B.Arch.   Bachelor of Architecture

   Barclays Bank, Ltd.
             (no apos.)

   Bareilly  Uttar Pradesh, India, not -eli

   Barenboim (Daniel)
             b. 1942, Argentinian-born Israeli musician

   Barents Sea
             north of Norway and USSR, not -'s, -'z

   bargain/er
             a haggler; -or (law), the seller

   Bar Harbor
             Maine, US

   Baring-Gould (Revd Sabine)
             1834-1924, English author (hyphen)

   baritone  (mus.), not bary-

   barium    symbol Ba

   bark      vessel (arch. and poet.); in techn. sense use barque

   Barkston  Lincs., N. Yorks.

   barleycorn
             (one word), abbr. bar.

   bar/maid, -man
             (one word)

   Barmecide one who offers illusory benefits, not -acidc

   bar mitzvah
             Jewish initiation rite

   Barmston  Humberside

   barn      (phys.), unit of area, abbr. b

   Barnaby Bright
             St. Barnabas' Day, 11 June; longest day, Old Style

   Barnard (Dr Christiaan)
             b. 1922, S.  African surgeon

   Barnardo (Dr Thomas John)
             1845-1905, British philanthropist

   baro/graph
             a recording barometer; -gram, the record; -logy, science of
             weight; -meter, -metric, abbr.  bar.

   baron     member of lowest order of British nobility; cap. when with name
             (but Lord more common); l.c. with foreign name (but in Ger.
             cap.); abbr. B.

   baron/    (Fr.), Baron; fem. -ne (not cap.)

   baron and feme
             (law), husband and wife regarded as one

   baronet/  member of lowest hereditary titled British order; cap. when with
             name; abbr. Bt.; baronetage, baronets collectively, book about
             them; baronetcy, patent or rank of baronet

   Barons Court
             London (no apos.)

   baroque   exuberant archit. style of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries,
             applied also to music and other arts (not ital., not cap.)

   barouche  four-wheeled carriage, not baru-

   barque    vessel with aftermost mast fore-and-aft rigged and remaining
             masts square rigged, not bark

   barquentine
             three-masted vessel with foremast only square-rigged, not
             -antine, barke-

   barr.     barrels, barrister

   barrac/uda
             large W. Indian sea-fish; -outa only with reference to Thyrsites
             atun (Austral. and NZ)

   barrator  (law), malicious litigant, not -ater, -etor

   barratry  (law), vexatious litigation; (marine law) master's or crew's
             fraud or negligence

   Barrault (Jean-Louis)
             b. 1910, French actor, director, producer

   barrel/, -s
             abbr. bar., barr., bl., bls.

   barrel/led, -ling


   barrico/  a small cask, pl. -es

   Barrie (Sir James Matthew)
             1860-1937, Scottish novelist and playwright

   Barrie & Jenkins, Ltd.
             publishers

   barrister abbr. barr.

   Barrow-in-Furness
             Cumbria (hyphens)

   Bart.     Baronet, use Bt.

   bartender (one word)

   Barth (Heinrich)
             1821-65, German explorer; -- (John), b. 1930, US novelist; --
             (Karl), 1886-1968, Swiss theologian

   Bartholomew Day
             24 Aug. (caps., two words, for London local terminology but St
             Bartholomew's Day for the massacre, 1572)

   Bartўk (Bela)
             1881-1945, Hungarian composer

   Bartolommeo (Fra)
             1475-1517, Italian painter

   Bartolozzi (Francesco)
             1727-1813, Italian engraver

   Bart's    St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London

   Baruch    (Apocr.), not to be abbr.

   baruche   use barouche

   barytone  use bari- except for the Greek accent

   bas bleu  (Fr. m.), a "bluestocking"

   base      abbr. b.

   baseball  US national game played by two teams of nine; ball used in it

   Basel     Ger. for Basle

   bashaw    use pasha

   bashi-bazouk
             (hyphen), Turkish mercenary

   Bashkirtseff (Marie K.)
             properly Marya Bashkirtseva, 1860-84, Russian diarist

   BASIC     (comp.), Beginners' All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code

   Basic English
             (two caps.), "debabelized" language proposed by C. K. Ogden,
             1929

   Basildon  Essex, "new town", 1949

   basinet   light steel headpiece, not bass-

   bas/is    pl. -es

   Baskerville (John)
             1706-75, typefounder and printer; designer of Baskerville type

   Basle     Switz., in Fr. Bѓle; in Ger.  Basel

   Basra     Iraq, not -ah

   bas-relief
             not bass-

   Bas-Rhin  d‚p. E. France (hyphen)

   bass      a fish, not -e

   bassinet  cradle, perambulator, not basi-, -ette, berceaunette

   basso/    (mus.), abbr. B.; -- profundo (It. mus.), lowest male voice

   bass/o-riliev/o
             (It.), bas-relief, pl. -i -i, Anglicized to basso- relievo, pl.
             -os

   bastaard  (S. Afr.), person of mixed white and coloured parentage, whether
             legitimate or not

   bastardize
             not -ise

   bastard/  size (typ.), a non-standard size; -- title, see half-title

   Bastille  (Fr. f.). Paris prison

   bastille  a fortified tower, not -ile

   bastinado/
             not basto-; pl. -s

   Basuto/, -land
             S. Africa. See Lesotho

   bateau/   (Fr. m.), a boat, not batt-; pl. -x

   Bath: et Well:
             sig. of Bp. of Bath and Wells (two colons)

   Bath/     brick, -- bun, -- chair, -- chap (not chop), -- Oliver, -- stone
             (cap. B) (two words)

   baton     music conductor's stick

   battalion abbr. battn. or bn.

   battels   account for provisions etc., at Oxford University

   batter    (typ.), a damaged letter

   batterie de cuisine
             (Fr. f.), a set of cooking utensils

   battery   abbr. batt. or bty.

   battleaxe (one word)

   battle-cry
             (hyphen)

   battle/dress, -field, -ground, -ship
             (one word)

   battue    (Fr. f.), shooting

   Batum     Georgia, USSR, not -oum

   Baudelaire (Charles)
             1821-67, French poet, not Beau-

   Bauhaus   20th c. Ger. archit. school

   baulk     of timber; area on billiard-table; as verb use balk

   Bavaria/, -n
             abbr. Bav.; in Ger.  Bayern

   bawbee    (Sc.), halfpenny, not bau-

   bayadЉre  Hindu dancing girl

   Bayard (Pierre de Terrail, Chevalier de)
             1475-1524, "The Knight without fear and without reproach"

   Bayern    Ger. for Bavaria

   bayonet/, -ed, -ing; -- fitting
             plug (elec.), two words

   bayou     tributary creek

   Bayreuth  Bavaria, not Bai-. See also Beirut

   bazaar

2.3 BB...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BB        (pencils), double black; also 2B

   BBB       (pencils), treble black; also 3B

   BBC       British Broadcasting Corporation

2.4 BC...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BC        Bachelor of Surgery, Board of Control, British Columbia (Canada)

   BC        before Christ (s. caps.), should always be placed after the
             numerals

   b.c.      (meteor.), partly cloudy sky

   BCA       Bureau of Current Affairs

   BCC       British Copyright Council, -- Council of Churches, Crown Colony

   BCD       (comp.), binary coded decimal

   BCE       Bachelor of Civil Engineering; before Christian (or Common) Era
             (see ACE)

   BCG       bacillus of Calmette and Gu‚rin (anti-TB inoculation)

   B.Ch., B.Chir.
             Bachelor of Surgery

   B.Ch.D., BDS
             Bachelor of Dental Surgery

   BCL       Bachelor of Civil Law

   B.Com., B.Comm., B.Com.Sc.
             Bachelor of Commerce

   BCP       Book of Common Prayer

2.5 BD...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BD        Bachelor of Divinity

   Bd.       (Ger.), Band (a volume)

   bd.       board, bond, bound

   BDA       British Dental Association

   Bde.      (Ger.), B„nde (volumes)

   Bde. Maj. Brigade Major

   bdg.      binding

   bdl., bdls.
             bundle, -s

   Bdr.      Bombardier

   BDS       Bachelor of Dental Surgery, Bomb Disposal Squad

   bds.      (bound in) boards

2.6 BE...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BE        B.Eng., Bachelor of Engineering

   Be        beryllium (no point)

   b.e.      bill of exchange

   BEA       British Epilepsy Association, -- Esperanto Association, --
             European Airways (see BA)

   beach-la-mar
             pidgin English of W.  Pacific

   bear      (Stock Exchange), speculator for a fall

   beard     (typ.), the space between the bottom of the x-height (q.v.) and
             the upper edge of the shank

   beargarden
             (one word)

   B‚arnaise rich white sauce

   bearskin  military cap (one word)

   beastings use bee-

   beasts of the chase
             (law), buck, doe, fox, marten, roe; ditto forest (law), boar,
             hare, hart, hind, wolf; ditto warren (law), cony and hare; ditto
             of venery (law) are "beasts of the forest"

   beatae memoriae
             (Lat.), of blessed memory; abbr. BM

   Beata/ Maria
             or -- Virgo (Lat.), the Blessed Virgin; abbr. BM or BV (no
             points). See also BMV, BVM

   Beatles (the)
             pop group, fl. 1960s

   beatnik   member of "beat" generation

   beau      (pl. beaux), not ital.

   Beauclerc sobriquet of Henry I

   Beauclerk fam. name of Duke of St Albans

   Beaudelaire
             use Bau-

   beau-fils (Fr. m.), son-in-law, stepson; without hyphen, beautiful son

   Beaufort scale
             of wind force (one cap.); for details see under wind

   beau ideal
             model of excellence (not ital.)

   beauidealize
             not -ise (one word)

   Beaujolais
             a burgundy

   Beaulieu  Hants

   beau monde
             the fashionable world

   Beaune    a burgundy

   beau-pЉre (Fr. m.), father-in-law, stepfather; without hyphen, beautiful
             father

   beaux-arts
             (Fr. pl. m.), fine arts

   beaux/ esprits
             (Fr. pl. m.), brilliant wits, sing. bel esprit; -- yeux, good
             looks

   beccafico/
             small edible Italian bird, not beca-; pl. -s

   b‚chamel  (Fr. cook.), white sauce named after B‚chamel, steward of Louis
             XIV

   b€che-de-mer
             sea-slug, a Chinese delicacy

   Bechstein (Friedrich Wilhelm Carl)
             1826-1900, German pianoforte maker; -- (Johann Matth„us),
             1757-1822, German naturalist

   Bechuana/, -land
             S. Africa. See Botswana

   Becket (…)
             see … Becket

   Beckett (Samuel)
             1906-89, Irish writer

   becquerel unit of radioactivity, abbr. Bq

   Becquerel French family of physicists: -- (Antoine C‚sar), 1788-1878,
             father of -- (Alexandre Edmond), 1820-91, father of -- (Antoine
             Henri), 1852-1908, discoverer of radioactive -- rays, now gamma
             rays

   bed       (typ.), the part of the press on which the forme lies

   B.Ed.     Bachelor of Education

   bedaw/een, -i, -in
             use bedouin

   bed/bug, -clothes
             (one word)

   Beddgelert
             Gwynedd, not Beth-

   bedeguar  mosslike excrescence on roses

   bedel     Oxford official form of beadle; at Cambridge and London, bedell

   Bedfordshire
             abbr. Beds.

   bedouin   a desert Arab, not the many variants; pl. same

   bed/owy   use -ouin

   bed/pan, -post, -ridden, -room
             (one word)

   Beds.     Bedfordshire

   bed/-sitter, -sitting-room
             (hyphens)

   bed/sore, -time
             (one word)

   bed/uin   use -ouin

   beefsteak (one word)

   beehive   (one word)

   beerhouse (law), where beer is sold to be drunk on or off the premises

   beer-mat  (hyphen)

   beershop  (law), where beer is sold to be drunk off the premises

   beestings first milk from a mammal, not bea-, bie-

   beeswax   (noun and verb)

   Beethoven (Ludwig van not von)
             1770-1827, German composer; divide Beet-hoven

   BEF       British Expeditionary Force

   be/fall   not -fal; past -fell

   Beggar's Opera
             not -s'

   behemoth  biblical animal (book of Job), thought to be the hippopotamus

   behoof    (noun), benefit

   behove    (verb), to be incumbent on

   Behring (Emil von)
             1854-1917, German bacteriologist

   Behring Isle, Sea
             and Strait, use Bering

   beignet   (Fr. m.), a fritter

   Beijing   Pinyin form of Peking

   Beinn Bhuidhe
             near Inveraray, Strathclyde. See also Ben Buie

   Beirut    Lebanon, not Ba-, Bai-, Beyrout(h). See also Bayreuth

   bel       unit of ten decibels (decibel is more often used); abbr. B

   Belalp    Switz. (one word)

   Bel and the Dragon
             (Apocr.), abbr.  Bel & Dr.

   beldam    (arch.), a hag, not -e

   Bel‚m     Brazil, formerly Par 

   bel/ esprit
             (Fr. m.), a brilliant wit, pl. beaux esprits; -- ‚tage, the
             first floor, not belle --

   Belgique  (Fr. f.), Belgium; belge, Belgian (not cap., unless used as a
             noun)

   Belg/ium, -ian, -ic
             abbr. Belg.

   Belgrade  Yugoslavia

   believable
             not -eable

   Belitung  Indonesia, not Billiton

   Belize/   Cent. America, formerly British Honduras; adj. -an

   Bell (Acton, Currer, Ellis)
             see Bront‰

   belladonna
             (bot.), deadly nightshade (one word)

   belle     (not ital.)

   belle/ amie
             (Fr. f.), female friend; ---de-jour (bot.), convolvulus; ---
             de-nuit (bot.), marvel of Peru; -- epoque, before 1914; --
             fille, daughter-in-law, stepdaughter; without hyphen, beautiful
             girl; -- laide, fascinatingly ugly woman

   Belle-Њle-en-Mer
             d‚p. Morbihan, France (hyphens)

   Belle Isle (Straits of)
             between Newfoundland and Labrador

   Belleisle Co. Fermanagh

   belle-mЉre
             (Fr. f.), mother-in-law, stepmother; without hyphen, beautiful
             mother

   belles-lettres
             literature, is pl.  (hyphen)

   belletrist/
             one devoted to belles- lettres; adj. -ic (not -ettr-)

   Bell Island
             off NE coast of Newfoundland

   Bell Rock North Sea. See also Inchcape Rock

   Bel/oochee, -uchi
             use Baluchi

   Belorussia
             White Russia, a Soviet Socialist Republic, not Bye-. See also
             USSR

   belvedere (It.), a raised building, not belvi- (not ital.)

   Belvedere Kent; Calif., US

   Belvidere Ill., US

   Belvoir   castle, Leics.

   BEM       British Empire Medal

   Benares   India, off. Varanasi; in Hindi Banaras

   Ben Buie  Mull, Strathclyde. See also Beinn Bhuidhe

   bench-mark
             (hyphen)

   Ben Day   (typ.), mechanical method for producing shading and stippling
             effects

   Benedic   canticle from Psalm 103

   Benedicite
             the "Song of the Three Children", from Apocr., as canticle

   benedick  confirmed bachelor newly married, not -ict (from a character in
             Shakespeare's Much Ado about Nothing)

   Benedictus
             the Canticle of Zacharias (Luke 1: 68 ff.), or a choral passage
             in the Mass, beginning Benedictus qui venit (Matt. 21: 9)

   benefactor
             not -er

   beneficent
             not -ficient

   benefit/, -ed, -ing


   Benelux   Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg

   Benet     English form of the name Benedict; used of St Benedict and
             institutions bearing his name, e.g.  St Benet's Church, -- --
             Hall

   Bene't Street
             Cambridge

   Ben‚t (Stephen Vincent)
             1898-1943, and -- (William Rose), 1886-1950, his brother, US
             poets

   B.Eng.    Bachelor of Engineering

   Bengali/  person born in, language of, (adj.) of Bengal, not -ee, pl.  -s;
             abbr. Beng.

   Benghazi  Libya, not -gasi

   Ben-Gurion (David)
             1886-1973, Israeli statesman

   Ben/ Lawers
             Tayside; -- Macdhui, Grampian

   Bennet    family name of Earl of Tankerville; family in Austen's Pride &
             Prejudice; -- (John), c.1600, English madrigalist

   Bennett (Enoch Arnold)
             1867-1931, English writer; -- (Richard Rodney), b. 1936, and --
             (William Sterndale), 1816-75, English composers

   benth/al  of ocean depths exceeding 6,000 feet; -os, the flora and fauna
             of the sea-bottom, as opp. to plankton

   Bentham (George)
             1800-84, botanist; -- (Jeremy), 1748-1832, English polit.
             philosopher

   ben trovato
             (It.), well invented

   Ben Venue Central (two words)

   ben venuto
             (It.), welcome

   Ben/ Vorlich, -- Vrackie
             Tayside

   Benzedrine
             (med.), propr. term for an inhalant or nerve stimlant, not -in
             (cap.)

   benzene   a substance obtained from coal-tar

   benzine   a spirit obtained from petroleum

   benzoin   aromatic resin of Japanese tree

   benzol    crude benzene, not -ole

   benzoline benzine

   Beowulf   Anglo-Saxon epic

   bequeather
             a testator

   B‚ranger (Pierre Jean de)
             1780-1857, French poet

   berberry  use bar-

   berceau   (Fr. m.), cradle

   berceaunette
             use bassinet

   berceuse  (Fr. f.), a cradle song

   Berg/     (Ger. m.), a mountain; pl. -e (cap.)

   berg      (Afrik.), a mountain

   Bergamask native of Bergamo, Lombardy; bergamasque, rustic dance
             attributed to them

   bergamot  tree (of citrus family; type of pear, not burg-

   Bergerac  d‚p. Dordogne, Erance; wine made there; -- (Savinien Cyrano de),
             1619-55, French writer

   Bergman (Ingmar)
             b. 1918, Swedish film and theatre director; -- (Ingrid),
             1917-82, Swedish actress

   Bergson (Henri)
             1859-1941, French philosopher

   beriberi  tropical disease, not -ria (one word)

   Bering (Vitus Jonassen)
             1680-1741, Danish navigator

   Bering Isle, Sea
             and Strait, not Beh-, -ings

   Berkeleian
             of the philosopher Berkeley

   Berkeley  Calif., US; -- (George, Bishop), 1685-1753, Irish philosopher;
             -- (Sir Lennox), 1903-89, English composer

   berkelium symbol Bk

   Berkhamsted
             Herts.

   Berks.    Berkshire

   Bernard (Claude)
             1813-78, French physiologist

   Bernardine
             Cistercian, from St Bernard of Clairvaux, 1091-1153

   Berne     Swiss canton and town, in Ger. Bern; -- Convention (1886 and
             later revisions) deals with copyright: there are now over sixty
             members (incl. UK but not US or USSR). Basically each
             member-nation extends benefit of its two copyright laws to works
             by citizens of other member-nations, and no registration of the
             book or claim to copyright is required. The author also has the
             "moral right" during his lifetime to object to any alteration of
             his work, regardless of copyright-ownership.  See also Universal
             Copyright Convention

   Berners (Gerald Hugh Tyrwhitt-Wilson, Baron)
             1883-1950, English composer; -- (John Bourchier, Baron),
             1467-1533, English translator; -- (Dame Juliana), wrote Boke of
             St Albans, first ed.  1486

   Bernhardt (Rosine called "Sarah")
             1845-1923, actress

   Bernoulli family of Swiss mathematicians, not -illi

   bernouse  Arab cloak, use burnous

   bersaglier/e
             (It.), a rifleman; pl.  -i

   Berthelot (Pierre Eugene Marcelin)
             1827-1907, French chemist and statesman

   Berthollet (comte Claude Louis)
             1748-1822, French chemist

   Berwickshire
             former county of Scotland

   beryllium symbol Be

   Berzelius (J”ns Jakob, baron)
             1779-1848, Swedish chemist

   B. Љs A.  now B. Љs L.

   Besan‡on  d‚p. Doubs, France

   B. Љs L.  (Fr.), Bachelier Љs lettres (Bachelor of letters)

   beso/ las manos
             (Sp.), "I kiss the hands" (frequently said or written); -- los
             pies, "I kiss the feet"

   B. Љs S.  (Fr.), Bachelier Љs sciences (Bachelor of Science)

   Bessarabia
             district in Moldavia and Ukraine, ceded by Romania to USSR, 1940

   Bessbrook Co. Armagh

   Bessemer process
             in steel mfr. (one cap.)

   Besses o' th' Barn
             Greater Manchester

   bestialize
             not -ise

   beta/ particle, -- ray
             (two words)

   betatron  apparatus for accelerating electrons

   betel     leaf of betel-pepper, chewed in East

   betel-nut misnomer for areca-nut, chewed with betel

   Betelgeuse
             (astr.), red star in Orion, not -x

   b€te noire
             (Fr. f.), one's pet aversion, not -- noir; pl. -es -es

   bethel    Nonconformist chapel (not cap.)

   b€tise    (Fr. f.), stupidity

   Betjeman (Sir John)
             1906-84, English poet and writer on architecture; appointed Poet
             Laureate 1972

   betony    (bot.), not bett-

   better    one who bets, not -or

   Betws-y-coed
             Gwynedd (hyphens)

   Bevan (Aneurin)
             1897-1960, Welsh politician. See also Bevin

   bevel/, -led, -ling


   Beveridge (William Henry, Baron)
             1879-1963, English economist

   Beverley  Humberside

   Beverly   Miss., US

   Beverly Hills
             Calif., US

   Bevin (Ernest)
             1881-1951, English politician. See also Bevan

   bevy      proper word for a company of ladies, larks, maidens, quails, or
             roes; also in gen. use

   Bewick (Thomas)
             1753-1828, English engraver

   Bexleyheath
             London (one word)

   bey       (Turk.), a governor; Bey of Tunis, formerly ruler of Tunisia
             (cap.)

   beylic    jurisdiction of a bey, not -ik

   Beyrout(h)
             Lebanon, use Beirut

   bezant    gold coin first struck at Byzantium, not by-

2.7 b.f....
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   b.f.      bloody fool, brought forward, (typ.) bold face

   BFBS      British and Foreign Bible Society

   BFI       British Film Institute

   BFPO      British Forces' Post Office

2.8 BGC
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BGC       bank giro credit

2.9 Bhagavadgita...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   Bhagavadgita
             philosophical dialogue in the Hindu epic Mahabharata

   B'ham     Birmingham

   bhang     Indian hemp, not ba-

   BHC       British High Commissioner

   b.h.p.    brake horsepower

   BHS       British Home Stores

   Bhutan/   protectorate of Rep. of India since 1949; adj. -ese

2.10 Bi...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   Bi        bismuth (no point)

   Biafra    portion of Nigeria, seceded 1967-70

   biannual  half-yearly, but biennial, two-yearly

   bias/, -ed, -ing


   Bib.      Bible

   bib.      biblical

   bibl.     bibliotheca (library)

   Bible     abbr. Bib. (cap., but three bibles = three copies of the Bible).
             See also authorities, quotation marks

   Biblia Pauperum
             medieval "Bible of the poor", in pictures (caps.)

   biblical  (not cap.), abbr. bib.

   bibliograph/er, -ic, -ical, -y;
             abbr. bibliog.

   bibliopeg/y
             bookbinding as a fine art; -ist

   biblio/theca
             (Lat.), a library; -thЉcaire (Fr. m.f.), a librarian; -thЉque
             (Fr. f.), a library

   Bibliothek/
             (Ger. f.), a library; -ar (Ger. m.), a librarian (caps.)

   bicameral with two legislative chambers

   Bickleigh Devon

   Bickley   Cheshire, London, N. Yorks.

   bid       past bade, partic. bidden, but bid is used for both in auction
             sense (I bid њ10 for it; њ10 was bid) and for partic. in some
             phrases, e.g. do as you are bid

   Biedermeier
             Ger. 19th-c.  conventional artistic and literary style

   biennial  two-yearly, but biannual, half-yearly

   bienni/um a two-year period; pl.  -ums

   biens‚ance
             (Fr. f.), propriety

   bienvenu/ (Fr.), fem. -e, welcome; -e (f.), a welcome

   BIF       British Industries Fair

   biff/‚    (Fr.), fem. -‚e, cancelled

   Bigelow (Erastus Brigham)
             1814-79, US inventor and industrialist; -- (John), 1817-1911, US
             journalist and diplomat

   Biglow Papers (The)
             anti-slavery poems 1848 and 1857-61, by James Russell Lowell

   bigot/, -ed


   bijou/    a "gem"; pl. -x

   Bilbao    Spain

   bilberry  not bill-

   bilbo/    Spanish sword or rapier; pl.  -s

   bilboes   pl., fetters

   Bildungsroman
             (Ger. m.), novel of early life

   bile-duct (hyphen)

   bill      (parliamentary) (cap. when part of title)

   billet/, -ed, -ing


   billet-doux
             a love letter; pl.  billets-doux (hyphens)

   billiard/-ball, -cue
             etc., not billiards- (hyphens)

   billion   in Britain, France (since 1948), and Germany, a million
             millions; in USA, and increasingly in British usage, a thousand
             millions; abbr. bn. See also trillion

   Billiton  Indonesia, use Belitung

   bill of/ exchange
             abbr. b.e.; -- -- lading, abbr. b.l; -- -- sale, abbr. b.s.

   biltong   (Afrik.), sun-dried meat

   Biluchi   use Bal-

   BIM       British Institute of Management

   bimetall/ic, -ism, -ist


   bimillenary
             (adj. and noun), (designating) a period of 2,000 years; a
             two-thousandth anniversary

   bi-monthly
             avoid as ambiguous; use (adj. or adv.) semi-monthly or (adv.)
             twice a month, every two months, as appropriate

   bindery   a bookbinder's establishment

   binnacle  (naut.), a compass-stand

   binocle   a field-glass

   binocular/
             (adj.), for two eyes; -s (pl. noun), field- or opera-glasses

   Binstead  IW

   Binsted   Hants, W. Sussex

   Binyon (Laurence)
             1869-1943, English poet

   biochemist/, -ry
             (one word)

   biodegradable
             (one word)

   biograph/er, -ic, -ical, -y;
             abbr.  biog.

   biological nomenclature:
             see Hart's Rules, pp. 6-7

   biolog/y, -ical;
             abbr. biol.

   bio/mathematics, -physics
             (one word)

   Bipont/, -ine
             books printed at Bipontium (ZweibrЃcken), W. Germany

   bird-bath (hyphen)

   bird/cage, -seed
             (one word)

   birds-eye view
             (one Hyphen)

   bird/-song, -table
             (hyphens)

   Birmingham
             abbr. Birm., B'ham; -- Small Arms, BSA

   Birnam    Tayside, immortalized in Shakespeare's Macbeth

   Birstall  Leics., W. Yorks.

   birth certificate
             (two words)

   birth/-control, -rate
             (hyphens)

   birthmark (one word)

   birthplace
             abbr. bpl.

   birthright
             (one word)

   BIS       Bank for International Settlements

   bis       (Fr., It., Lat.), twice, encore

   bis.      bissextile

   Biscayan  abbr. Bisc., pertaining to Biscay, Spain; Basque

   bis dat qui cito dat
             (Lat.), he gives twice who gives quickly

   bise      (Fr. f.), cold N. wind in S.  France

   BISF      British Iron and Steel Federation

   Bishop    abbr. Bp., (chess) B

   Bishopbriggs
             Strathclyde

   Bishop in partibus infidelium
             RC bishop taking title from ancient see situated "in territory
             of unbelievers", now termed "Titular Bishop"

   Bishop Rock
             lighthouse, Scilly Is.

   Bishop's/ Castle
             Shropshire; -- Cleeve, Glos.; -- Frome, Hereford & Worc.; --
             Lydeard, Som. (apos.)

   bishop's signature
             usually consists of Christian name and diocese (John
             Birmingham). For special spellings and punctuation of certain
             signatures refer to individual entries in this book

   Bishop's Stortford
             Herts. (apos.)

   Bishopsteignton
             Devon (one word)

   Bishopston
             Avon, W. Glam.

   Bishopstone
             Bucks., Hereford & Worc., Kent, E. Sussex, Wilts.

   Bishop's Waltham
             Hants (apos.)

   Bishopthorpe
             residence of Abp. of York (one word)

   Bishopton Co. Durham, N. Yorks., Strathclyde

   bisk      use bisque

   Bismarck (Karl Otto Eduard Leopold Furst von)
             1815-98, German statesman, not -ark

   bismillah (Arab.), "in the name of God", not biz-

   bismuth   symbol Bi

   bisque    in tennis, croquet, golf; unglazed white porcelain; rich soup
             (not ital.)

   bissextile
             (noun and adj.), Latin leap year, abbr. bis.

   bistoury  surgeon's scalpel

   bit       (US), 12.5 cents; (comp.)  binary digit (see also byte)

   bitts     (naut., pl.) pair of posts on deck for fastening cables, etc.

   bitumin/ize, -ous


   bivouac/, -ked, -king


   bi-weekly avoid as ambiguous; use (adj. or adv.) semi-weekly or
             fortnightly, (adv.) twice a week or every two weeks, as
             appropriate

   bizarre   (not ital.)

   Bizet (Georges)
             1838-75, French composer

2.11 Bk...
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   Bk        berkelium (no point)

   bk.       bank, book

   bkg.      banking

   bkt., bkts.
             basket, -s

2.12 BL...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BL        Bachelor of Law, ditto Letters, ditto Literature, British
             Leyland, ditto Library

   bl.       bls., bale, -s, barrel, -s

   b.l.      bill of lading

   Black     a Negro (cap.)

   black     (typ.) a space inked in

   Blackburn:
             sig. of Bp. of Blackburn (colon)

   blackcock see black game

   Blackfoot (N. Amer. Indian), pl.  Blackfeet

   Blackfriars
             London

   black game
             (two words), black grouse; male, blackcock (one word), female
             grey-hen (hyphen)

   black letter
             (typ.) general term for Gothic or Old English (q.v) type.  See
             also Fraktur

   blacklist (noun and verb, one work)

   Black Maria
             prison van (two words, caps.)

   Blackmoor Hants

   Blackmore Essex, Shropshire; -- (Richard Doddridge), 1825-1900, English
             writer

   black-out (noun, hyphen)

   black out (verb, two words)

   Blackrock Co. Cork, Cornwall, Co.  Dublin, Gwent, Co. Louth

   Blackrod  Gr. Manchester

   Black Rod abbr. for "Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod"

   Blackshirt/
             a Fascist; -ed (one word)

   blaeberry Sc. and N. Eng. for bilberry

   Blaenau Ffestiniog
             Gwynedd (no hyphen)

   blague/   (Fr. f.), humbug; -ur (m.), hoaxer

   Blairadam Fife (one word)

   Blair Atholl
             Tayside (caps., no hyphen)

   Blairgowrie
             Tayside (one word)

   Blairs College
             Aberdeen (no apos.)

   blameable see -able

   blancmange
             (cook.) (one word, not ital.)

   Bland (Mrs)
             see Nesbit

   blanket/, -ed, -ing


   blanquette
             (Fr. cook. f.), white meat in white sauce

   Blantyre  Strathclyde, Malawi

   blas/‚    bored with enjoyment (not ital.); fem. -‚e

   Blatherwycke
             Northants, not wyck, -wick

   bldg., bldgs.
             building, -s

   bled, bleed
             (typ.) an illustration going to the trimmed edge

   bleed     (bind.), to overcut the margins and mutilate the printing

   blesbok   (Afrik.) an antelope, not -buck

   blind/ blocking
             or -- tooling (bind.), see blocking

   B.Lit.    Bachelor of Literature

   B.Litt.   Baccalaureus Literarum (Bachelor of Letters)

   blitzkrieg
             (Ger.), violent attack; Eng. colloq. blitz

   blk.      (typ.), block, -s

   B LL      Bachelor of Laws

   bloc      (Fr.), combination of nations or parties

   Bloch (Ernest)
             1880-1959, Swiss-American composer

   block     (typ.), letterpress printing plate for an illustration, (brass)
             stamp to impress book-cover

   blocking  (bind.), impressing lettering or a design into the case of book;
             blind --, without foil or colour; gold --, with gold foil

   Block (Maurice)
             1816-1901, French economist

   Blok (Alexander Alexandrovich)
             1880-1921, Russian poet

   blond/    fair-complexioned; light-coloured (of hair); fem. -e (not ital.)

   blood/ bank -- cell, -- count, --
             group (two words)

   blood/-pressure, -supply
             (hyphens)

   blood sport
             (two words)

   bloodstain/, -ed
             (one word)

   bloodstream
             (one word)

   blottesque
             painting with blotted touches (not ital.)

   blow      partic. blown, but blowed in sense "cursed" (well I'm blowed)

   blow-up   (noun), an enlarged picture (hyphen)

   blow up   (verb), to enlarge (two words)

   blowzy    coarse-looking, not blou-, -sy

   Blubberhouses
             N. Yorks. (one word)

   BlЃcher (Gebhard Leberecht von)
             1742-1819, German field marshal

   bluebell  (one word)

   blue book Parliamentary or Privy Council report (two words)

   blueing   not blui-

   blueish   use bluish

   bluejacket
             RN sailor (one word)

   blueprint (one word)

   blue-printing
             a photog. process (hyphen)

   bluestocking
             but Blue Stocking Society

   bluey     bluelike

   bluing    use blueing

   bluish    not blue-

   Blundellsands
             Merseyside (one word)

   blurb     eulogy or r‚sum‚ of book, printed on jacket

   Blut und Eisen
             (Ger.), blood and iron

   Blyth     Northumberland

   Blyth Bridge
             Borders

   Blythebridge
             Staffs.

2.13 BM...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BM        Bachelor of Medicine, ditto Music; Beata Maria (the Blessed
             Virgin), beatae memoriae (of blessed memory); bench-mark;
             British Museum

   BMA       British Medical Association

   BME       Bachelor of Mining Engineering

   B.Met.    Bachelor of Metallurgy

   BMJ       British Medical Journal

   BMR       basal metabolic rate

   B.Mus.    Bachelor of Music

   BMV       Beata Maria Virgo (Blessed Virgin Mary)

2.14 bn....
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   bn.       battalion, billion

   B'nai B'rith
             sons of covenant, Jewish fraternity (two apos.)

   BNB       British National Bibliography

   BNC       Brasenose College, Oxford

2.15 BO...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BO        body odour

   b.o.      box-office, branch office, broker's order, brought over, buyer's
             option

   BOA       British Optical Association, -- Olympic Association

   Boabdil   last Moorish king of Granada, 1482-92; d. c.1533

   BOAC      British Overseas Airways Corporation (see BA)

   Boadicea  use Boudicca

   Boanerges sing. or pl., loud preacher(s)

   boarding/-house, -school
             (hyphens)

   Board of Trade
             abbr. B.o.T. or B.  of T., absorbed in Department of Trade and
             Industry, 1970

   boatswain contr. bos'n

   boat-yard (hyphen)

   Bobadil   braggart, from Bobadill in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour

   bobolink  N. American songbird

   bob-white American quail

   Boccaccio (Giovanni)
             1313-75, Italian writer (four cs)

   Boccherini (Luigi)
             1743-1850, Italian composer

   Bodhisattva
             in Buddhism and Hinduism, person able to reach nirvana

   Bodicote  Oxon.

   Bodleian Library
             abbr. Bod. Lib., Bodl., Bodley

   Bodoni (Giambattista)
             1740-1813, Italian printer and punch-cutter; designer of Bodoni
             type

   body      (typ.), the measurement from front to back of the shank of a
             piece of type; in the Anglo-American system 12 pt. = 0.166 in.
             See also Didot

   body-blow (hyphen)

   bodyguard (one word)

   body-weight
             (hyphen)

   Boeotia/  district of cent. Greece; -n, stupid

   Boerhaave (Herman), 1668-1738, Dutch naturalist

   Boethius  (Anicius), AD 470-525, Roman statesman and philosopher

   boeuf     (Fr. m.), beef

   B. of T.  Board of Trade, q.v.

   bogey     in golf

   bogie     wheeled undercarriage

   Bogota    NJ, US

   Bogot     Colombia, S. America

   bog/y     ghost, not -ey pi. -ies

   Bohemian  (noun and adj.), socially unconventional (person); bohemianism
             (not cap.)

   Bohr (Niels Hendrik David)
             1885-1962, and his son -- (Aage), b.  1922, Danish physicists

   Bo‹eldieu (Fran‡ois Adrien)
             1775-1834, French composer

   boiler-room
             (hyphen)

   boiler suit
             (two words)

   boiling-point
             (hyphen), abbr. BP or b.p.

   Bokhara   river, NSW, Australia. See Bukhara for the town in Uzbekistan

   Bokm†l    see Riksm†l

   bold-face type, as this;
             indicated in copy by wavy underline; abbr.  b.f.

   bolero/   Spanish dance, woman's short jacket; pl. -s

   Boleyn (Anne)
             1507-36, 2nd wife of Henry VIII of England

   BolЎvar (Simўn)
             1783-1830, S.  American patriot

   bolivar   Venezuelan monetary unit

   Bolivia/, -n
             abbr. Bol.

   B”ll (Heinrich)
             1917-85, German writer

   Bologna   Italy, in Lat. Bononia; adj. Bolognese, but spaghetti bolognese

   bolometer radiation measurer

   boloney   humbug, not bal-

   Bolshevik advocate of proletarian dictatorship by soviets; member of
             majority group of Russian Social Democratic Party, later the
             Communist Party, opp. to Menshevik

   bolts     (bind.), the three outer edges of a folded sheet before trimming

   Boltzmann constant
             (phys.), symbol k

   bolus/    large pill; pl. -es

   Bombardier
             cap. as title; abbr.  Bdr.

   bombazine a fabric, not -basine, -bazeen, -bycine

   bombe     (Fr. cook. f.), conical confection

   bona/ fide
             (Lat.), genuinely; -- fides, good faith (no accent)

   Bonaparte not Buonaparte, Corsican family

   bona/ peritura
             (Lat.), perishable goods; -- vacantia, unclaimed goods

   bon-bon   a kind of sweet; bon- bonniЉre, a box for sweets

   bon-chr‚tien
             a pear; pl. bons- chr‚tiens

   bond      abbr. bd.

   bondholder
             (one word)

   bond paper
             a hard, strong paper

   Bonduca   use Boudicca

   Bo'ness   Central (apos., being orig.  Borrowstounness). See also Bowness

   Boney     sobriquet of Napoleon. See also bony

   bon/ go–t (Fr. m.), good taste; -- gr‚, mal gr‚, whether one likes or not

   Bonheur (Rosa)
             1822-99, French painter

   bonhomie  (Fr. f.), good nature

   bonhomme  (Fr. m.), a pleasant fellow, a friar

   Bonhomme (Jacques)
             the French peasant

   bonjour   (Fr. m.), good-day (one word)

   bon/ march‚
             (Fr.), a cheap shop, cheap; -- mot, a witticism, pl.  bons mots
             (two words)

   bonne     (Fr. f.), a maid

   bonne bouche
             (Fr.), a dainty morsel, pl. bonnes bouches; bonne/ foi, good
             faith; -- fortune, success, pl. bonnes fortunes; -- grѓce,
             gracefulness, pl. bonnes graces

   bonnet/, -ed, -ing


   bonnet rouge
             (Fr. m.), Republican's cap

   Bononia   Lat. for Bologna, Italy

   bonsai    (Jap.), dwarfed plant

   bonsoir   (Fr. m.), good-evening, good-night (one word)

   bontebok  (Afrik.), pied antelope, not -buck

   bon ton   (Fr. m.), good style

   bon vivant/
             one fond of luxurious food (no hyphen, not ital.); pl.  -s. The
             fem., bonne vivante, is not in French usage

   bon viveur
             one who lives luxuriously (not in French usage)

   bon voyage!
             (Fr.), a pleasant journey!

   bony      not -ey. See also Boney

   Booerhave see Boerhaave

   book/     -s, abbr. bk., bks.

   bookbind/er, -ing
             (one word)

   book-end  (hyphen)

   bookkeep/er, -ing
             (one word)

   booklet   (typ.), usually an inset, saddle-stitched piece of printing,
             with limp cover

   bookmak/er, -ing
             (one word)

   bookmark(er)
             (one word)

   book-plate
             (hyphen)

   books (cited titles of)
             in italic; but series titles roman

   book/seller, -stall
             (one word)

   Booksellers Association
             abbr. BA

   book sizes
             (typ.): the following are the standard untrimmed book sizes in
             mm., 4to and 8vo: metric crown, 252 x 192, 192 x 126; metric
             large crown, 264 x 204, 204 x 132; metric demy, 282 x 222, 222 x
             141; metric royal, 318 x 240, 240 x 159; A4, 303 x 213; A5, 216
             x 151. For the former sizes see crown, demy, foolscap, imperial,
             medium, pott, royal, small royal

   books of Scripture
             (typ.), not to be italic, nor quoted; for abbrs. see separate
             titles

   book trim (bind.): standard trim is 3 mm. off head, foredge, and tail
             margins

   bookwork  (one word)

   Boole/ (George)
             1815-64, English logician and mathematician; adj.  -an

   Boone (Daniel)
             1735-1820, American explorer and colonizer

   Bo”tes    (astr.), the constellation

   booze     (to) drink, not -se, house, bowze

   Bophuthatswana
             S. Africa, indep.  1977

   bor.      borough

   Borak (Al)
             the winged horse on which Muhammad, in a vision, ascended to
             heaven

   Bordeaux  d‚p. Gironde, France; a claret or any wine of Bordeaux

   Bordeaux mixture
             of lime and copper sulphate, to kill fungus and insect parasites
             on plants

   border    (typ.), an ornament

   bordereau a memorandum, docket

   borderland
             (one word)

   Borders   region of Scotland

   Boreas    (Gr. myth.), god of the north wind

   Borehamwood
             Herts.

   Borghese  Italian family

   Borgia (Cesare)
             1476-1507; -- (Lucrezia), 1480-1519

   born/     of child, with reference to birth, abbr. b.; -e, carried, also
             of birth when 'by' (with name of mother) follows

   born/‚    (Fr.),fem. -‚e, narrow-minded

   Borodin (Alexander Porfiryevich)
             1834-87, Russian composer and chemist

   boron     symbol B

   borough   abbr. bor.

   Borstal   institution for reformative training (cap.)

   bortsch   Russian soup

   borzoi/   Russian wolfhound; pl. -s

   bosbok    Afrik. for bushbuck

   Bosch (Hieronymus)
             ?1450-1516, Dutch painter

   bos'n     contr. of boatswain

   Bosporus  strait separating European and Asian Turkey, not Bosph-

   Bossuet (Jacques Benigne)
             1627-1704, French bishop and writer

   Boswellize
             to write laudatory biography (cap.)

   B.o.T.    Board of Trade, q.v.

   bot/      not -tt; -fly (hyphen)

   botanize  not -ise

   botan/y, -ical, -ist
             abbr. bot.; genera, species, and varieties to be ital.; all
             other divisions roman: Rosales (order); Rosaceae (family); Rosa
             (genus); Rosa moschata (species); Rosa moschata var. nastarana
             (variety); Rosa moschata cv. Plena (cultivar).  Specific and
             infraspecific epithets, even when derived from names of persons,
             should be l.c.:  Lilium wardii, Camellia x williamsii, not
             Wardii, Williamsii.  Also l.c. are names of flowers used
             non-technically, as geranium, lobelia. See Hart's Rules, pp. 6-7

   bothy     (Sc.), hut, not -ie

   bo-tree   sacred tree of India

   Botswana  S. African independent republic 1966, formerly Bechuanaland

   Botticelli (Sandro)
             1447-1515, Florentine painter

   Boucicault (Dion)
             1822-90, Irish playwright

   Boudicca  d. AD 61, Queen of Iceni

   boudoir   (not ital.)

   bouffant  puffed out, as a dress (not ital.)

   bougainvillaea
             trop. plant with rosy bracts

   Bouguereau (William Adolphe)
             1825-1905, French painter

   bouillabaisse
             thick fish soup (not ital.)

   bouilli   (Fr. m.), stewed meat (not ital.)

   bouillon  broth (not ital.)

   boul.     boulevard

   boule     a French game akin to bowls (not ital.)

   boule     (inlay), usually spelt buhl, q.v.

   Boule     legislative council in ancient Greek city-state

   boulevard/
             (Fr. m.), abbr. boul.; -ier, a "man about town"

   boulevers/‚
             (Fr.), overturned; -ement (m.), a violent inversion

   Boulez    (Pierre), b. 1925, French composer

   Boulogne  d‚ps. Haute-Garonne and Pas-de-Calais, France

   bounceable
             not -cable

   bouncy    not bouncey

   bound     abbr. bd.

   bouquetin the ibex

   bouquinist
             second-hand bookseller:  in Fr. m. bouquiniste

   bourgeois/
             (Fr.), fem. -e, one of the middle class; -ie, the middle class
             (not ital.)

   bourgeois (typ.), name for a former size of type, about 9 pt.; pron.
             berjoyce (stress on second syllable)

   Bourn     Cambs.

   bourn     stream, (arch.) a limit, not -ne

   Bourne    Lincs.

   Bournemouth
             Dorset

   Bournville
             Birmingham

   bourr‚e   (Fr.), old lively dance, music for this (not ital.)

   bourse    foreign money-market, esp.  Paris

   bouse     (naut.), to haul, not -wse.  See also booze

   boustrophedon
             written from left to right and right to left on alternate lines,
             esp. in Gr.  inscriptions

   boutique  small shop (often within a shop) for individual clothes and
             accessories

   boutonniЉre
             (Fr. f.), a buttonhole

   bouts-rim‚s
             rhymed endings

   Bouvet I. (Norw.), Antarctic Ocean

   bowdlerize
             to expurgate, from Dr T.  Bowdler (not cap.)

   bowled    (cricket), abbr. b.

   Bowness   Cumbria. See also Bo'ness

   Boxing Day
             first weekday after Christmas Day (caps.)

   box number
             (two words)

   box-office
             (hyphen), abbr. b.o.

   boycott   to exclude from society or business, from Capt. Boycott (not
             cap.)

   Boy Scout now Scout

2.16 BP...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BP        British Petroleum, -- Pharmacopoeia; boiling-point

   BP        before present (s. caps.), year to precede

   Bp.       Bishop

   b.p.      below proof, bills payable, blood-pressure, boiling-point

   BPC       British Pharmaceutical Codex

   B.Phil.   Bachelor of Philosophy

   b.p.i.    (comp.), bits (see bit) per inch

   BPIF      British Printing Industries Federation

   bpl.      birthplace

2.17 Bq
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   Bq        becquerel

2.18 BR...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BR        British Rail (formerly Railways)

   Br        bromine (no point)

   Br.       British, Brother (monastic title)

   bra       colloq. for brassiЉre (no point)

   "Braban‡onne (La)"
             Belgian national anthem

   brace     (typ.), see punctuation XIV

   bracket/,-ed,-ing


   brackets  (typ.), square [], angle; not the parentheses or round form ().
             See punctuation XI

   Bradford: sig. of Bp. of Bradford (colon)

   Braggadochio
             in Spenser's Faerie Queene

   braggadocio
             empty boasting (not ital.)

   Brahe (Tycho)
             1546-1601, Danish astronomer

   Brahma    supreme Hindu god (not ital.)

   brahma, brahmaputra
             Asian domestic fowl (not cap.)

   Brahmaputra
             Indian river

   brahmin/  member of Hindu priestly caste; pl. -s; adj. -ical

   Brahmoism reformed theistic Hinduism

   brail     to haul up

   Braille   signs composed of raised dots replacing letters, for the blind

   Braine (John)
             1922-86, English novelist

   braise    (cook.), not -ze. See also braze

   brake/    for wheel, a large vehicle, etc., not break; -- horsepower (two
             words)

   Br. Am.   British America

   Bramah (Ernest)
             1867-1942, English writer; -- (Joseph), 1749-1814, English
             inventor of -- lock etc.

   brand-new not bran-

   Brandt (Willy)
             b. 1913, German statesman, Chancellor of W. Germany 1969-74

   Brandywine
             battle, 1777, of American War of Independence

   brant-goose
             use brent-

   Brant“me (Pierre de Bourdeille, Seigneur de)
             1540-1614, French writer

   Brasilia  new cap. of Brazil, 1960

   brass/ (binder's)
             die for blocking book-cases, pl. -es; -- rule (typ.), for
             printing simple borders or lines between columns of type

   brassard  badge worn on arm

   brasserie beer garden, licensed restaurant; brasserie (Fr. f.), also
             brewery

   brassie   golf-club with brass sole, not -y

   brassiЉre woman's undergarment supporting breasts. See also bra

   bratticing
             (archit.) open carved work; (coal-mining) wooden shaft-lining or
             screen

   Brauneberger
             a white wine

   Braunschweig
             Ger. for Brunswick

   brav/a!   (It.), "well done!" to a woman; -o! to a man; brav/o (noun), a
             cry of "well done!"; pl. -os

   bravo/    a desperado; pl. -es

   braze     to solder, not -ise, -ize.  See also braise

   brazier   worker in brass, pan for holding lighted coal, not -sier

   Brazil/, -ian
             abbr. Braz.

   Brazzaville
             cap. of Congo, q.v., Cent. Africa

   BRCS      British Red Cross Society

   BRD       (Ger.), Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Federal Republic of Germany

   bread/board, -crumb
             (one word)

   break/    (typ.), the division into a fresh paragraph; ---line, last one
             of a paragraph: never to begin page, and should have more than
             five letters, except in narrow measures. See also brake

   breakdown (noun), a collapse, analysis of statistics (one word)

   Breakspear (Nicholas)
             Pope Adrian IV from 1154 to 1159, not -eare

   breakthrough
             (noun, one word)

   breakup   (noun, one word)

   breathalyser
             device for testing amount of alcohol in the breath, not -iser,
             -izer; breathalyse, to carry out test

   breathings
             see accents

   breccia   rock composed of angular fragments, not -cchia

   Brechin   Tayside

   Brecht (Bertolt not -th-, -d)
             1898-1956, German playwright

   Brecon    Powys

   breech birth
             (two words)

   breeches-buoy
             life-saving apparatus (hyphen)

   Bren gun  light machine-gun (two words)

   brent-goose
             not bra-

   Brescia   Lombardy, Italy

   Breslau   Ger. for Wroclaw (Poland)

   Bretagne  Fr. for Brittany; Grande --, Great Britain

   Breton    (inhabitant) of Brittany, abbr. Bret.

   Bretton Woods
             New Hampshire, US (UN Monetary Conf., 1944)

   Breughel  use Brueghel or Bruegel, q.v.

   brev.     brevet, -ed

   breve     a curved mark to indicate a short vowel or syllable

   brevet d'invention
             (Fr. m.), a patent

   brevet‚ s.g.d.g.
             (Fr.), patented without government guarantee (sans garantie du
             gouvernement)

   breviary  book containing RC daily service

   brevier   (typ.), name for a former size of type, about 8 pt.; pron.
             breveer (stress on second syllable)

   briar     use -er

   Briarean  many-handed, like Briareus, of Gr. myth., not -ian

   bribable  not -eable

   bric-…-brac
             curiosities in furniture and furnishings (hyphens, accent)

   brick/bat, -work
             (one word)

   Bridge End
             Cumbria, Devon, Lincs., Shetland

   Bridgend  Cornwall, Cumbria (near Patterdale), Donegal, Glos., Lothian,
             Mid Glam., Strathclyde, Tayside

   Bridge of Allan
             Central

   Bridgeport
             Ala., Calif., Conn., Nebr., Penn., Tex. (US)

   Bridges Creek
             Va. (US), bpl. of George Washington

   Bridges (Robert Seymour)
             1844-1930, English poet, Poet Laureate 1913-30

   Bridgeton Glasgow; New Jersey, US

   Bridgetown
             Corn., Som., Staffs., Co. Wexford, Barbados, NS (Canada), W.
             Austral.

   Bridgewater
             NS (Canada); -- (Duke of), 1736-1803, projector of the -- Canal;
             -- (Earl of), 1756-1829, founder of the -- Treatises

   Bridgnorth
             Shropshire

   Bridgwater
             Somerset, not Bridge-

   bridle/-path, -road, -way
             (hyphens)

   brier/, -root, -rose
             (hyphens), not briar, brere

   Brig.     brigad/e, -ier

   Brillat-Savarin (Anthelme)
             1755-1826, French gastronomist

   brilliant (typ.), name for a former size of type, about 3.5 pt.

   bring up  (typ.), to underlay or interlay a block to bring it to printing
             height

   Bri-Nylon propr. term (caps., hyphen)

   brio      (mus.), fire, life, vigour

   briquette block of compressed coal-dust, not -et

   brisling  Norwegian sprat, not brist-

   Bristol:  sig. of Bp. of Bristol (colon)

   Bristol-board
             cardboard used by artists

   Brit.     Britain, Britann/ia, -icus, -ica, British

   Briticism idiom current in Britain, not Britishism

   British/  abbr. Brit.; -- Academy, Association, BA; -- America, Br.  Am.;
             -- Columbia, BC; -- Honduras, now Belize; -- Library, BL; --
             Museum, BM; -- Rail, BR; -- Standard, BS (see BSI)

   britschka use britzka

   Britt.    (on coins), Britanniarum, "of the Britains" (Roman Britannia
             Inferior and Britannia Superior)

   Brittany  in Fr. Bretagne

   Britten (Edward Benjamin, Baron)
             OM, CH, 1913-76, British composer

   britzka   acceptable form for bryczka, q.v.

   Bro.      Brother (monastic title)

   bro., bros.
             brother, -s

   Broad-Churchman
             (caps., hyphen)

   Broad Haven
             Dyfed, Mayo

   Broad Oak Cumbria, Dorset, Hereford & Worc., E. Sussex

   Broadoak  Cornwall, Dorset, Glos., Kent, Shropshire

   Brobdingnag
             land of giants in Swift's Gulliver's Travels

   broccoli  a hardy cauliflower, It.  pl., but Eng. sing. or pl.

   Broderers livery company

   Bromberg  Ger. for Bydgoszcz

   bromine   symbol Br

   bronch/i  pl., the main forks of the windpipe (sing. -us); -ia, pl.,
             ramifications of the above; -ioles, their minute branches

   bronco/   Mexican horse, not -cho; pl. -s

   Bront‰ (Anne)
             1820-49 ("Acton Bell"); -- (Charlotte), 1816-55 ("Currer Bell");
             -- (Emily), 1818-48 ("Ellis Bell"), English writers

   Bronx (the)
             borough in New York City

   bronzing  (typ.), printing in yellow and then dusting with bronze powder
             to imitate gold

   brooch    a dress-fastening, not -ach

   Brooke    Leics., Norfolk; -- (Baron); -- (Rupert), 1887-1915, English
             poet

   Brookline Mass., US

   Brooklyn  New York

   Brooks's Club
             London, not -es's

   broomstick
             (one word)

   Brother   (monastic title), abbr. Bro.

   brother/  abbr. b. or bro., pl. -s, brethren, abbr. bros.; ---german,
             having same parents; -- -in-law, pl. brothers-in-law;
             ---uterine, having same mother only (hyphens)

   brougham  one-horse or electric closed carriage (not cap.)

   brouhaha  (Fr. m.), a commotion

   Brown (Ford Madox)
             1821-93, English painter; -- (John), 1800-59, US abolitionist;
             -- (Robert), 1773-1858, Scottish botanist

   Browne (Charles Farrar)
             see Ward; -- (Hablot Knight), 1815-82, English artist, pseud.
             Phiz, illustrated Dickens; -- (Sir Thomas), 1605-82, English
             physician and author

   Brownian motion
             of particles (observed by Robert Brown)

   Brownie   junior Guide

   brownie   Sc. house-spirit

   browse    to eat, read desultorily, not -ze

   BRS       British Road Services

   Bruckner (Anton)
             1824-96, Austrian composer

   Bruegel (Pieter)
             c.1520-69, Flemish painter; Brueghel (Pieter, 1564-1638, and
             Jan, 1568-1625), his sons, also painters; not Breu-

   Bruges    Belgium, in Fl. Brugge

   Brummagem abbr. Brum, derog. form of Birmingham; (adj.) tawdry

   Brummell (George Bryan, "Beau")
             1778-1840

   Brunei    NW Borneo

   Brunel (Marc Isambard)
             1769-1849, and -- (Isambard Kingdom), 1806-59, his son, British
             engineers; -- University, Uxbridge, 1966

   Brunelleschi (Filippo)
             1377-1446, Italian architect and sculptor

   Brunhild  (Norse myth.)

   BrЃnnhilde
             Wagnerian heroine

   Brunonian noun, an alumnus of Brown University, US; adj., of the system of
             medicine of Dr John Brown of Edinburgh, 1736-88

   Brunswick normal Eng. for Braunschweig, Germany

   Brussels  cap. of Belgium, in Fl.  Brussel, in Fr. Bruxelles

   Brussels sprouts
             (cap., no apos.)

   brut      (Fr.), unsweetened

   brutalize not -ise

   Bruxelles Fr. for Brussels

   bryczka   a Polish carriage (the Polish spelling; for Eng. form use
             britzka)

   Bryn Mawr College
             Philadelphia, US

   Brynmawr  Gwent

   bryology  study of mosses; abbr.  bryol.

   Brython   Welsh for Briton, a S.  British Celt

   Brythonic (language) of S. British Celts

2.19 BS...
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   BS        Bachelor of Surgery or (US) Science; Blessed Sacrament; British
             Standard

   b.s.      balance sheet, bill of sale

   BSA       Birmingham Small Arms, British School at Athens

   B.Sc.     Bachelor of Science; B.Sc.(Econ.), ditto in faculty of
             Economics; B.Sc.(Eng.), ditto Engineering, Glas.; B.Sc.Tech.,
             Bachelor of Technical Science

   b.s.g.d.g.
             see brevet‚

   BSI       British Standards Institution.  A complete list of British
             Standards is in BS Yearbook.  Standards in fields relevant to
             this dictionary are BS 1219 (Proof correction), BS 1629
             (Bibliographical references), BS 1749 (Alphabetical
             arrangement), BS 1991, Part I (Letter symbols, signs,
             abbreviations), BS 2961 (Typeface nomenclature), BS 2979
             (Transliteration of Cyrillic and Greek characters), BS 3700
             (Index preparation), BS 3763 (SI units), BS 3814 (Glossary of
             rotary press terms), BS 3862 (Symbols for languages,
             geographical areas, and authorities), BS 4148 (Abbreviation of
             periodical titles), BS 4149 (Glossary of paper and ink terms),
             BS 4277 (Terms used in offset lithography), BS 4280
             (Transliteration of Arabic), BS 4812 (Romanization of Japanese),
             BS 5261 (Proof correction and copy preparation), BS 5775
             (Quantities, units and symbols)

   BSJA      British Show Jumping Association

   BSR       British School at Rome

   BST       British Summer Time (before 1968 and from 1972); -- Standard
             Time (1968-71) (both 1 hr. ahead of GMT)

2.20 Bt....
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   Bt.       Baronet, not Bart.

   BTA       British Tourist Authority

   B.Th.     Bachelor of Theology

   BTU       (or B.Th.U.) British Thermal Unit

   bty.      battery

2.21 BU...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   BU        Brown University, Rhode Island, US; Baptist Union

   bu.       bushel(s)

   buccaneer piratical adventurer esp.  in seventeenth century, not -ier

   Buccleuch (Duke of)
             not -gh

   Bucellas  white wine from B., near Lisbon

   Buch      (Ger. n.), book; pl. BЃcher

   Bucharest Romania, not Buka-

   Buchausgabe
             (Ger. f.), edition of a book

   Buckinghamshire
             abbr. Bucks.

   Bucknall  Lincs., Staffs.

   Bucknell  Oxon., Shropshire; also American university at Lewisburg, Pa.

   buckram   coarse fabric, (bind.) a good quality cloth

   Budapest  Hungary, not -pesth (one word). Collective name for two towns,
             Buda and Pest

   Buddha    (Skt.), Gautama Siddhartha, d. c.483 BC

   Buddh/ism, -ist;
             if necessary divide at stroke; abbr. Budd.

   budgerigar
             a parakeet

   budget/, -ed, -ing


   buen/as noches
             (Sp.), good-night; -as tardes, good-afternoon; -os dias,
             good-day, good-morning

   Buenos/ Aires
             cap. of Argentine Rep.; also in Panama. Use -- Ayres in titles
             of Arg. railway companies

   buffalo/  pl. -es

   buffer state
             (two words)

   buffet/ -ed, -ing


   Buffon (Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de)
             1707-88, French naturalist

   buhl      (inlaid with) brass, tortoiseshell, etc., German form of boule,
             from Boule (Andre), cabinet-maker to Louis XIV

   building  abbr. bldg., pl. bldgs.

   BUJ       (Baccalaureus utriusque juris), Bachelor of Canon and Civil Law

   Bukarest  use Buch-

   Bukhara   town, Uzbekistan, USSR, not Bo-. See also Bokhara

   buksheesh use bak-

   bulbul    (Pers.), Asian song-thrush; singer or poet

   Bulgaria/, -n
             abbr. Bulg.

   bull      (Stock Exchange), speculator for a rise

   bulletin  (not ital.); abbr. bull.

   bullfight/, -er, -ing
             (one word)

   bullring  (one word)

   bull's-eye
             centre of target, lantern, peppermint sweetmeat (apos. and
             hyphen)

   bull-terrier
             (hyphen)

   bulrush   not bull-

   bulwark   defence, not bull-, -work

   Bulwer-Lytton (Edward George Earle Lytton)
             first Lord Lytton, 1803-73, English novelist

   Bulwer-Lytton (Edward Robert)
             first Earl of Lytton, 1831-91,son of above, English poet and
             diplomat, pseud. Owen Meredith

   bumf      papers

   bumkin    (naut.), projection from bows or stern of ship

   bumpkin   yokel

   bump out  (typ.), increase word or letter spacing to fill a line, or line
             spacing to fill a page

   buncombe  use bunkum

   Bundesanstalt
             German off.  institution since 1945. See Reichsanstalt

   Bundesrat, Bundestag
             (Ger.), upper and lower houses of W. German Parliament

   bundle/, -s
             abbr. bdl/., -s.

   Bunker Hill
             Mass., battle of American War of Independence, 1775, actually
             fought at neighbouring Breed's Hill, not -er's

   bunkum    not -combe

   Bu¤uel (Luis)
             1900-83, Spanish-born film director

   Buonaparte
             use Bona-

   buona sera
             (It.), good-evening; buon giorno, good-day

   buoyan/t, -cy


   BUPA      British United Provident Association

   bur       clinging seed-vessel or catkin.  See also burr

   Burckhardt (Jacob Christoph)
             1818-97, Swiss historian

   Burdett-Coutts (Angela Georgina, Baroness)
             1814-1906, English philanthropist

   bureau/   pl. -x (not ital.); -cracy, -crat, adj. -cratic

   Bureau Veritas
             maritime underwriters' association at Brussels (two caps.)

   burg.     burgess, burgomaster

   burgamot  use ber-

   burgeois  see bourgeois (typ.)

   burgess   abbr. burg.

   burgh     (Sc.), a chartered town, not borough

   burgomaster
             (one word); abbr. burg.

   burgrave  a governor, not burgg-

   burgundy  a wine (not cap.)

   burial/ ground, -- place, -- service
             (two words, no caps.)

   burl      a lump in cloth

   burl.     burlesque

   Burlington House
             London, headquarters of Royal Academy, British Association, and
             other artistic and learned bodies

   Burm/a    not -ah; -an, native of Burma, pl. -ans; -ese, native or
             language of Burma

   Burmah Oil Co.
             not Burma

   Burne-Jones (Sir Edward Coley)
             1833-98, English painter (hyphen)

   Burnett (Frances Eliza Hodgson)
             1849-1924, US writer

   Burnham scale
             of teachers' salaries

   burnous   Arab cloak, not -e, bernouse

   Burntisland
             Fife (one word)

   burnt sienna
             orange-red pigment, not -- siena

   burr      a rough edge, rough sounding of letter r; kind of limestone. See
             also bur

   burro     (Sp.), donkey

   Burroughs (Edgar Rice)
             1875-1950, US novelist; -- (John), 1837-1921, US naturalist and
             poet; -- (William), b. 1914, US novelist

   bursar    treasurer of a college, not -er

   Burundi   Cent. Africa, indep. 1962

   Bury St Edmunds
             Suffolk (no apos., no hyphen)

   bus/      omnibus, not 'bus, pl. -es; as verb, past -ed, partic. -ing

   bushbuck  (S. Afr.), antelope, in Afrik. bosbok

   bushel    36.4 litres; in US 35.3; abbr. bu. (sing. and pl.)

   Bushey    Herts., not -hy

   bushido   code of the samurai or Japanese mil. caste

   Bushire   Iran

   Bushy Park
             London

   businesslike
             (one word)

   business/man, -woman
             (one word)

   busing    see bus

   busybody  not busi-

   busyness  state of being busy, distinct from business

   Butler (Samuel)
             1612-80, English poet (Hudibras) -- (--), 1835-1902, English
             writer (Erewhon)

   Butte     Montana, US

   butter-fingers
             (hyphen)

   buttermilk
             (one word)

   buttonhole
             (one word)

   buyer's option
             abbr. b.o.

   Buys Ballot (Christoph Hendrik Didericus)
             1817-90, Dutch meteorologist

2.22 BV...
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   BV        Beata Virgo (the Blessed Virgin) (points) pseudonym of James
             Thomson, q.v.

   BVM       Beata Virgo Maria, the Blessed Virgin Mary

2.23 BWI...
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   BWI       British West Indies, now WI

   BWV       Bach Werke Verzeichnis, prefix to enumeration of J. S. Bach's
             compositions

2.24 by...
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   by-       (as prefix) is tending to form one word with the following noun,
             but a hyphen is still frequently found, as in ten cases given
             below

   by and by (no hyphens)

   by-blow   side-blow, bastard (hyphen)

   Bydgoszcz Poland, in Ger. Bromberg

   bye/, -s  (cricket), abbr. b.

   bye-bye   familiar form of good-bye (hyphens)

   by-election, by-form
             (hyphens)

   Byelorussia
             use Be-

   bygone    (one word)

   by-lane   (hyphen)

   by-law    not bye-

   byline    in football (one word)

   byname    a sobriquet (one word)

   bypass    (one word)

   bypath    (one word)

   by-play   (hyphen)

   by-plot, by-product
             not bye-

   by-road   (hyphen)

   bystander (one word)

   by-street (hyphen); but Masefield's The Widow in the Bye Street

   byte      (comp.), group of 8 bits (see bit)

   by the by (no hyphens)

   byway     (one word)

   byword    (one word)

   byzant    use be-

2.25 bzw.
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   bzw.      (Ger.), beziehungsweise (respectively)

3.0 C
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3.1 C...
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   C         carbon, (elec.) coulomb, centum (a hundred), Celsius or
             centigrade, (mus.) common time, the third in a series

   C.        Cape, Catholic, century, chairman, chief, Church, Command paper
             (q.v.), congress(ional), Conservative, consul, contralto,
             Council, counter-tenor, Court, Gaius

   °         copyright

   c         (as prefix), centi-

   c.        cent, -s, centime, century, chapter, city, colt, conductor,
             constable, copeck, cubic, (cricket) caught, (meteorol.) cloudy

   C         (ital. cap.), symbol for capacitance

   c.        circa, about

   C inverted
             Capital C, facing backwards, 500

3.2 CA...
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   CA        California (off. postal abbr.), Central Africa, Central America,
             M.  Inst. Chartered Accountants of Scotland, Chief Accountant,
             chronological age, Civil Aviation, College of Arms, commercial
             agent, Consumers' Association, Controller of Accounts, Court of
             Appeal

   C/A       capital account, commercial account, credit account, current
             account

   Ca        calcium (no point)

   ca.       (law) cases

   ca.       abbr. of circa, use c.

   CAA       Civil Aviation Authority

   Caaba     use Kaaba

   caaing-whale
             use ca'ing-whale

   CAB       Citizens' Advice Bureau, (US) Civil Aeronautics Board

   cabal     secret faction

   caballero/
             Spanish gentleman, pl.  -s

   cabbala   Heb. tradition, not k-, cabala, -alla

   Cabell (James Branch)
             1879-1958, US novelist

   Cable (George Washington)
             1844-1925, US writer

   Cabul     use Kabul

   CAC       Central Advisory Committee

   ca'canny  (Sc.), go carefully!

   cacao/    trop. American tree from whose seeds cocoa and chocolate are
             made; -tree (hyphen). See coco

   cachemere, -mire
             use cashmere

   cachet    distinctive mark, capsule containing medicine

   cachou    lozenge to sweeten breath, not cashew

   cachucha  Spanish dance

   caciqu/e  W. Indian and S. American chief, political boss; -ism; not caz-

   cacodemon an evil spirit, not -daemon

   cacoethes/
             (Lat. fr. Gr.), an evil habit; -- loquendi, an itch for
             speaking; -- scribendi, ditto for writing

   CACTM     Central Advisory Council for the Ministry, now ACCM

   cact/us   (bot.), pl. -i

   c.-…-d.   (Fr.), c'est-…-dire (that is to say)

   caddie    golf-attendant

   caddis-fly, -worm
             not -ice (hyphens)

   caddy     tea-box

   cadi      Muslim judge, not k-

   Cadmean/  of Cadmus of Thebes, not -ian; -- victory, a ruinous one

   cadmium   symbol Cd

   cadre     nucleus of personnel (not ital.)

   caduce/us the wand of Hermes; pl.  -i

   caducous  (bot.), tending to fall

   Caedmon   d. 670, English poet, not Ce-

   Caenozoic use Cai-

   Caermarthen
             use Car-

   Caernarfon
             Gwynedd, not Car-, -von

   Caerphilly
             Mid Glam., also the cheese

   caerulean use ce-

   Caesar/, -ean
             not Ces-, -ian

   Caesarea Philippi
             in ancient Palestine

   caesium   symbol Cs

   caesura   division of a metrical line, not ce-

   caf‚      (Fr. m.), coffee-house (not ital.)

   caf‚/ au lait
             (Fr. m.), coffee with milk; -- noir, strong coffee without milk

   Caffre    use Kaffir or Kafir, qq.v.

   caftan    long-sleeved Turkish or Persian garment, not k-

   cag/ey    shrewd, not -gy; adv. -ily, noun -eyness

   cagoule   waterproof outer garment, not ka-

   cahier    (Fr. m.), a paper book, sheets of MS, exercise-book

   Caiaphas  Jewish high priest, Luke 3: 2

   caiman    use cay-

   Cainan    grandson of Seth. See also Canaan

   Caine (Sir Thomas Henry Hall)
             1853-1931, Manx novelist

   ca'ing-whale
             round-headed porpoise, not caa-

   Cainozoic (geol.), not Caeno-, Ceno-, Kaino- (cap.)

   caique    Bosporan skiff, Levantine sailing ship

   "Ђa ira"  "It will be!", French revolutionary song

   Caius     Roman praenomen, use Gaius

   Caius     (properly Gonville and Caius) College, Cambridge, pron. as keys;
             abbr. Cai., or CC

   cajole/   persuade by flattery; noun -ry (one l)

   caky      not -ey

   Cal.      (California), use Calif.

   cal       calorie (no point)

   cal.      calendar

   cal.      (mus.), calando

   calamanco/
             a woollen stuff, pl. -es

   calamary  the squid

   calando   (mus.), volume and rate diminished; abbr. cal.

   calcareous
             chalky, not -ious

   calcedony use chal-

   calceolaria
             slipper-like flower, not calci-

   calcium   symbol Ca

   calculator
             not -er

   calcul/us stony concretion in the body, pl. -i, adj. -ous; a system of
             computation, pl. -uses, adj. -ar

   Calderўn de la Barca (Pedro)
             1600-81, Spanish playwright

   caldron   use caul-

   calecannon
             use colcannon

   calendae  calends, use k-

   calendar  an almanac, not k-; abbr.  cal.

   calend/er to make smooth (cloth, paper, etc.); a machine that does this;
             -erer, one who does this, not k-

   calender  (Pers., Turk.), a dervish, not k-

   calends   the first day of a Roman month; the Greek --, a time that never
             comes; not k-

   calf/     abbr. cf.; -leather, -love (hyphens)

   calfskin  (one word)

   Caliban/  in Shakespeare's The Tempest; "-- upon Setebos", by R.
             Browning, 1864

   Caliburn  King Arthur's sword, not Cala-, Cale-; cf. Excalibur

   calico/   pl. -es

   California
             off. abbr. Calif. or (postal) CA

   californium
             symbol Cf

   caligraphy
             use calli-

   calipers  use callipers

   caliph/   Muslim chief civil and religious ruler; -ate; not ka-, kha-, -if

   calisthenics
             use call-

   cal/ix    (physiol. and biol.), cuplike cavity or organ; pl. -ices

   calk      use caulk

   Callaghan (Leonard James)
             b. 1912, British statesman, Prime Minister 1976-9

   Callander Central

   called    abbr. cld.

   calligraphy
             not cali-

   Calliope  (Gr.), muse of eloquence and epic poetry; calliope, steam-organ
             on roundabout

   calliper  metal leg-support, (pl.)  compasses for measuring inside or
             outside diameters of objects, not cali-

   Callirrhoe
             wife of Alcmaeon

   callisthenics
             gymnastic exercises, not cali-

   call/us   thick skin; pl. -uses; adj.  -ous

   Calmann-L‚vy
             publishers, Paris

   calmia, Calmuck
             use k-, K-

   Calor gas propr. term (cap., two words)

   calori/e  unit of heat or energy (not now in scientific use), abbr.  cal;
             -meter, measurer of heat; -motor, voltaic battery (one word)

   calotte   skull-cap (RC clergy)

   Caltech   California Institute of Technology

   caltrop   (mil.), horse-maiming iron ball with spikes, not -throp, -trap

   calumniator
             not -er

   Calv‚ (Emma)
             1866-1942, French operatic soprano

   Calverleigh
             Devon

   Calverley Kent, W. Yorks.; -- (Charles Stuart), 1831-84, English writer

   calves-foot jelly
             not -f's, -ves', -feet

   cal/x     residue from burning; pl.  -ces

   Calypso   sea-nymph in the Odyssey; calyps/o, W. Indian Negro song, usu.
             about current affairs, pl. -os

   caly/x    (bot.), whorl of leaves forming outer case of bud; pl. -ces

   camaraderie
             good-fellowship

   Camargue (the)
             S. France

   Camb.     Cambridge

   Cambodia  Indo-China, sovereign state 1953, not Kam-, boj-, -oja; in Fr.
             Cambodge; officially Kampuchea (Democratic)

   cambric   fine white linens

   Cambridge/
             abbr. Camb. or Cantab.; -- University, CU; -- University Press,
             CUP

   Cambridgeshire
             abbr. Cambs.

   camellia  flowering shrub, not -elia

   camelopard
             giraffe

   Camembert a French cheese

   cameo/    striated stone carved in relief; pl. -s. See also intaglio

   camera/   pl. -s; -- obscura, not -- oscura; ---ready copy (typ.), abbr.
             CRC

   Camera Stellata
             the Star Chamber

   Cameroon/ (United Republic of)
             Cent. Africa, indep. 1960; adj.  -ian

   Cammaerts (Emile)
             1878-1953, Belgian poet

   Camoens (Luis Vaz de)
             1524-80, Portuguese poet, not Cam”-

   camomile  medicinal plant, not cha-

   Camorra   Neapolitan secret society, practising violence and extortion.
             See also Mafia

   Campagna di Roma
             the plain round Rome

   campanile/
             bell-tower, usu.  detached; pl. -s

   camp/-bed, -chair, -fire
             (hyphens)

   Campbell-Bannerman (Sir Henry)
             1836-1908, British statesman, Prime Minister 1905-8 (hyphen)

   Campbeltown
             Strathclyde

   Campeche Bay, City
             or State, Mexico, not -peachy

   camp/o    (It.), open ground, pl. -i; campo santo (It., Sp.), a cemetery

   campsite  (one word)

   Campus Martius
             field of Mars, anc.  Rome

   Can.      Canad/a, -ian, Cantoris

   can.      canon, canto

   Canaan    son of Ham. See also Cainan

   Canad/a, -ian
             abbr. Can.

   Canadian River
             Okla., US

   canaille  (Fr. f.), the rabble

   canaker   use kanaka

   Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio real surname Canal)
             1697-1768, Italian painter; also used by his nephew Bernardo
             Bellotto, 1720-80, Italian painter

   canalize  not -ise

   canap‚/   caviare, anchovies, etc., on fried bread or toast; pl. -s

   Canar/a, -ese
             use K-

   canard    (Fr. m.), an absurd story, a duck; canard sauvage, wild duck

   canasta   a card-game

   canaster  a tobacco, not k-, -ister

   cancan    high-kicking Parisian dance (one word)

   cancel    (typ.), incorrect matter, new-printed leaf correcting this (its
             signature preceded by *)

   cancel/, -lation, -led, -ler, -ling


   cancellate
             (biol.), porous, marked with cross-lines

   cancelled/
             abbr. cld.

   Candahar  use K-

   candela   standard unit of light intensity; abbr. cd

   candelabr/um
             large candlestick; pl.  -a; also sing. -a, pl. -as

   Candide   by Voltaire, 1759

   c. and l.c.
             (typ.), capital(s) and lower case

   candle-light
             (hyphen)

   Candlemas Day
             2 Feb.

   candle/power, -stick, -wick
             (one word)

   canephor/us
             (archit.), sculptured youth or maiden with basket on head; pl.
             -i

   caneton   (Fr. m.), duckling

   canister  small metal box, not -aster

   cannabis  Indian hemp, not cana- (not cap., except for the bot.  genus)

   cannelloni
             pasta rolls

   Cannes    d‚p. Alpes-Maritimes, S.  France

   cannibalize
             not -ise

   Canning (George)
             1770-1827, and his son -- (Charles John, Earl), 1812-62, English
             statesmen

   cannon/-ball, -bone, -fodder
             (hyphens)

   canoe/, -d, -ing, -ist


   canon     abbr. can.

   canon     (typ.), name for a former size of type, about 48 pt.

   ca¤on     (Sp.), a gorge

   canonize  not -ise

   "Canon's Yeoman's Tale"
             by Chaucer

   Canosa    Apulia, Italy

   Canossa   Emilia, Italy, scene of penance of Emperor Henry IV before Pope
             Gregory VII, 1077; hence to go to --, "to eat humble pie"

   Canova (Antonio)
             1757-1822, Italian sculptor

   canst     (no apos.)

   Cant.     Canterbury, Canticles

   can't     to be printed close up

   cantabile (mus.), in a singing, graceful style

   Cantabrigian
             of Cambridge, not -dgian

   Cantabrigiensis
             (Lat.), of Cambridge University; abbr. Cantab.

   cantaloup a musk-melon, not cante-, -loupe

   Cantate   Psalm 98 as canticle

   cantatrice
             (It. and Fr.), professional woman singer

   cante hondo
             (Sp.), mournful song

   Canterbury
             abbr. Cant.

   Canterbury bell
             flower (one cap.)

   canticle  a hymn; abbr. cant. See also next

   Canticum Canticorum
             "The Song of Songs", also Canticles, abbr.  Cant., same as Song
             of Solomon

   cantilever
             a form of bridge or support, not canta-, -liver

   Cantire   Strathclyde, use Kintyre

   canto/    division of long poem, a song; pl. -s, abbr. can.

   cantonment
             mil. quarters

   cantoris  of the precentor, that is on north side of choir; abbr. can.

   Cantor Lectures
             (Royal College of Physicians, and Society of Arts)

   Cantuar.  Cantuarius, Cantuariensis (of Canterbury)

   Cantuar:  sig. of Abp. of Canterbury (colon)

   Cantuarian
             of Canterbury

   cantus firm/us
             (mus.), basic melody in counterpoint, pl. -i; in It.  canto
             fermo, pl. canti fermi

   Canute    accepted variant of Cnut, 995-1035, king of Norway, Denmark, and
             England

   canvas/   coarse linen; -ed, -es

   canvass/  to solicit votes; -ed, -er, -es

   canyon    a gorge

   caoutchouc
             unvulcanized rubber

   CAP       Common Agricultural Policy (EEC)

   Cap       (Fr. geog. m.), Cape

   cap.      capital letter, chapter, foolscap

   cap-…-pie from head to foot (accent, hyphens, not ital.)

   Cap d'Ail town, d‚p.  Alpes-Maritimes, France

   Cape/     cap. when with name, abbr.  C.; -- Breton, Nova Scotia, not
             Briton, Britton, Briton, abbr. CB; -- of Good Hope, abbr. CGH;
             -- Province (of S. Africa), abbr. CP

   Capek (Josef)
             1887-1945, and his brother -- (Karel), 1890-1938, Czech writers

   Cape Town S. Africa (two words)

   Cape Verde/ Islands
             off W. Africa, indep. 1975; not -- Verd, -- de Verd, adj. -an

   Cap Haitien
             town in Haiti

   capias    (law), writ of arrest

   Capital Gains Tax
             abbr. CGT

   capitalization
             (see Hart's Rules, pp. 8-14, 92-6 for French, 107-8 for German,
             122-4 for Russian).  When in doubt use lower case. Use initial
             capitals for:

                 Abstract qualities personified:  O Fame!
                 Acts of Parliament and Bills (titles of).
                 Adjectives derived from proper names, when connection with
                 the name is still felt to be alive, as Christian, Homeric,
                 etc., but not when the connection is remote or conventional,
                 as roman (numerals), or when the sense is an attribute, as
                 chauvinistic, gargantuan, quixotic.
                 Aircraft (types of), as a Concorde, a Starfighter.
                 Archaeological eras, see Historical eras below.
                 Associations, as Charity Organization Society.
                 Bible (and books of the Bible: but see s.v.), Book of Common
                 Prayer, Old Testament, etc.
                 Botany, all divisions higher than species, that is, genera,
                 families, orders, classes, etc.  See also botany (as main
                 entry).
                 Churches, as Baptist Church.
                 Compass point abbreviations, N., N. b E., NNE, NE b N., etc.
                 Compass points when denoting a region (the mysterious East,
                 unemployment in the North).
                 Compound titles, as Assistant Adjutant-General, Chief
                 Justice, Ex-President, Major-General, Vice-President.
                 Days, as Christmas Day, Lady Day, Monday, New Year's Day.
                 Deity (the), and related words, as Allah, Almighty, Christ,
                 Dominus, Father, God, Jehovah, Lord, the Deity, the Holy
                 Trinity, Yahveh; pronouns to have lower case except at
                 author's request, but always who, whom.
                 Festivals, as Easter, Whitsuntide.
                 Full point, cap. follows unless the point marks an
                 abbreviation.
                 Geographical names with recognized status, as Northern
                 Ireland (but northern England), East Africa, New England
                 (USA), River Plate (but the river Thames).
                 Geological formations, as Devonian, and eras, as Palaeozoic.
                 German nouns: see Hart's Rules, pp.  107-8.
                 Government (the).
                 Historical eras and events, as Dark Ages, Early Minoan,
                 Perpendicular, the Renaissance, First World War (but not
                 archaeological eras, as neolithic, palaeolithic).
                 House of Lords, Commons, etc.
                 Institutions and movements, as Christianity, Islam, Marxism;
                 the Crown, Parliament, the State.
                 MS, MSS, manuscript, -s.
                 Nicknames, as the Iron Duke, the Admirable Crichton.
                 O! and Oh! (the interjections), and O (vocative).
                 Palaeontology, all divisions higher than species.
                 Period, see Full point above.
                 Poetry, generally at beginning of each line in classical
                 English and French; not necessarily in German, Latin, or
                 Greek.
                 Political bodies and parties, as Assembly, Senate;
                 Conservative, Republican.
                 Postcodes, as BR6 8JU (even full caps., no points, lining
                 numerals; but when the fount has non-lining numerals, or in
                 a s.-cap. context (e.g. publisher's imprint), even s. caps.
                 may give a better effect).
                 Proper names, including English Christian names, surnames,
                 and names of an individual, family, place, locality, and the
                 like; also attributes used as proper names, as a Black
                 (Negro), a Blue (university), a Red (a communist).
                 Proprietary terms: Aspro, Kodak, Persil.
                 PS, postscript.
                 Question, the next word following a question mark should
                 generally begin with a capital letter.
                 Quotations, when syntactically complete: Consider this "Thou
                 art the man", but Do not follow "the madding crowd".
                 Rank, when individuals are referred to or addressed by their
                 rank, as "the Squire said", "Good evening, General".
                 Religious denominations:  Nonconformist, Orthodox.
                 Roads, Gardens, Gates, Groves, Hills, Parks, Squares,
                 Streets, Terraces, etc., when with name.
                 Ships, as the Cutty Sark, HMS Dreadnought.
                 Sovereign (the), in proclamations, all personal pronouns
                 referring to, as Her, Him, His, etc.
                 Titles and Subtitles of books, films, newspapers,
                 periodicals, and plays, the first word and important words
                 only, as "I Forbid the Banns", Farmer and Stockbreeder, The
                 Merchant of Venice; but scientific and technical
                 bibliographies often capitalize first word and proper names
                 only. For French titles see Hart's Rules, p. 93; in Italian
                 titles capitalize the first word only; for Russian titles
                 see Hart's Rules, p. 123.
                 Titles of corporations, as Department of Trade.
                 Titles of courtesy, honour, and rank: HRH, TRH, the Prince
                 of Wales, the Bishop of Oxford, President Roosevelt, His
                 Grace, Sir John Smith, J. Smith, Esq., Mr J. Smith, etc.;
                 note compound titles: Assistant Adjutant-General,
                 Vice-President.
                 Titles of distinction, as FRS, LL D, are usu. put in large
                 caps.  Even s. caps. often improve general effect.
                 Titles of pictures, as for books; but identificatory
                 descriptions given by cataloguers etc. where no artist's
                 title exists take initial capital only.
                 Titles of poems and songs, when formed from the first line,
                 to be capitalized as book-titles, as "I Fear no Foe", "Where
                 the Bee Sucks".
                 Trade names, see Proprietary terms above.
                 Vehicles (types of), as a Dormobile, a Jaguar.
                 Verbs derived from proper names when there is direct
                 reference to the name, as Americanize, Hellenize.
                 Zoology, all divisions higher than species, that is, genera,
                 families, orders, classes, etc.  See also zoology (as main
                 entry)

   capitalize
             not -ise

   capital letter
             abbr. cap.

   capitals (large)
             indicated in copy by three lines underneath the letter; abbr.
             cap. See also capitalization

   capitals (small)
             usually about two-thirds size of large caps., indicated in copy
             by two lines underneath; may be used for subsidiary headings,
             (with large-cap.  initials) for the signatures of printed
             correspondence, and for any even large-cap. matter that would
             otherwise gain excessive prominence on the page. They are not
             used in German, Greek, or Russian. Abbr. (typ.) s.c. (without
             points as a proof-correction mark); also s. cap., pl. s. caps.
             See also even s. caps.

   Capitol   temple of Jupiter on Capitoline Hill, anc. Rome; Congress
             building, Washington DC, US

   capitulum (bot., anat.), small head, knob

   cappuccino
             (It.), coffee with milk

   capriccio/
             (mus.), fanciful work; pl. -s, adj. -so

   caps. and smalls
             (typ.), set in small capitals with the initial letters in large
             capitals; abbr.  caps (or c) and sc

   capsiz/e  not -ise; noun -al

   Captain   abbr. Capt.

   caption   (typ.). descriptive matter printed above or below an
             illustration; (US) heading of chapter, page, or section

   Captivity (the)
             of the Jews (cap. C)

   caput/    (lat.), head; -- mortuum, worthless residue after distillation

   Car.      Carolus (Charles)

   car.      carat

   carabineer
             soldier with carbine, not carb-, -ier; but  Carabiniers & Greys

   carabinier/e
             Italian soldier serving as policeman; pl. -i

   Caracci   family of painters, 1550-1619, not Carr-

   Caractacus
             accepted form of Caratacus, fl. AD 5O, king of Silures, anc.
             Britain

   caracul   use karakul

   carafe    glass container for water or wine, not -ff, -ffe

   caramba!  (Sp.), wonderful!, how strange!

   carat     a weight, not caract, carrat, karat; abbr. K. or car.

   caratch   use kharaj

   Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da)
             1569-1609, Italian painter

   caravanserai
             inn with courtyard used as halting-place for caravans, not
             -sary, -sery, -sera. See also khan

   caravel   Spanish ship

   caraway   plant with aromatic fruits ("seeds"), not carra-

   carbineer use carabineer

   carbohydrate
             (one word)

   carbon    symbol C

   carbon copy
             abbr. c.c.

   carbon dating
             (two words)

   carbonize not -ise

   carbon paper
             (two words)

   carburett/ed, -or
             not -t-, -er

   carcass/  not -ase; pl. -es

   Carcassonne
             d‚p. Aude, France

   carcinom/a
             a cancer; pl. -ata

   card.     cardinal

   cardamom  aromatic capsules of ginger plants, not -mon, - mum

   card-game (hyphen)

   Cardigan  Dyfed. See also Ceredigion

   card-index
             (noun & verb)

   Carducci (Giosu‚)
             1835-1907, Italian poet

   carefree  (one word)

   car€me    (Fr. m.), Lent

   care of   abbr. c/o

   caret     insertion mark ^

   caretaker (one word)

   Carew (Richard)
             1555-1620, English poet; -- (Thomas), 1595-?1639, English poet
             and courtier

   car/ex    sedge; pl. -ices

   Carey (Henry)
             ?1690-1743, English poet and composer; -- (Henry Charles),
             1793-1879, US economist, son of next: -- (Mathew, one t),
             1760-1839, US publicist; -- Street, London, syn. with the
             Bankruptcy Court. See also Cary

   cargo/    pl. -es

   Caribbean Sea
             W. Indies, not Carr-

   Cariboo Mountains
             BC, Canada

   caribou   N. American reindeer, pl.  same (not -boo)

   Caribou Highway
             BC, Canada

   Caribou Mountain
             Idaho, US

   carillon  (chime of) bells

   Carington see Carrington

   Carinthia Austria, in Ger. K„rnten

   cariole   use carr-

   Carisbrooke
             IW

   carit…    (It. art), representation of maternal love

   Carleton (William)
             1794-1869, Irish novelist

   Carlile/ (Richard)
             1790-1843, English reformer and politician; -- (Revd Preb.
             William), 1847-1942, founder of Church Army. See also Carlisle,
             Carlyle

   Carliol:  sig. of Bp. of Carlisle (colon)

   Carlisle  Cumbria; -- (Earl of). See also Carlile, Carlyle

   Carlist   supporter of Spanish pretender Don Carlos (1788-1855)

   Carlovingian
             use Carolingian

   Carlsbad  Czechoslovakia, not K-; in Czech Karlovy Vary

   Carls/krona
             Sweden, -ruhe, W.  Germany, use K-

   Carlton Club
             London

   Carlyle (Thomas)
             1795-1881, Scottish writer. See also Carlile, Carlisle

   Carlylean not -eian, -ian

   Carmagnola
             Piedmont, Italy

   "Carmagnole (La)"
             French revolutionary song and dance

   Carmarthen
             Dyfed, not Caer-

   Carnarvon Gwynedd, use Caernarfon, but -- (Earl of)

   Carnatic  Madras, India, not K-

   Carnaval/ suite of piano pieces by Schumann, 1834-5; -- des animaux (le),
             suite for small orchestra by Saint-Saens, 1886; -- romain (le),
             overture by Berlioz, 1844. See also Carnival

   "Carnaval de Venise, (le)"
             (mus.), popular type of air and variations, early nineteenth
             century

   Carnegie (Andrew)
             1835-1919, Scottish-born US millionaire and philanthropist

   carnelian use cor-

   carnival  in Fr. m. carnaval, in Ger. n. Carneval

   Carnival  overture by Dvorak, 1891.  See also Carnaval

   Carnoustie
             Tayside

   carol/ -led, -ler, -ling


   Carolean  of the time of Charles I or II, not -ine

   Carolingian
             of the Frankish dynasty of Charlemagne, not Carlovingian, Karl-

   Carolus   Lat. for Charles; abbr.  Car.

   carous/e  drink heavily; -al

   carousel  tournament, rotating conveyor system. See Carrousel

   car-park  (hyphen)

   Carpathian Mts.
             E. Europe, not K-

   carpe diem
             (Lat.) enjoy the day

   carpet/, -ed, -ing


   carport   (one word)

   carp/us   the wrist; pl. -i

   Carracci  use Caracci

   carrageen Irish moss; not moss, -gheen; from Carragheen, near Waterford

   Carrantuohill
             Kerry, highest mt. in Ireland

   Carrara   N. Italy, source of marble

   carrat    use carat

   carraway  use cara-

   Carribbean
             use Cari-

   Carrigtohill
             Cork (one word)

   Carrington (Baron)
             family name Carington (one r)

   carriole  a carriage, not cariole

   Carroll (Lewis)
             (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), 1832-98, English author

   Carrousel (place du)
             Paris, from Fr. carrousel (m.), a tilting-match

   Carrutherstown
             Dumfries & Galloway (one word)

   carry-cot (hyphen)

   carsick   (one word)

   Carte (Richard D'Oyly)
             1844-1901, see D'Oyly Carte

   carte     (fencing), use quart

   carte blanche
             (Fr. f.), full discretion (ital.)

   carte-de-visite
             (not ital.)

   Carter, Paterson & Co.
             former carriers, London

   Cartesian see Descartes

   cart-horse
             (hyphen)

   cartouche (archit.), scroll ornament, (archaeol.) ring enclosing
             hieroglyphic royal name, not -ch

   cartridge paper
             a firm, strong paper

   cart/-wheel, -wright
             (hyphens)

   carvel-built
             (naut.), with smooth planking

   Cary (Henry Francis)
             1772-1844, English translator of Dante; -- (Arthur Joyce Lunel),
             1888-1957, English novelist; -- (Lucius), Lord Falkland,
             1610-43; -- (Alice), 1820-71, -- (Phoebe), 1824-71, US sisters,
             poets. See also Carey

   caryatid/ female figure as a column; pl. -s

   CAS       Chief of the Air Staff

   Casabianca (Louis de)
             ?1755-98, French seaman

   Casablanca
             Morocco

   Casa Grande
             prehistoric ruin in Arizona, US

   "Casa Guidi Windows"
             by Mrs Browning, 1851

   Casals (Pablo)
             1876-1973, Catalan cellist

   Casanova de Seingalt (Giovanni Giacomo)
             1725-1803, Italian adventurer

   Casas Grandes
             Mexican village with famous ruins

   Casaubon (Isaac)
             1559-1614, French scholar and theologian; -- (M‚ric), 1599-1671,
             his son, clergyman; -- (Mr), in G. Eliot's Middlemarch

   casava    use cassava

   casbah    use k-

   case      (bind.), bookbinding consisting of two boards joined by a
             flexible spine, and usually covered with cloth etc.; upper --
             (typ.), capitals; lower --, small letters

   casein    milk protein, not -ine

   cases     (law), abbr. ca.

   casework  (one word)

   cashew    trop. American tree with edible nuts

   Cashmer/, -e
             use Kashmir

   cashmere  soft wool fabric, not -meer, cachemere, -ire. See also
             kerseymere

   Casimir-Perier (Jean Pierre Paul)
             1847-1907, French Pres. 1894-5 (no accent)

   casine    use casein

   casino/   pl. -s (not ital.)

   Caslon (William)
             1693-1766, typefounder; cutter of Caslon type

   cassata   It. ice-cream (not ital.)

   Cassation (Cour de)
             highest court of appeal in France

   cassava   the manioc, not cas-, -ave

   Cassel    W. Germany, use K-

   Cassell & Co., Ltd.
             division of Cassell & Collier Macmillan Publishers, Ltd.

   cassimere use kerseymere. See also cashmere

   Cassiopeia
             (astr.), a constellation

   Cassivellaunus
             fl. 50 BC, British prince

   cast      actors in a play

   caste     hereditary class

   Castellammare
             Campagna and Sicily, Italy

   Castelnuovo-Tedesco (Mario)
             1895-1968, Italian composer

   caster    one who casts (see also -or); (typ.) a casting machine

   Castil/e  N. Spain, not -ille; -ian

   cast iron (noun); cast-iron (adj.)

   Castle Cary
             Somerset

   Castlecary
             Central, Donegal

   Castlerea Co. Roscommon, Ireland

   Castlereagh (Robert Stewart Viscount)
             1769-1822, British statesman

   Castleton Borders, Derby., Gr.  Manchester, Gwent, N. Yorks.

   Castletown
             Cumbria, Dorset, Highland, I.o.M., Staffs., Tyne & Wear

   cast off  (typ.), to estimate amount of printed matter copy would make

   castor    a beaver (hence castor oil) or its fur; a small wheel for
             furniture; a small pot with perforated lid (hence castor sugar).
             See also caster

   Castor and Pollux
             stars, also patrons of sailors

   castrat/o (mus.), castrated male soprano; pl. -i

   casual    incidental, not regular. See also causal

   casus/ belli
             (lat.), the cause of war; -- foederis, case stipulated by
             treaty; -- omissus, case unprovided for by statute

   CAT       College of Advanced Technology, computer-assisted typesetting

   Cat.      Catalan, Catullus

   cat.      catalogue, catechism

   cataclasm violent disruption

   cataclysm/
             deluge, violent event; -al, -ic, -ist, not -atist

   Catalan   of Catalonia; abbr. Cat.

   Cataline  use Catiline

   catalogu/e
             abbr. cat.; -ed, -er, -ing

   catalogue raisonn‚
             (Fr. m.), an explanatory catalogue

   Catalonia in Sp. Catalu¤a

   catal/yst a substance facilitating chem. change; -yse, not -ize; -ysis;
             -ytic

   catamaran a raft; also two-hulled boat

   catarrh   inflammation of mucous membrane

   catarrhine
             narrow-nosed (of monkeys), not -arhine

   Catch (Jack)
             use Ke-

   catch/-all, -as-catch-can
             (hyphens)

   catchline (typ.), a line containing catchword(s), signature letter, etc.

   catch-phrase
             (hyphen)

   catchpole a sheriff's officer, not -poll

   catch-22  inescapable dilemma, after novel by Joseph Heller, 1961

   catchword (typ.), the first word of next page printed at bottom of
             preceding page; word(s) printed at head of dictionary page as
             guide to its contents

   Cѓteau Cambr‚sis (Peace of)
             1559

   catechism teaching by question and answer; abbr. cat.

   catechiz/e, -er, -ing
             not -is-

   catechumen
             convert under instruction before baptism

   categorize
             to classify, not -ise

   caten/a   a chain; pl. -ae

   cater-cousin
             a good friend, not qua-

   caters    (campan., pl.), changes on nine bells

   Cath.     Catherine, Catholic

   cath.     cathedral

   Catharine Kans., NY, Pa., US

   cathars/is
             purging; pl. -es

   Cathay    poetical for China, not K-

   cathedral cap. when with name, as Ely Cathedral; abbr. cath.

   Catherine abbr. Cath.; St --, hence -- pear and -- wheel; -- I and II,
             empresses of Russia; -- of Aragon, Howard, -- Parr, first,
             fifth, and sixth wives of Henry VIII of England; -- de Medici,
             1519-89, Queen of France

   cathisma  use ka-

   cathod/e  negative electrode; --e ray tube, abbr. CRT; -ic, -ograph; not
             k-

   Catholic  abbr. C. or Cath.

   catholic/ism, -ize
             not -ise

   Catiline (Catilina, Lucius Sergius)
             108-62 BC, Roman conspirator, not Cata-

   cation    (elec.), ion carrying positive charge of electricity, not k-

   cat-o'-nine-tails
             (hyphens)

   cat's/-cradle
             a children's game; -eye, precious stone, (C-, propr.  term) stud
             in road

   Catskill Mountains
             New York, US

   cats-paw  person used as tool, (naut.) a light air, not catspaw

   catsuit   (one word)

   Cattegat  use Dan. Kattegat (Swed.  Kattegatt)

   Cattleya  an orchid genus

   Catullus (Gaius Valerius)
             ?84-?54 BC, Roman poet, abbr. Cat.

   Cauchy (Augustin Louis)
             1789-1857, French mathematician

   caucus    political meeting

   Caudillo  Spanish "leader", title assumed by Gen. Franco after Spanish
             Civil War

   caught    (cricket), abbr. c.

   cauldron  not cal-

   caulk     to make watertight, not calk

   caus.     causa/tion, -tive

   causal    having to do with a cause.  See also casual

   causa/tion, -tive
             abbr. caus.

   cause c‚lЉbre
             (Fr. f.), famous law case, pl. -es -es

   causerie  (Fr.f.), chat, usu. as informal essay

   cauterize not -ise

   Cavafy (Constantine)
             1863-1933, Greek poet, not K-, -is

   Cavalleria Rusticana
             (Rustic Gallantry), opera by Mascagni, 1890

   cavass    use k-

   caveat    a formal warning (not ital.)

   caveat/ actor
             (Lat.), let the doer beware; -- emptor, ditto buyer; -- viator,
             ditto traveller

   cave canem
             (Lat.), beware of the dog

   caviare   pickled sturgeon-roe, not -iar, -ier

   cavil/    to make trifling objections, -led, -ler, -ling

   Cavour (Count Camillo)
             1850-61, Italian statesman

   Cawnpore  usual form in English history of the now correct Kanpur

   Caxton (William)
             c.1422-91, first English printer

   Cayenne   capital of Fr. Guiana

   cayman/   American alligator not cai-, kai-; pl. -s

   Cayman Islands
             W. Indies

   cazique   use cacique

3.3 CB...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CB        Cape Breton, Cavalry Brigade, Chief Baron, citizens' band
             (radio), Coal Board, Common Bench, Companion (of the Order) of
             the Bath, (naval) Confidential Book, confined barracks, cost
             benefit, County Borough, (mus.) contrabasso (double bass)

   CBA       cost benefit analysis, Council for British Archaeology

   CBC       Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

   CBE       Commander (of the Order) of the British Empire

   CBEL      Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature

   CBI       Confederation of British Industry; (US) Cumulative Book Index

3.4 CC...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CC        200, Caius College, Central Committee, Chamber of Commerce,
             Chess Club, Circuit Court, City Council, -lor, Civil Court,
             Common Councilman, Companion of the Order of Canada, Consular
             Corps, Countryside Commission, County Clerk, -- Commissioner, --
             Council, -lor, -court, Cricket Club, Cycling Club

   cc        (no points), cubic centimetre (in engines, etc.)

   cc.       capita (chapters)

   c.c.      carbon copy

   CCC       300, Corpus Christi College, Oxf. and Camb.

   CCCC      400

   CCF       Combined Cadet Force

   C.Chem.   chartered chemist

   CCP       Code of Civil Procedure, Court of Common Pleas, credit card
             purchase

   C.Cr.P.   Code of Criminal Procedure

3.5 CD...
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   CD        400, Civil Defence

   Cd        cadmium (no point)

   cd        candela (no point)

   Cd.       Command paper, q.v. (with number following)

   c.d.      cum dividend (with dividend)

   CDC       Commonwealth Development Corporation (till 1963 Colonial -- --)

   Cdr.      Commander

   Cdre.     Commodore (naval)

3.6 CE...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CE        Chief Engineer, Civil Engineer

   CE        Christian (or Common) Era (non-Christian usage in place of AD)

   Ce        cerium (no point)

   cease-fire
             (noun, hyphen)

   cedar     a tree

   ceder     one who cedes

   cedilla   mark under a letter, as ‡

   Cedron    see Kidron

   CEGB      Central Electricity Generating Board

   Celanese  an artificial silk (propr.  term)

   cela/ va sans dire
             (Fr.), needless to say; -- viendra, that will come

   Celebes   see Sulawesi

   celebrator
             not -er

   celiac    use coeliac

   cellar    not -er

   Cellini (Benvenuto)
             1500-71, Italian goldsmith and sculptor

   cell/o    violoncello; pl. -os; -ist, the player

   Cellophane
             transparent wrapping material (propr. term)

   Celsius   temperature scale same as centigrade, abbr. C

   Celt/, -ic, -icism
             not K-; abbr.  Celt.

   cembal/o  harpsichord, pl. -os; -ist, the player

   CEMS      Church of England Men's Society

   C.Eng.    chartered engineer

   cenobite  use coe-

   Cenozoic  use Caino-

   censer    incense vessel

   censor    Roman magistrate, official with power to suppress (parts of)
             books, etc.

   cent.     central, century; cent (no point), see per cent

   cent/, -s US etc. coin; abbr. c., ct., or cts.

   cental/   corn measure of 100 lb.; pl. -s; abbr. ctl.

   centauromachy
             (representation of) centaurs fighting

   centaury  a plant

   centenarian
             one who is a hundred years old

   centen/ary, -nial


   centering framing for an arch, not -reing. See also centre

   centi     prefix meaning one-hundredth, abbr. c

   centigrade
             (not cap.); abbr. C

   centigram not -gramme; abbr. cg (no point in scientific and technical
             work)

   centilitre
             abbr. cl (no point in scientific and technical work)

   centime/  one-hundredth of French franc; pl. -s; abbr. c. or cts.

   centimetre
             0.394 inch, not -er; abbr. sing. and pl. cm. (but no point in
             scientific and technical work)

   Cento     Central Treaty Organization

   cent/o    writing composed of scraps from various authors; pl. -os

   Central   region of Scotland

   central   abbr. cent.

   centralize
             not -ise

   Central Provinces
             (India), now Madhya Pradesh

   centr/e, -ed, -ing;
             (typ.), set matter in middle of line, measure, etc. See also
             centering

   centre-notes
             (typ.), those between columns

   cents     abbr. c., or cts.

   centum    a hundred; abbr. C (no point). See also per cent

   centumvir/
             Roman commissioner; pl.  -i

   centurion commander of company in Roman army, not -ian

   century   (typ.), spell out in bookwork; abbr. C. or cent.

   cephalic  of the head, not k-

   Cephalonia
             Gr. island, anc. name Cephallenia

   ceramic   etc., not k-; abbr. ceram.

   Cerberus  (Gr. myth.), three-headed dog at gate of Hades

   cerebell/um
             the hinder brain; pl.  -a; adj. -ar

   cerebro/-spinal, -vascular
             (hyphens)

   cerebr/um the brain proper; pl. -a; adj. -al

   cere/cloths, -ments
             grave-clothes, orig. dipped in wax, not sere-

   Ceredigion
             district of Wales, formerly Cardiganshire

   cerge     use cie-

   ceriph    (typ.), use serif

   cerise    (Fr. f.), cherry

   cerise    a colour

   cerium    symbol Ce

   CERN      Conseil Europ‚en (now Organisation Europ‚enne) de Recherches
             Nucl‚aires, European Council for Nuclear Research

   cert      colloq. abbr. of certainty (no point)

   cert.     certificate, certify

   Cert. Ed. Certificate in Education

   certiorari
             a writ removing a case to a higher court

   cerulean  blue, not cae-, coe-

   Cervantes Saavedra (Miguel de)
             1547-1616, author of Don Quixote

   cervi/x   (anat.), pl. -ces, adj. -cal

   Cesarean  use Cae-

   cesarevitch
             Tsar's eldest son, use tsarevich

   Cesarewitch
             horse-race

   cesser    (law), the coming to an end

   c'est/-…-dire
             (Fr.), that is to say; -- la guerre, it is according to the
             customs of war; -- le premier pas qui co–te, it is the first
             step that is difficult

   Cestr:    sig. of Bp. of Chester (colon)

   Cestrian  of Chester

   cestui que/ trust
             (law), a beneficiary, pl. cestuis -- -- (not trustent); -- --
             vie, he on whose life land is held, pl.  cestuis -- --

   cesura    use cae-

   CET       Central European Time

   cetera/ desiderantur or -- desunt
             (Lat.), the rest are missing

   ceteris paribus
             (Lat.), other things being equal; abbr. cet. par.

   Cetinje   Yugoslavia, formerly cap.  of Montenegro, not Cett-, Zet-, -inge

   Ceylon    republic within Commonwealth, 1972, officially Sri Lanka
             (Ceylon); adj. Ceylonese. See also Sinhalese

   C‚zanne (Paul)
             1839-1906, French painter

3.7 CF...
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   CF        Chaplain to the Forces

   Cf        californium (no point)

   cf.       calf, confer (compare)

   c.f.      carried forward

   CFA       Communaut‚ FinanciЉre d'Afrique, African Financial Community

3.8 CG...
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   CG        Captain of the Guard, coastguard, Coldstream Guards

   C.G.      Captain-General, Commissary-General, Consul-General

   cg        centigram, -s (no point in scientific and technical work)

   c.g.      centre of gravity

   CGM       Conspicuous Gallantry Medal

   CGPM      Conf‚rence G‚n‚rale des Poids et des Mesures, General Conference
             of Weights and Measures

   CGS       Chief of General Staff

   c.g.s.    centimetre-gram-second system

   CGT       Capital Gains Tax; Conf‚d‚ration G‚n‚rale du Travail, General
             Federation of Labour

3.9 CH...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CH        clearing-house, Companion of Honour, court-house, custom-house

   Ch.       chaplain, Chin/a, -ese, Church, (Lat.) Chirurgiae (of surgery),
             (mus.) choir organ

   ch        in Spanish and Welsh, a separate letter, not to he divided

   ch.       chapter, chief, child, -ren

   Chablis   a white burgundy

   cha-cha-cha
             ballroom dance (hyphens)

   chaconne  dance

   chacun … son go–t
             (Fr.), everyone to his taste

   Chad/     Cent. Africa, independent republic 1960, adj. -ian; Lake --, in
             Sudan, not Tchad

   chadar    (Ind.), use chuddar

   Chagall (Marc)
             1889-1985, Russsian painter

   chain/-gang, -smoker
             (hyphens)

   chain reaction
             (two words)

   chairman  (m. and f.), abbr. C. or chm.

   chair/person, -woman
             (one word)

   chaise-longue/
             a couch, day-bed; pl. -es -es

   chal      a gypsy; fem.  chai

   chalaz/a  (biol.), string attached to yolk of egg; pl. -ae

   chalcedony
             a form of quartz, not calce-, chalci-

   Chald/ea  Babylonia (not -aea); -aic, -aism (not -ism), -ean, -ee; abbr.
             Chald.

   chalet    a Swiss cottage, not cha- (not ital.)

   Chaliapin (Feodor Ivanovich)
             1873-1938, Russian bass singer

   Chѓlons-sur-Marne
             d‚p. Marne, France, battle 451

   Chalon-sur-Sa“ne
             d‚p. Sa“ne-et-Loire, France

   chamb.    chamberlain (cap. as a title of office)

   chambermaid
             (one word)

   chamber music
             (two words)

   chamber-pot
             (hyphen)

   Chambers's/ (Edinburgh) Journal; -- Encyclopaedia


   Chambertin
             a red burgundy

   chameleon lizard of changeable colour, not chamae-

   chamfer   to bevel

   chamois-leather
             not shammy-

   chamomile use cam-

   Chamonix  d‚p. Haute-Savoie, France, not -ouni, -ounix, -oisny

   champagne a sparkling wine

   champaign flat open country

   champerty (law), an illegal agreement, not -arty

   champignon
             (Fr. m.), a mushroom, not -pinion

   Champlain (Lake)
             between NY and Vt., US

   Champlain (Samuel de)
             c.1570-1635, French founder of Quebec, Can.

   champlev‚ a kind of enamel

   Champollion (Jean Fran‡ois)
             1790-1832, French Egyptologist

   Champs Elys‚es
             Paris

   chancellery
             not -ory

   chancellor
             (cap. as title), abbr.  chanc.

   chance-medley
             (law), a form of homicide (hyphen)

   Chancery  abbr. Chanc.

   chancre   venereal ulcer

   chandelier
             branched hanging support for lights

   Chandler's Ford
             Hants

   Chanel (Gabrielle)
             1883-1971, French perfumer

   change/able, -ability change-over
             (noun, hyphen)

   channel/, -led, -ling


   Channel Islands
             not -- Isles; abbr. CI

   chanson/  (Fr. f.), a song; -nette (f.), a little song; -nier (m.), singer
             or song-writer in cabaret

   chant/    singing; -er, of bagpipe, not chau-

   Chantilly d‚p. Oise, France

   Chantrey/ (Sir Francis Legatt)
             1781-1841, sculptor; -- Fund, Royal Academy of Arts, London

   chantry   endowed chapel

   chanty    use shanty

   chap.     chapel, chaplain, chapter

   chaparejos
             (pl.), cowboy's leather riding-breeches, not -ajos

   chapeau/  (Fr. m.), a hat, pl. -x; -x bas! hats off!; ---bras,
             three-cornered hat carried under arm

   chapel    abbr. chap.; (typ.), smallest organized union group in printing
             works, in journal and in some bookwork editorial offices; father
             of --, its chief officer

   Chapel-en-le-Frith
             Derby. (hyphens) chapelle ardente (Fr. f.), a chapel lighted for
             a lying-in-state (no hyphen)

   Chapel Royal
             pl. Chapels --

   chaperon  not -one, -onne

   Chap.-Gen.
             Chaplain-General

   chaplain  abbr. chap.

   Chapman (Geoffrey)
             publisher

   Chapman & Hall Ltd.
             publishers

   Chappell (William)
             1809-88, music publisher

   chapter/, -s
             abbr. c., cap., ch., or chap.

   chapter-headings
             (typ.), choice of type is a matter of taste; no general rule can
             be stated

   char/, -red, -ring


   char      small trout, not -rr

   charabanc/
             a motor coach,; pl.  -s, not char-…-banc

   characteriz/e
             not -ise; -able, -ation, -er

   charg‚    more fully charg‚ d'affaires; pl. charg‚s (not ital.)

   charisma/ spiritual power of person or office; adj. -tic

   charivari a mock serenade; London Charivari (The), former subtitle of
             Punch

   Charlemagne
             742-814, king of the Franks from 768

   Charles   abbr. C. or Chas.

   Charles's Wain
             (astr.), Ursa Major

   Charleston
             Ill., SC (source of the dance), W. Va., US

   Charlestown
             Mass., US

   Charlottenburg
             Berlin

   charlotte russe
             (cook.), custard or cream enclosed in sponge-cake (not ital.)

   Charollais
             breed of cattle, not -olais

   Charon    (class. myth.), the ferryman of the Styx

   charpoy   Indian bedstead

   charr     use char

   charter flight
             (two words)

   charter-member
             (hyphen)

   charter-party
             written evidence of agreement, esp. naut. (hyphen)

   Charters Towers
             Queensland, Australia (no apos.)

   chart paper
             machine-made from best rags, suitable for lithographic
             map-printing

   chartreuse
             a liqueur first made at Carthusian monastery near Grenoble

   Chartreux a Carthusian monk

   Charybdis personified whirlpool in Str. of Messina. See also Scylla

   Chas.     Charles

   chase     (typ.), metal frame holding composed type

   Chasid/, -ic
             use H-

   Chasles (Michel)
             1793-1880, French mathematician; -- (PhilarЉte), 1798-1873,
             French lit. critic

   chass‚    (Fr. m.), dance step; -- crois‚, double chass‚

   chassis   window sash, a framework as of motor car, pl. same (not ital.)

   chastis/e not -ize; -ement, -ing

   chѓteau/  (Fr. m.), a castle; pl. -x (not ital.)

   Chateaubriand (Fran‡ois Ren‚ vicomte de)
             1768-1848, French writer and statesman (no accent)

   Chѓteaubriand
             (Fr. cook.), fillet of beef, cut thick and grilled

   Chѓteaubriant
             d‚p. Loire-Inf‚rieure, France

   Chѓteaudun
             d‚p. Eure-et-Loir, France

   Chѓteauguay
             Quebec, Can.

   Chѓteau/-Lafite, -Latour, -Margaux
             clarets (hyphens)

   chѓteaux en Espagne
             (Fr.), "castles in the air"

   chatelain/
             lord of the manor; fem.  -e

   Chattanooga
             Tenn., US, battle in Civil War

   Chatto & Windus, Ltd.
             publishers

   Chaucer/ (Geoffrey)
             ?1345-1400, English poet; adj. -ian

   chauffeu/r
             driver of motor car, fem. -se

   chaunt/, -er
             use chant

   chauss‚e  (Fr. f.), a causeway, the ground level chaussures (Fr. f.  pl.),
             boots shoes, etc.

   Chautauqua
             New York State, celebrated resort

   chauvin/ism, -ist
             (not cap.)

   Ch.B.     Chirurgiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Surgery)

   Ch.Ch.    Christ Church, Oxford

   Chebyshev (Pafnuti Lvovich)
             1821-94, Russian mathematician, not Tch-

   check     to stop. See also cheque

   check/-in, -list, -out, -up
             (nouns, hyphens)

   Cheddar cheese
             not -er

   Cheeryble Brothers
             in Dickens's Nicholas Nickleby

   cheese/board, -cake, -cloth
             (one word)

   cheesy    not -ey

   cheetah   hunting leopard, not chet-

   chef      (Fr. m.), a cook; chef/ de cuisine, head cook; -- d'orchestre,
             leader of the orchestra; -- d'oeuvre, a masterpiece, pl.
             chefs---

   cheir-    use chir-

   Cheka     USSR "Extraordinary Commission (against counter-revolution)",
             1917-22. See also OGPU

   Chekhov (Anton Pavlovich)
             1861-1904, Russian playwright and story-writer, not the many
             variants

   CHEL      Cambridge History of English Literature

   Chelmsford:
             sig. of Bp. of Chelmsford (colon)

   chem/ical, -ist
             not chy-; abbr.  chem.

   chemico-physical
             (hyphen)

   chemin de fer
             (Fr. m.), railway; a form of baccarat

   chemistry (typ.), caps. for initial letters of symbols, no point at end.
             Names of chemical compounds to be in roman, not caps. Some
             prefixes are ital. or s. caps.; abbr. chem. See also elements
             (chemical)

   Chemnitz  E. Germany, now Karl Marx Stadt

   cheque    a written order (US check)

   chequer   (noun) pattern of squares; (verb) to variegate, interrupt (not
             -ck-) Chequers, Prime Minister's official country house in
             Bucks.

   Cherbourg d‚p. Manche, France

   cherchez la femme
             (Fr.), look for the woman

   chЉre amie
             (Fr. f.), a sweetheart

   Cherenkov (Pavel Alekseevich)
             b.  1904, Russian physicist, discoverer of  radiation

   ch‚r/i    (Fr.), fem.  -ie, darling (‚)

   chernozem Russian black soil

   Cherokee  N. American Indian

   chersonese
             name applied to various peninsulas; cap. when used as name (esp.
             of Thracian peninsula W. of Hellespont)

   cherub/   an angelic being; pl.  -s; Heb. pl. -im

   Cherubini (Maria Luigi)
             1760-1842, Italian composer

   Cherwell  Oxford river

   che sar… sar…
             (It.), what will be, will be

   Cheshire  abbr. Ches.

   Chesil Beach
             Dorset

   chessboard
             (one word)

   chess-man (hyphen)

   Chester   formal name for Cheshire, now only hist. esp. in "County
             palatine of Chester"

   Chester-le-Street
             Co. Durham (hyphens)

   chestnut  not chesnut

   chetah    use chee-

   Chetniks  guerrilla forces raised in Yugoslavia during Second World War by
             Gen. Mihailovich

   cheval/   (Fr. m.), a horse, pl.  chevaux; -- de frise (mil.), obstacle to
             cavalry advance, usually in the pl. chevaux de frise

   cheval-glass
             tall mirror on frame

   Chevalier/ (Albert)
             1861-1923, English music-hall artiste; -- (Maurice), 1888-1972,
             French entertainer chevalier d'industrie (Fr. m.), a swindler

   Chevallier (Gabriel)
             1895-1969, French novelist

   cheville  violin peg, stopgap word in sentence or verse

   chevrotain
             deerlike animal, not -tin

   chevy     use chivvy

   Chevy Chase (Ballad of)


   Cheyenne  Wyoming, US; also an Indian tribe

   Cheyne Walk
             Chelsea

   chez      (Fr.), at the house of

   chi/      Gr. letter; ---square, method of comparing statistical
             experiment with theory

   Chi.      Chicago

   Chiang Kai-shek
             1887-1975, Nationalist Chinese statesman

   Chianti   Italian wine

   chiaroscuro/
             light and shade, pl.  -s

   chibouk   a Turkish pipe, not chibouque

   chic      (noun and adj.), stylish(ness) (not ital.)

   Chicago   Ill., abbr. Chi.

   chiccory  use chicory

   Chichele  Oxford professorships

   Chichen Itz 
             Mexico, site of antiquities

   Chickahominy
             (battles of the), in SE Virginia, American Civil War

   Chickamauga
             (battles of), 1863, N.  Georgia

   chicken-pox
             (hyphen)

   chicory   not chiccory

   chief     abbr. C. or ch.; Chief/ Accountant, CA; -- Baron, CB; -- Justice
             (caps., no hyphen), abbr.  CJ; -- of General Staff, abbr. CGS

   chield    (Sc.), a young man, not chiel

   chiffon   dress fabric or ornaments

   chiffonier
             a sideboard, not -nnier (not ital.)

   chiffre   (Fr. m.), figure, numeral, monogram

   chignon   a coil of hair

   chigoe    W. Indian parasite, not jigger

   child/bed, -birth
             (one word)

   Childe Harold's Pilgrimage
             by Byron, 1811-17

   Childermas
             28 Dec.

   childlike (one word)

   child/-minder, -proof
             (hyphens)

   Chile     S. America, not Chili; adj.

   Chilean

   Chilianwala
             Pakistan, not Chilianwallah, Killianwala

   chilli/   red, or Guinea, pepper, not chile, chili, chilly; pl. -es

   chimaera  use chimera

   Chimborazo
             Ecuador

   chimera   a creation of the imagination, (biol.) an organism with two
             cells of two or more genetically distinct types, not -aera

   chimere   bishop's upper robe, not -er

   chincapin dwarf chestnut, not -kapin, -quapin

   Chindits  British glider-borne troops in Burma in Second World War

   chin‚     (Fr.), variegated (of stuffs)

   Chinese/  abbr. Ch. or Chin.; (typ.)  printed in characters numbering
             several thousand, which are phonetically transcribed into the
             Latin alphabet according to various systems, notably (1) Pinyin,
             e.g.  Hua Guofeng, Tianjin, sometimes with accents indicating
             tone of spoken syllables, (2) Wade-Giles, e.g. Hua Kuo-Feng,
             Tientsin, sometimes with superior figures indicating tone; --
             Classics, the sacred books of Confucianism

   chinoiserie
             Chinese decorative objects

   chipmunk  a N. American ground-squirrel, not -uck

   Chipping Campden
             Glos.

   chi-rho   monogram of XP, first letters of Greek "Christos"

   chiromancy
             palmistry, not cheir-

   Chiron    the centaur, not Cheir-

   chiropodist
             one who treats hands and feet, not cheir-, -pedist

   chiropract/ic
             (sing.), removal of nerve interference by manipulation of spinal
             column; -or, one who does this

   Chiroptera
             the bat order

   chirosophy
             palmistry, not cheir-

   chirrup/, -ed, -ing


   chirurgiae
             (Lat.), of surgery; abbr.  Ch.

   chisel/, -led, -ling


   chit, chitty
             (Anglo-Ind.), a letter

   Chittagong
             Bangladesh

   chivvy    to harass, not che-, chivy

   chlorine  symbol Cl

   chlorodyne
             medicine containing chloroform, not -ine

   chlorophyll
             (bot.), green colouring matter of plants, not -il, -yl

   Ch.M.     Chirurgiae Magister (Master of Surgery)

   chm.      chairman (m. and f.)

   choc.     chocolate

   chock/-a-block, -full
             (hyphens)

   Choctaw   tribe of N. American Indians

   choir     part of a church, or singers, not quire

   cholera morbus
             acute gastro-enteritis

   cholesterol
             fatty alcohol found in parts of the body, not -in

   choosy    not -ey

   Chopin (Fr‚d‚ric Fran‡ois)
             1810-49, Polish composer

   "Chops of the Channel"
             west entrance to English Channel

   chop-suey Chinese dish

   choreograph/y
             ballet design; -er, the arranger

   chorography
             description of districts (intermediate between geography and
             topography)

   chorus/   pl. -es; -ed chose (law), a thing

   Chose (Monsieur)
             (Fr.), Mr So-and-so

   chose jug‚e
             (Fr. f.), a matter already decided chota hazri (Anglo-Ind.),
             early breakfast

   Chota Nagpur
             Bihar, India

   chou/     (Fr. cook. m.), cabbage; puff (pastry), a dress rossette;
             ---fleur, cauliflower (hyphen), pl.  choux-fleurs; choux de
             Bruxelles, Brussels sprouts; chou marin, sea-kale

   Chou En-lai
             use Zhou Enlai

   choux     rich light pastry

   chow mein Chinese dish (two words)

   Chr.      Christ, Christian, Chronicles

   Chr. Coll. Cam.
             Christ's College, Cambridge

   Chr‚tien de Troyes
             12th c., French poet

   Christ Church
             Oxford, not -- -- College; abbr. Ch.Ch.

   Christchurch
             Hants, and NZ

   Christe eleison
             (eccl.), "Christ, have mercy"

   Christian/, -ity
             (cap.)

   Christiania
             former name of Oslo, capital of Norway; a type of turn in
             skiing, abbr. Christie

   Christianize
             not -ise (cap.)

   Christie, Manson, & Woods
             auctioneers, ("Christie's")

   Christmas Day
             (caps.); Old -- --, 7 January

   Christoff (Boris)
             b. 1919, Bulgarian bass singer

   Christ's College Cambridge
             abbr.  Chr. Coll. Cam.

   Christy-minstrels
             coloured entertainers, with bones, banjos, etc. (after George
             Christy, of New York)

   chromatography
             (chem.), separation by passing over adsorbent

   chrome yellow
             a pigment

   chromium  symbol Cr

   chromo/   (typ.), (no point), abbr. of chromolithograph, picture printed
             in colours from stone or plates; pl. -s

   chromolithography
             (one word)

   chromo paper
             one with a special heavy coating for lithographic printing

   chromosome
             (biol.), structure carrying genes in cell

   chromosphere
             gaseous envelope of sun

   chron.    chronolog/y, -ical, -ically, chronometry

   Chronicles, First, Second Book of
             abbr. 1 Chr., 2 Chr.

   chronological age
             abbr. CA

   chrysal/is
             pl. -ides

   Chrysaor  son of Neptune

   Chryseis  daughter of Chryses, a Trojan priest

   chryselephantine
             (Gr. sculpture), overlaid with gold and ivory

   Chrysler/ US make of car; -- Building, New York

   chrysoprase
             green chalcedony, not -phrase

   Chrysostom (St John)
             Greek Father, 347-407

   chthon/ian, -ic
             (Gr. myth.), dwelling in the underworld

   chuddar   (Anglo-Ind.), overgarment, not the many variants

   Chur      Grisons, Switzerland; in Fr.  Coire

   Church    initial cap. when referring to a body of people, as the
             Methodist Church; lower case for building; abbr. C. or Ch.

   Church Assembly
             (properly National Assembly of the Church of England), set up
             1920, absorbed into General Synod, 1970

   Church Commissioners
             formerly Ecclesiastical Commissioners and Queen Anne's Bounty

   church/-goer, -going
             (hyphens)

   Churchill (Sir Winston Leonard Spencer)
             1874-1965, British statesman; -- (Winston), 1871-1947, US writer

   church mouse
             (two words)

   church/warden, -yard
             (one word)

   Churrigueresque
             lavishly ornate Spanish baroque

   chute     slide etc.

   chutney   condiment, not -nee, -ny

   chymist   use che-

3.10 CI...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CI        Channel Islands, Chief Inspector, -- Instructor, Commonwealth
             Institute, Communist International

   Ci        curie (no point)

   CIA       (US) Central Intelligence Agency

   ciao      (It.), word of greeting

   Cibber (Colley)
             1671-1757, Poet Laureate 1730-57

   Cic.      Cicero

   cicad/a   the tree cricket, not cig-, -ala; pl. -ae (biol.), -as (general)

   cicatrice/
             scar; pl. -s

   cicatri/x (in surgery), scar; pl.  -ces

   cicatrize not -ise

   Cicero (Marcus Tullius, "Tully")
             106-43 BC, Roman orator; abbr. Cic.

   cicero    (typ.), European type-measure of 12 Didot (q.v.) points

   ciceron/e a guide, pl. -i

   Cicestr:  sig. of Bp. of Chichester (colon)

   cicisbe/o (It.), a married woman's gallant; pl. -i

   CID       Criminal Investigation Department

   Cid Campeador (El)
             c.1040-99, Spanish warrior

   cider     not cy-

   ci-devant (Fr.), formerly

   CIE       Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire Cie (Fr.), compagnie
             (company) (no point)

   cierge    large candle, not cer-, ser-

   cigala    use cicada

   ci-gЊt    (Fr.), here lies

   CIGS      Chief of Imperial General Staff

   CII       Chartered Insurance Institute

   cili/um   a hairlike appendage; pl.  -a; -ary, -ate, -ation cill, use sill

   Cimabue (Giovanni)
             c.1240-1302, Italian painter

   cimbalom  dulcimer

   cim/ex    bedbug; pl. -ices

   Cimmerian intensely dark; (pl.)  nomadic people, 7th c. BC (cap.)

   C.-in-C.  Commander-in-Chief

   Cincinnati
             Ohio, US

   Cincinnatus
             5th c. BC, Roman hero

   cine-camera
             (hyphen)

   cinerari/a
             plant with ash-coloured foliage; pl. -as

   cinerari/um
             niche for urn with ashes of deceased; pl. -a

   Cingalese use Sinhalese

   cingul/um a girdle or zone; pl. -a

   cinquecento
             1500-99, and Renaissance art of that century

   Cinque Ports
             Hastings, New Romney, Hythe, Dover, and Sandwich, plus
             Winchelsea and Rye

   cinques   (campan., pl.), changes on eleven bells

   cion      use scion

   cipher    not cy-

   cipolin   (one l), Anglicized form of It. cipollino, veined white and
             green marble

   Cipriani (Giambattista)
             1727-85, Italian painter and engraver

   circ.     circiter (about)

   circa     (Lat. prep.), about; in Eng.  used mainly with dates and
             quantities; abbr. c.

   Circean   of Circe, not -aean

   circiter  (Lat. adv.), about, approximately; abbr. circ.

   Circuit Court
             abbr. CC

   circuit edges
             (bind.), limp covers turned over to protect the leaves

   circulariz/e
             to issue circulars, not -ise; -ing

   circum    (Lat.),about; in Eng. used as prefix meaning around, surrounding

   circumcise
             not -ize

   circumflex
             (typ.), accent.

   circumflexion
             not -flect-

   Cirencester
             Glos.

   cirque    natural amphitheatre (not ital.)

   cirrhos/is
             a liver disease; pl.  -es

   cirriped  marine crustacean, not -de

   cirr/us   (bot.) tendril, (zool.)  slender appendage, (meteor.)  tuftlike
             cloud formation; pl. -i

   cisalpine on the Roman side of the Alps (not cap. except in Cisalpine
             Gaul)

   cispontine
             on the north side of the Thames. See also transpontine

   cist      (archaeol.), tomb or coffin, not k-. See also cyst

   cit.      citation, cited, citizen

   citations see authorities, quotations

   cities    (typ.), names of not to be abbreviated if avoidable

   citizen   abbr. cit.

   citizens' band
             (radio), abbr. CB

   citoyen/  (Fr.), fem. -ne, citizen

   citrine   (noun and adj.), lemon-colour(ed)

   Citroen   Fr. make of car

   cittadin/o
             (It.), a citizen, pl. -i; fem. -a, pl. -e

   city      abbr. c.; the City, London's financial centre; City Editor, the
             supervisor of financial reports, (N. Amer.) editor of local
             news.  See also cities

   ciudad    (Sp.), city, not cui-

   Ciudad Trujillo
             recent name for Santo Domingo, cap. of Dominican Republic

   civ.      civil, -ian

   civics    the study of citizenship

   Civil/ Court
             abbr. CC; -- Engineer, abbr. CE

   civiliz/e not -ise; -able, -er

   Civil/Servants, -- Service
             (caps.), abbr. CS

   Civitavecchia
             Italy (one word)

3.11 CJ
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CJ        Chief Justice

3.12 Cl...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   Cl        chlorine (no point)

   cl        centilitre, -s (no point in scientific and technical work)

   cl.       class, clause, cloth

   Clackmannan
             district and former county of Scotland (three ns)

   Clairaut (Alexis Claude)
             1713-65, French mathematician, not -ault

   claire-cole
             use clearcole

   clairvoyant/
             fem. -e (not ital.)

   clam/     to clog, smear; -miness, -my

   clamjamphrie
             (Sc.), rubbish, also a mob, not the many variants

   clam/our  but -orous

   clampdown (noun, hyphen)

   clang/our but -orous

   ClaparЉde (Jean Louis Ren‚ Antoine ђdouard)
             1832-70, Swiss naturalist

   claptrap  empty words (one word)

   claque/   hired applauders; -ur, member of claque (not ital.)

   clar.     (mus.) clarinet; (typ.)  clarendon

   clarabella
             (mus.), an organ stop, not clari-

   Clarenceux
             the second King-of-Arms, not -cieux

   clarendon (typ.), a thickened modern type, not a generic term for
             bold-face type (q.v.); abbr. clar.

   Clarendon/ Press
             named after -- Building, a former printing house of the
             University Press at Oxford; hence still the imprint on certain
             learned books of the OUP

   claret    red wine of Bordeaux

   clarinet/, -tist
             not -ionet; abbr.  clar.

   Clarissa Harlowe
             by Richardson, 1748

   class     abbr. cl.

   class.    classic, -al, classification

   classes   (bot., zool.), (typ.) to be in roman with capital initials

   clause    so-and-so (typ.), to have lower-case c; abbr cl., pl. cll.

   Clausewitz (Karl von)
             1780-1831, Prussian mil. writer

   clayey    of the substance of clay

   CLB       Church Lads' Brigade

   cld.      called, cancelled, cleared (goods or shipping), coloured

   clean     (typ.), said of proofs or revises with few errors, or pulled
             after matter has been corrected

   clean disc
             see disc

   clearcole (noun and verb), (to paint with) a coating of size, not claire-

   clear days
             time to be reckoned exclusive of the first and last

   cleared   (goods or shipping), abbr.  cld.

   clear/-eyed, -headed, -sighted
             (hyphens)

   clearing bank
             (two words)

   clearing-house
             abbr. CH

   clearstory
             use clere-

   clearway  (one word)

   cleistogam/ic, -ous
             (bot.), permanently closed and self-fertilizing, not k-

   Clemenceau (Georges EugЉne Benjamin)
             1841-1929, French politician, not Cl‚-

   Clemens (Samuel Langhorne)
             1835-1910 ("Mark Twain"), US writer

   clench    to secure (a nail or rivet), to grasp firmly; the action or
             result of these. See also clinch

   clepsydra/
             an ancient water-clock, not k-; pl. -s

   cleptomania
             use k-

   clerestory
             (archit.), upper part of wall with row of windows, not clear-

   clerk     abbr. clk.

   Clerke (Agnes Mary)
             1842-1907, English astronomer

   Clerk-Maxwell (James)
             1831-79, see Maxwell (James Clerk)

   Clerk/ of Parliaments
             (caps.); -- of the Peace, abbr. CP; -- of the Privy Council,
             abbr. CPC

   Clermont Ferrand
             d‚p. Puy-de-D“me, France (hyphen)

   Cleveland county of England

   clevis/   U-shaped iron at end of beam for attaching tackle, pl.  -es

   clew      ball of thread; (naut., verb or noun) (to draw up) lower corner
             of sail. See also clue

   cl. gt.   (bookbinding) cloth gilt

   clich‚    (typ.), European term for a block or stereotype; a hackneyed
             phrase

   clicker   (typ.), former title of foreman of a companionship (q.v.)

   Clicquot (Veuve)
             a brand of champagne

   clientele clients collectively (no accent, not ital.)

   climacteric
             (noun or adj.), (pertaining to) a critical period; grand --, the
             age of 63

   climactic pertaining to a climax

   climatic  pertaining to climate

   clinch    to make fast a rope in a special way, to embrace, to settle
             conclusively; the action or result of these. See also clench

   Clinker (Humphry not -ey)
             by Smollett, 1771

   clinometer
             instrument for measuring slopes, not k-

   Clio      (Gr.), muse of history

   cliometrics
             (pl. used as sing.), statistical method of historical research

   cliqu/e, -ish, -ism, -y
             not -eish, -eism, -ey (not ital.)

   clish-ma-claver
             (Sc.), gossip (hyphens)

   Clitheroe Lancs.

   clitor/is (anat.), female organ; adj. -al

   clk.      clerk

   cll.      clauses

   Cllr.     Councillor

   Cloaca Maxima
             sewer of anc. Rome (caps.)

   cloche    (hort.), bell-glass or glass cover for plants; woman's
             close-fitting hat (not ital.)

   clock-face
             (hyphen)

   cloff     an allowance on commodities, not clough

   cloisonn‚ (Fr.), a kind of enamel

   close     (typ.), the second member of any pair of punctuation marks, as
             "]); pron. kloze

   close up  (typ.), to push together, to remove spacing-out leads; close
             matter, unleaded, or thinly spaced

   close-up  (noun)

   closure   a stopping, esp. of debate in Parliament; in Fr. f. cl“ture

   Clos Vougeot
             a burgundy

   clot-bur  (bot.), burdock, not clote-, cloth-

   clote     (bot.), burdock and similar burry plants, not ---bur

   cloth/    abbr. cl.; -- of Bruges, gold brocade

   Clotho    (Gr. myth.), the Fate that draws the thread of life

   cl“ture   (Fr. f.), closure

   clou      (Fr. m.), point of chief interest

   Cloud-cuckoo-land
             (hyphens, one cap.)

   cloudy    (meteor.), abbr. c.

   clough    a ravine

   clove hitch
             a knot (two words)

   clubbable sociable

   club-foot congenital disorder (hyphen)

   clubhouse (one word)

   clue      information to be followed up.  See also clew

   Cluniac   (monk or nun) of branch of Benedictine order stemming from
             Cluny, France

   Clwyd     river and county, N. Wales

   Clydebank Strathclyde, a town

   Clytemnestra
             wife of Agamemnon, not Clytae-

3.13 CM...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CM        Certified Master or Mistress, Chirurgiae Magister (Master of
             Surgery), (mus.) common metre, Corresponding Member, Member of
             the Order of Canada

   Cm        curium (no point)

   c.m.      causa mortis (by reason of death)

   cm.       centimetre(s) (but no point in scientific and technical work)

   Cmd.      Command paper (q.v.) (old series), with number following

   cmdg.     commanding

   Cmdr.     Commodore (naval)

   CMG       Companion of (the Order of) St Michael and St George

   Cmnd.     Command paper (q.v.) (new series), with number following

   CMP       Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police

   CMS       Church Missionary Society

3.14 CNAA...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CNAA      Council for National Academic Awards

   CND       Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

   Cnossus   Crete, use Knossos

   Cnut      more correct form of Canute, not Knut

3.15 CO...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CO        Colorado (off postal abbr.), Commanding Officer, conscientious
             objector, criminal offence, Crown Office

   Co        cobalt (no point)

   Co.       Colon, Company, County

   c/o       care of

   coad.     coadjutor

   coaetaneous
             use coe-

   coagul/um a clot; pl. -a

   Coalbrookdale
             Shropshire

   coal/-dust, -face
             (hyphens)

   coal/field, -man
             (one word)

   coal-mine (hyphen)

   coalmouse (ornith.), the coal titmouse, not cole-

   coal-pit  (hyphen)

   Coalville Leics.

   coastguard
             one man or the body of men (one word), abbr. CG

   coat of arms
             (three words)

   co-author noun and verb (hyphen)

   coaxial   (one word)

   cobalt    symbol Co

   Cobbe (Frances Power)
             1822-1904, British social writer

   coble     boat, not cobble

   Coblen/ce, -z
             W. Germany, use Koblenz

   COBOL     (Common Business Oriented Language), a computer-programming
             language; caps. or even s. caps.

   cobra de capello
             Indian snake, not da, di

   Coburg    Iowa, US; Saxe---, Germany, not -ourg, -urgh

   coca      S. Amer. shrub, source of cocaine

   Coca-Cola abbr. Coke, carbonated soft drink from cola nut and cacao
             (propr. terms)

   Cocagne   use Cockaigne

   cocaine   not -ain; pop. abbr. coke

   cocco     (bot.), Jamaica plant tuber, not cocoa, coco

   coccy/x   (anat.), end of spinal column; pl. -ges

   Cochin-China
             formerly part of Fr.  Indo-China, now of Vietnam (hyphen)

   cochle/a  the ear cavity; pl. -ae

   cochon de lait
             (Fr. m.), sucking pig

   Cockaigne London, not Cocagne, Cockayne

   cock-a-leekie
             (Sc.), soup, not cockie-leekie, cocky-leeky

   cockatiel small crested Australian parrot, not -teel

   cockatoo/ large crested Australian parrot; pl. -s

   cockatrice
             fabulous serpent

   Cockcroft (Sir John Douglas)
             1897-1967, British nuclear scientist

   Cocker (Edward)
             1631-75, reputed author of Arithmetic; "according to Cocker",
             accurate

   cockney   native of E. London (not cap.)

   cockscomb a plant. See also coxcomb

   cockswain use coxswain

   Cocles (Horatius)
             who kept the Sublician Bridge

   coco      trop. palm-tree bearing coconut. See also cacao, cocco

   coconut   not cokernut

   Cocos Islands (Keeling Islands)
             Bay of Bengal

   cocotte   small dish, (arch.) a prostitute

   Cocytus   a river in Hades

   COD       cash, or collect, on delivery

   COD       Concise Oxford Dictionary

   cod.      codex

   Code Napol‚on
             (Fr. m.), civil code promulgated 1804-11

   cod/ex    ancient MS, abbr. cod.; pl.  -ices, abbr. codd.

   codfish   (one word)

   codling   small cod, elongated apple

   cod-liver oil
             (one hyphen)

   Cody (William Frederick)
             1846-1917, "Buffalo Bill", US showman

   coed      coeducational, girl at coeducational school (no point)

   coeducation/, -al
             (one word)

   coefficient
             (one word)

   Coelebs in Search of a Wife
             by Hannah More, 1709

   Coelenterata
             a zool. phylum (not ital.)

   coeliac   abdominal, not ce-

   coenobite member of monastic community, not cen-

   coequal   (one word)

   coerulean use ce-

   coetaneous
             of the same age, not coae-

   coeternal (one word)

   Coeur de Lion
             Richard I of England, or Louis VIII of France (no hyphens)

   coeval    of the same age (one word)

   coexist/, -ence
             (one word)

   coextensive
             (one word)

   C. of E.  Church of England

   coffee bar
             (two words)

   coffee/-bean, -cup, -house, -pot
             (hyphens)

   coffer-dam
             a watertight enclosure

   cogito, ergo sum
             (Lat.), I think, and therefore I exist (motto of Descartes)

   cognate   abbr. cog.

   cogniz/e  to become conscious of, not -ise; -able, -ance, -ant

   cognoscent/e
             (It.), a connoisseur; pl. -i, not con-

   cognovit (actionem)
             (law), an acknowledgement that the action is just

   coheir/, -ess
             (one word)

   COHSE     Confederation of Health Service Employees

   COI       Central Office of Information

   COID      Council of Industrial Design, now Design Council

   coiff/eur (Fr. m.), -euse (f.), hairdresser; -ure (f.), head-dress,
             hair-style

   Coire     Grisons, Switzerland; use Chur

   coits     use quoits

   coke      pop. abbr. for cocaine

   Coke      abbr. for Coca Cola (propr.  term)

   Coke (Sir Edward)
             1552-1634, Lord Chief Justice of England

   cokernut  use coconut

   Col.      Colonel, Colossians

   col.      colonial, column

   cola      W. Afr. tree and its seed, not k-

   colander  a strainer, not colla-, culle-

   colcannon an Irish dish, not cale-, cole-

   cold composition
             (typ.) see hand-setting; (comp.) see strike-on

   Cold Harbor
             Va., US, scene of three Civil War battles

   Coldharbour
             Dorset, Glos., Surrey

   Cold Harbour
             Lincs., Oxon.

   cold/metal, -- type
             (typ.) sorts cast up for hand composition or correction; (comp.)
             see strike-on

   Coldstream/
             Borders, a town; -- Guards, not The Coldstreams, abbr.  CG

   cold war (the)
             (not caps.)

   colemouse use coalmouse

   Coleoptera
             (Zool.), the beetles

   cole-pixy use colt-pixie

   Colerain  NC, US

   Coleraine Co. Londonderry

   Coleridge (Hartley)
             1796-1849, English minor poet and critic, son of next; --
             (Samuel Taylor), 1772-1834, English poet and critic; -- (Sara,
             not -ah), 1802-52, English writer

   Coleridge-Taylor (Samuel)
             1875-1912, English composer

   coleslaw  salad of chopped cabbage (one word)

   Colette   pen-name of Sidonie Gabrielle Claudine Colette, 1873-1954,
             French writer

   colic/, -ky


   Coligny (Gaspard de)
             1519-72, French Huguenot leader

   Coliseum  London theatre. See also Coloss-

   coll.     colleague, collect/ed, -ion, -or, college

   collage   art composition with components pasted on to a surface

   collander use colander

   colla/ parte or -- voce
             (mus.), adapt to principal part or voice; abbr. col. p., or col.
             vo.

   collapsible
             not -able

   coll' arco
             (mus.), with the bow

   collar of SS
             see SS (collar of)

   collat.   collateral, -ly

   collat/e  (bind.) to check sequence of gathered sections; (typ.) to put
             the sheets of a book in right sequence; (bibliog.) to compare
             minutely two copies of same book, to provide information for
             such a comparison; -or, not -er

   colla voce
             see colla parte

   colleague abbr. coll.

   collect.  collectively

   collectable
             not -ible

   collectanea
             (Lat. pl.), collected notes

   collect/ion, -or
             abbr. coll.

   collections
             an Oxford college examination

   collective nouns
             see nouns (collective)

   colleen   (Anglo-Irish), a girl

   college   abbr. coll. (cap. when used as part of name)

   CollЉge de France
             (m.)

   College of Arms
             abbr. CA

   College of Justice
             (Sc.), supreme civil courts

   collegi/an
             a member of a college; -ate, belonging to a college

   collegi/um
             an ecclesiastical body uncontrolled by the State; pl. -a

   col legno (mus.), with the wood of the bow

   Colles fracture
             (med., of wrist)

   collie    a dog, not -y

   Collins   a letter of thanks for hospitality (from the character in Jane
             Austen's Pride and Prejudice)

   Collins (William) Sons & Co., Ltd.
             publishers

   collogue  to talk confidentially

   collop    a piece of meat

   colloq.   colloquial, -ly, -ism

   colloqui/um
             conference; pl. -a

   colloqu/y talk; pl. -ies; -ize, not -ise

   collotype (typ.), a planographic (q.v.) process used mainly for the finest
             reproduction work

   Colo.     Colorado, US

   Cologne   W. Germany, in Ger. K”ln

   Colombia (Republic of)
             S. America.  See also Colu-

   Colombo   cap. of Sri Lanka, not Colu-

   Colўn     Cent. Amer.; abbr. Co. See also Columbus

   colon     see punctuation IV

   Colonel/  abbr. Col.; -- Bogey (golf), the imaginary good player

   colonial  abbr. col.

   coloniz/e not -ise; -able, -ation

   colonnade row of columns

   colophon  (typ.), an inscription at the end of a book, giving the sort of
             details now usually found on the title-page; incorrect name for
             publisher's device or trade mark

   colophony rosin

   Colorado  off. abbr. Colo.

   coloration
             not colour-

   Colosseum Rome. See also Colis-

   Colossians
             abbr. Col.

   coloss/us pl. -i

   Colossus of Rhodes
             (cap.)

   colourant not colorant

   Coloured/ (S. Afr.), of Asian or mixed ancestry (adj.); -s, Cape Coloured
             people (cap.).

   colourist not colorist

   Colour-Sergeant
             not -jeant; abbr.  Col.-Sgt., Col.-Sergt.

   Colour (Trooping the)
             not Colours

   col. p.   (mus.), colla parte (adapt to principal part)

   colporteur
             hawker of books, esp.  bibles (not ital.)

   Colquhoun pron. ko-hoon (stress on second syllable)

   colt      abbr. c.

   colter    use cou-

   colt-pixie
             a mischievous fairy, not cole-pixy

   columbari/um
             a dovecot, place for cremation urns; pl. -a

   Columbia (British)
             Canada, abbr. BC

   Columbia (District of)
             US, abbr. DC (no points). See also Colo-

   columbium now called niobium

   Columbo   use Colombo

   Columbus (Christopher)
             1451-1506, Genoese navigator; in Sp. Cristўbal Colўn

   column    abbr. col.

   colure    (astr.), each of two great circles of the celestial sphere

   Colville of Culross (Viscount)


   col. vo.  (mus.), colla voce (adapt to principal voice)

   Com.      Commander, Communist

   com.      comedy, comic, commercial, commission, -er, committee, common,
             -er, -ly, commun/e, -ity, communicat/e, -ed, -ion

   com/a     (med.), stupor; pl. -as

   com/a     (astr.), nebulous envelope round head of comet, (bot.) tuft of
             hair; pl. -ae

   comb.     combin/e, -ed, -ing

   combat/, -ed, -ing, -ive


   Combermere (Viscount)


   combin/e, -ed, -ing
             abbr. comb.

   Comdr.    Commander

   Comdt.    Commandant

   come-at-able
             accessible (hyphens)

   Comecon   economic association of Communist countries

   Com‚die Fran‡aise (La)
             off. name of Le Th‚ѓtre Fran‡ais (caps.)

   Com‚die Humaine (La)
             series of novels by Balzac, 1842-8

   com‚dien/ (Fr.), actor; fem. -ne

   comedy    abbr. com.

   come/ prima
             (mus.), as at first; -- sopra, as above, abbr. co. sa.

   comfit/   sweetmeat, not con-

   comfrey   (bot.), ditch plant, not cum-

   comic     abbr. com.

   Comintern the Communist (Third) International, 1919-43, not Kom-

   comitadji band of irregulars (in the Balkans), not k-

   comitatus (Lat.), a retinue, a county or shire; pl. same

   comitia   (Lat. pl.), Roman assembly of the people

   Comitia   (pl.), a meeting of the Senate of Dublin University; --
             Aestivalia, ditto in summer; -- Hiemalia, ditto in winter; --
             Vernalia, ditto in spring

   comity of nations
             international courtesy

   comm.     (naval), Commodore

   comm.     commentary, commerce, commonwealth

   comma/    pl. -s; see punctuation II

   commandant
             abbr. Comdt.

   commandeer
             to seize for mil. or other service

   Commander/
             abbr. Cdr. (Admiralty), Com. or Comdr.; ---in-Chief (hyphens),
             abbr.  C.-in-C.

   commanding
             abbr. cmdg.;

   Commanding Officer
             abbr. CO

   commando/ (member of) body of troops, esp. shock troops; pl.  -s

   command paper
             abbr. C. (1870-99) or Cd. (1900-18) or Cmd. (1919-56) (old
             series); Cmnd. (1956- )  (new series), followed by number

   comme ci, comme ‡a
             (Fr.), indifferently, so-so

   commedia dell'arte
             Italian Renaissance comedy, mainly improvised by guild of
             professional actors

   comme il faut
             (Fr.), as it should be

   Commemoration
             at Oxford, annual ceremony in memory of founders and benefactors

   commencement
             ceremonial conferring of university degrees, as at Cambridge;
             (US) a speech-day

   commendam ecclesiastical benefice held in commendam, i.e. without duties

   commentary
             abbr. comm.

   commentator
             not -er

   commerce  abbr. comm.

   Commissary-General
             (hyphen); abbr.  CG

   commission/, -er
             abbr. com.

   commissionaire
             uniformed door-attendant (not ital.); in Fr. m.
             commissionnaire, less specific in meaning

   commit/, -ment, -table
             (not -ible), -tal, -ted, -ting committee, representative group
             from a larger body (coll. sing., with sing.  verb); abbr. com.
             See also committor

   committ/er
             one who commits; -or (law), a judge who commits a lunatic to the
             care of a committee (stress on final syllable)

   Commodore (naval), abbr. Cdre, Cmdr.  See also Air Commodore

   common/, -er, -ly
             abbr. com.

   Common Bench
             abbr. CB

   common metre
             (mus.), abbr. CM

   commonplace
             (adj.) (one word)

   Common Pleas
             abbr. CP

   common sense
             adj. with noun (hyphen when attrib.)

   commonsensical
             (adj.) (one word)

   Common Serjeant
             not -geant; abbr.  CS or Com.-Serj.

   common time
             (mus.), abbr. C

   Common Version
             (of the Bible); abbr.  CV or Com. Ver.

   commonwealth
             (cap. when part of name); abbr. comm.

   Commonwealth
             (Australian), abbr.  Cwlth

   commune   communal group (esp.  sharing accommodation), small territorial
             division (France and elsewhere); abbr. com.

   communicat/e, -ed, -ion
             abbr. com.

   communications satellite
             not -ation (two words)

   communiqu‚
             an official report

   Communist abbr. Com.; -- Party, abbr. CP

   communize to make common; not -ise

   commutator
             apparatus for reversing electric current

   commuter  one who travels regularly to work in a town

   Comor/o Islands
             Indian Ocean, indep. 1975, adj. -an

   comp.     comparative, comparison, compil/e, -ed, -er, -ation, compos/er,
             -ite, -ition, -itor, compounded

   compagnie (Fr. f.), company; abbr.  Cie

   compagnon de voyage
             (Fr. m.), travelling companion

   Companies Act
             (no apos.)

   companionship
             (typ.), former name of a group of compositors working together
             under a clicker (q.v.); abbr. 'ship

   company   abbr. Co., (mil.) Coy.  (point). See also compagnie

   comparative
             abbr. comp.

   compare   abbr. cf. (confer), or cp.

   comparison
             abbr. comp.

   compass   (typ.), the compound points, when printed in full, to be
             hyphened without caps., as north-east, north-by-north-east,
             north-north-east, north-east-by-north.  See also abbreviations,
             capitalization

   compendi/um
             pl. -a

   competit/or
             fem. -ress

   CompiЉgne d‚p. Oise, France

   compile, -ed, -er, -ation
             abbr.  comp.

   complacen/t
             self-satisfied; -cy

   complaisan/t
             obliging; -ce

   Compleat Angler (The)
             by Izaak Walton, 1653

   complement
             (verb and noun), to make complete, that which makes complete

   completorium
             (Lat.), compline; pl.  -a

   complexion
             not -ction

   compliment
             (verb and noun), (to) praise, flatter(y)

   compline  last service of the day (RCC), not complin

   composer, -ite, -ition, -itor
             abbr.  comp.

   compos mentis
             (Lat.), in one's right mind

   compote   stewed fruit

   compound, -ed
             abbr. comp.

   compound ranks or titles
             each word to have cap., as Assistant Adjutant-General,
             Vice-President

   comprehensible
             not -able

   comprise  not -ize; -ed, -ing

   compromise
             not -ize

   compte/   (Fr. m.), an account; -- rendu, official report, pl. comptes
             rendus

   "Comptes Rendus"
             reports of the French Academy (caps.)

   Compton-Burnett (Dame Ivy)
             1884-1969, English novelist (hyphen)

   comptroller
             retain when citing official title which has it, otherwise use
             controller

   Comptroller-General of the National Debt Office
             ditto of the Patent Office (caps., hyphen)

   computer  calculating and data-processing machine

   computerize
             not -ise

   Com.-Serj.
             Common Serjeant

   Comsomol  use K-

   Comte (Auguste)
             1798-1857, French philosopher; -ian, -ism, -ist

   comte     (Fr.), Count; fem. comtesse (not cap.)

   Con.      Consul

   con       to direct a ship's course, to examine, to swindle, not -nn, -un;
             -ning

   con.      conclusion, conics, conversation

   con.      contra (against, in opposition to)

   Conakry   Guinea

   con amore (It.), with affection (not ital. in mus.)

   con brio  (mus.), with vigour

   conc.     concentrat/ed, -ion

   concensus use conse-

   concentration camp
             (two words)

   Concepciўn
             name of many Cent. and S. American places (but not in Brazil)

   concert/-goer, -hall, -master
             (hyphens)

   Concert/meister, -stЃck
             (Ger. mus.), now Konzert- (cap.)

   Concertgebouw Orchestra
             Amsterdam

   concertin/o
             (mus.) pl. group of soloists, short concerto, pl. -os

   concerto/ (mus.), pl. -s (but concerti grossi); abbr. cto.

   concessionaire
             holder of a concession, usu. of a monopoly from a foreign
             government (not ital.), in Fr. m. concessionnaire

   conch/    a shell; pl. -s

   conch.    conchology

   conchy    see conscientious objector

   concierg/e
             (Fr. m.f.), house-porter, -portress; -erie (f., no accent),
             porter's lodge

   Conciergerie (La)
             former Paris prison

   conclusion
             abbr. con.

   Concord   Calif., Mass., NC, NH, US

   concordance
             index of words or phrases used in book or by author

   concordat an agreement (not ital.)

   Concorde  make of aircraft

   concours  (Fr. m.), a competition; -- d'‚l‚gance, parade of vehicles

   concur/, -red, -ring


   conde     (Sp. & Port.), a count, not -dee

   Cond‚, Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de ("The Great")
             1621-86, French general

   condensed type
             a narrow typeface

   condottier/e
             (It.), a captain of mercenaries; pl. -i

   conductor not -er; abbr. c.

   con espressione
             (mus.), with expression, not ex-; abbr. con esp.

   coney     use cony

   Coney Island
             NY, US

   conf.     conference

   confection/ery
             (noun), -ary (adj.)

   Confederacy
             (US hist.), the league of seceding states in the Civil War

   confer    (Lat.), compare; abbr. cf.

   conference
             abbr. conf.

   conf‚rence
             (Fr. f.), lecture

   confer/, -red, -ring, -rable, -rer
             but -ee, -ence, -ment

   Confessio Amantis
             by Gower, 1393

   confetti  bits of coloured paper, etc.

   confidant/
             a trusted friend, fem.  -e

   confr‚re  (Fr. m.), colleague (not ital.)

   Confucius 551-479 BC, Chinese sage

   con fuoco (mus.), with passion

   cong.     congregation, -al, -alist, -ist, congress, -ional

   cong‚/    (Fr. m.), leave; -- d'‚lire, leave to elect, not -- de lire

   Congo (Democratic Republic of)
             Cent. Africa, now Za‹re

   Congo (People's Republic of the)
             Cent. Africa, indep. 1960, formerly Fr. Middle Congo; adj.
             Congolese

   congou    a black tea, not -o, kongo

   congregation/, -al, -alist
             (cap. as relig. denomination); abbr. cong.

   Congresbury
             Avon

   Congress  India, the political party; US, the legislative body (cap.);
             spell out number, as fifty-fourth Congress, not 54th

   congress/, -ional
             abbr. C. or cong.

   conics    geometry of the cone and its sections; abbr. con.

   conjugation
             inflexions of a verb; abbr. conj.

   conjunction
             connection; abbr.  conj.; (astr.) apparent proximity of two
             heavenly bodies (See Figure 3 in topic FRONT_4)

   conjunctiv/a
             mucous membrane between eyelid and eyeball; pl. -ae (not ital.);
             -itis, inflammation of this

   conjuror  a magician; one bound by oath, not -er

   con moto  (mus.), with (more) rapid motion

   Conn.     Connecticut, US

   Conna     Co. Cork

   Connacht  province of Ireland

   Connah's Quay
             Clwyd

   connect/er
             one who connects; -or, that which connects

   Connecticut
             US; abbr. Conn. or (postal) CT

   connection
             not connexion

   connivance
             tacit assent, not -ence

   connoisseur
             well-informed judge in matters of taste (not ital.)

   conoscente
             use cogno-

   conquistador/
             a conqueror, esp. of Mexico and Peru; pl. -es

   Conrad (Joseph)
             real name Teodor Jўzef Konrad Korzeniowski, 1857-1924,
             Polish-English novelist, not K-

   cons.     consecrate(d), conservation, consonant, constable, constitution,
             -al

   Conscience (Hendrik)
             1812-83, Belgian novelist

   conscience' sake


   conscientious objector
             abbr. CO; (First World War colloq.) conchy

   consenescence
             general decay

   consensus not -census

   conservat/oire
             (Fr. m.); -orio (It., Port., Sp.); Konservatorium (Ger.  n.,
             cap.)

   consol.   consolidated

   console   (archit.) bracket; key-desk of an organ; cabinet for
             radio(gram), etc.

   Consolidated Annuities
             abbr.  Consols

   consomm‚  clear soup

   consonant abbr. cons.

   consonantize
             to make consonantal; not -ise

   con sordino
             (mus.), with a mute

   conspectus
             (Lat.), a general view (not ital.)

   con spirito
             (mus.), spiritedly

   constable abbr. c. or cons.

   Constance lake and town, Switzerland

   Constans  Roman emperor 337-50

   Constans  mythical King of Britain

   Constant (Benjamin;
             in full, Henri Benjamin Constant de Rebecque), 1767-1830, French
             Swiss political novelist; -- (Benjamin Jean Joseph), 1845-1902,
             French painter

   Constantino/ple
             now usu. Istanbul; -politan

   Constitution
             of a country (cap. C)

   constitution/, -al
             abbr. cons.

   construction
             abbr. constr.

   Consuelo  by George Sand, 1842

   Consul    abbr. C. or Con.; Lat. pl.  consules, abbr. coss.

   Consul-General
             abbr. C.-G.

   Consumers' Association
             abbr. CA

   consummat/e
             (verb), to perfect or complete; (adj.), perfect, complete; noun
             -ion

   consummatum est
             (Lat.), it is finished

   cont.     containing, contents, continent, continue, -d

   contadin/o
             Italian peasant, pl. -i; fem. -a, pl. -e

   contagi/um
             contagious matter; pl.  -a

   containing
             abbr. cont.

   contakion use kontakion

   contang/o (Stock Exchange), charge for carrying over; pl. -os

   conte     (Fr. m.), short story

   conte     (It. m.), a count

   contemptible
             not -able

   contents  abbr. cont.

   conterminous
             with a common end or boundary, not cot-

   Contes drolatiques
             by Balzac, 1832-7

   contessa  (It.), a countess

   Continent (the)
             (cap.); continent of Europe, etc. (not cap.); abbr.  cont.

   continu/e, -ed
             abbr. cont.

   continu/o (mus.), an improvised keyboard accompaniment; pl. -os

   continu/um
             (philos., phys.), a continuous quantity; pl. -a

   cont-line (naut.), spiral space between rope strands, space between stowed
             casks

   contr.    contract, -ed, -ion, -s, contrary

   contra    against, in opposition to; abbr. con.

   contrabasso
             (It. mus.), the double-bass, abbr. CB; in Eng. contrabass

   contract/, -ed, -ion, -s
             abbr.  contr.

   contracting-out
             (noun, hyphen)

   contractions
             see abbreviations

   contractor
             not -er

   contrafagotto
             (It. mus.), the double bassoon (one word)

   contra jus gentium
             (Lat.), against the law of nations

   contralt/o
             (mus.), lowest female voice; pl. -os; abbr. C.

   contra/ mundum
             (Lat.), against the world; -- pacem (law), against the peace

   contrariwise


   contrary  abbr. contr.

   Contrat social (Le)
             by J. J.  Rousseau, 1762

   contretemps
             a mishap (not ital.)

   contributor
             not -er

   control/, -led, -ling


   controller
             see comptroller

   Controller-General
             but Comptroller-General of the National Debt Office and of the
             Patent Office

   Controller of Accounts
             abbr. CA

   conundrum/
             riddle; pl. -s

   convector apparatus for heating by convection

   convenances (les)
             (Fr. f. pl.), the proprieties

   convener  caller of a meeting

   convention/, -al
             abbr. conv.

   conventionalize
             not -ise

   conversation
             abbr. con.

   conversazione/
             a meeting for learned conversation; pl. -s

   converter not -or

   convertible
             not -able

   convey/er (person); -or (thing) esp.  in conveyor belt

   Convocation
             a provincial assembly of the Church of England; a legislative
             assembly of certain universities

   convolvulus/
             flower; pl. -es

   Conwy     river and town, Gwynedd

   cony/     a rabbit, not coney, pl.  conies; ---garth, a rabbit-warren

   Conyngham (Marquess)


   Cooch Behar
             India, not Kuch

   cooee     (esp. Australian bush) call, not -ey, -hee, -ie

   Cook (Captain James)
             1728-79, British explorer; -- (Thomas), 1808-92, English travel
             agent

   cookie    (Sc.) a bun, (US) a small cake or biscuit, not -ey, -y

   coolabah  Austral. gum-tree, not -ibah

   coolie    (Ind., Chin.), native hired labourer, not -y

   Coomassie Ghana, use Kumasi

   Cooper (James Fenimore
             one n), 1789-1851, US novelist

   co-operat/e, -ion, -ive
             (hyphen), but uncooperative (no hyphen)

   Co-operative Society
             (hyphen)

   co-opt    (hyphen)

   co-ordinate
             (hyphen); but in math.  usu. coordinate; and uncoordinated

   Cop.      Copernican

   cop.      copper, copulative

   copaiba   (med.), a balsam from a S.  American tree, not -va

   coparcen/ary
             (law), joint heirship to an undivided property, not -ery; -er, a
             joint heir

   COPEC     Conference on Christian Politics, Economics, and Citizenship

   copeck    a hundredth of a rouble, not -ec, -ek, ko-; abbr. c.

   Copenhagen


   Copernican
             abbr. Cop.

   copier    not copyer

   copper    abbr. cop.; symbol Cu (cuprum)

   copperas  ferrous sulphate, green vitriol

   copperize to impregnate with copper, not -ise

   copro-    (in compounds), dung-, not k-

   Copt.     Coptic, liturgical language of Egyptian Christians

   copul/a   (gram., logic, anat., mus.), that which connects; pl. -ae

   copulative
             abbr. cop.

   copy      (typ.), matter to be reproduced in type. See also manuscript

   copy-book (hyphen)

   copyer    use -ier

   copyholder
             (typ.), (formerly) a proof-reader's assistant

   copy preparation
             see manuscript

   copyright notice
             the copyright symbol °, name of copyright-owner, and date of
             publication must appear (usu. on the verso of the title-page) in
             every copy of a book claiming copyright protection under the
             Universal Copyright Convention (q.v.). See also Berne Convention

   copy/-typist, -writer
             (hyphens)

   coq/      (Fr. m.), cock; -- au vin, chicken cooked in wine; -- de
             bruyЉre, black game

   coquet/   fem. -te, a flirt; -ry, -ting, -tish

   coquille  (Fr. typ. f.), a misprint

   Cor.      1 and 2 Corinthians

   cor.      corpus; (mus.) cornet, corno (horn); coroner

   coram     (Lat.), in presence of; -- judice (law), before a judge; --
             nobis, before us; -- paribus, before one's equals; -- populo,
             before the people

   Coran     use Koran

   cor anglais
             (mus.), instrument of oboe family

   coranto   use courante

   Corcyra   anc. name of Corfu

   Corday (Charlotte)
             1768-93, French revolutionist

   cordelier Franciscan friar, wearing knotted waist-cord

   cordillera/
             (Sp.), a mountain chain; pl. -s

   cordite   an explosive

   Cordoba   Spain and Argentina, not -va; in Sp. Cўrdoba

   cўrdoba   monetary unit of Nicaragua

   cordon bleu
             blue ribbon, a first-rate cook

   cordon sanitaire
             sanitary cordon (of men) to prevent spread of contagious disease

   cordwain  Spanish leather

   Corea/, -n
             use K-

   co-respondent
             in divorce case (hyphen)

   corf      coal-miner's basket, tub, or trolley; lobster-cage; pl. corves

   Corfe Castle
             Dorset, castle and village

   Corflambo the giant in Spenser's Faerie Queene

   Corfu     Gr. island, anc. name Corcyra, in mod. Gr. Kerkyra

   Corinthians, (First, Second, Epistle to the)
             abbr. 1 Cor., 2 Cor.

   Corn.     Cornish, Cornwall

   corncrake bird (one word)

   corne/a   the eyeball covering; pl.  -as

   Corneille (Pierre)
             1606-84, French playwright

   cornelian red quartz, not carnelian, -ion

   cornemuse French bagpipe

   corner-stone
             (hyphen)

   cornet    (mus.), abbr. cor.

   cornett/o (mus.), old woodwind instrument; pl. -i

   cornfield (one word)

   cornflour finely ground maize

   cornflower
             blue-flowered plant

   Corniche (La)
             coast road from Nice to Genoa; in It. La Cornice

   Cornish/  abbr. Corn.; -- gillyflower, a variety of apple

   Corn Laws (caps.)

   corn/o    (mus.), a horn, pl. -i; -o inglese (It.), cor anglais

   cornu/    (anat.), hornlike process; pl. -a

   Cornubia  (Lat.), Cornwall

   cornucopia/
             horn of plenty; pl. -s; adj. -n

   Cornwall  abbr. Corn.; in Fr. f.  Cornouailles

   coroll.   corollary, inference

   corolla/  (bot.), pl. -s

   coron/a   (archit., bot., anat., astr.), pl. -ae

   coroner   cap. as title; abbr. cor.

   coronis   mark of contraction (crasis) in Greek

   Corot (Jean Baptiste Camille)
             1796-1875, French painter

   Corporal  abbr. Cpl.

   corpor/al of the human body; -eal, physical, mortal, opp. to spiritual

   corporealize
             to materialize, not -ise

   corposant St Elmo's fire

   corps     sing. and pl.

   corps/ d'arm‚e
             (Fr. m.), army corps, -- de ballet, company of ballet-dancers;
             -- de bataille, central part of an army; -- d'‚lite, a picked
             body; -- des lettres (Fr. typ.), the body of the type; --
             diplomatique, diplomatic body

   corp/us   body; pl. -ora, abbr. cor.

   Corpus Christi
             festival of institution of the Eucharist, on the Thursday after
             Trinity Sunday

   Corpus Christi College
             Oxf. and Camb., abbr. CCC

   corpus delicti
             (law), the facts constituting an alleged offence

   corp/us lut/eum
             (physiol.), ovarian body; pl. -ora -ea

   corp/us vil/e
             worthless substance; pl. -ora -ia

   corr.     correct/ion, -ive, -or; correspond, -ence, -ent, -ing; corrupt,
             -ed

   corral    (noun and verb), pen (for) cattle (two rs)

   correcteur
             (Fr. typ. m.), corrector of the press

   correct/ion, -ive, -or
             abbr. corr.

   correction of proofs
             see proof-correction marks

   Correggio (Antonio Allegri da)
             1494-1534, Italian painter

   corregidor
             (Sp.), a magistrate

   correlate bring into relation

   correlative
             abbr. correl.

   correspond/, -ence, -ent, -ing
             abbr. corr.

   Corresponding Member
             abbr. CM or Corr. Mem.  CorrЉze, d‚p. France

   corrida   a bullfight (not ital.); corrida de toros (Sp.), a bullfight
             (itals.)

   corrigend/um
             thing to be corrected; pl. -a

   Corr./ Mem.
             Corresponding Member; -- Sec., Corresponding Secretary

   corroboree
             Australian aboriginal dance, not -bery, -borie, -bory

   corrupt/, -ed, -ion
             abbr. corr.

   corrupter not -or

   corset    close fitting inner bodice

   Corsica   abbr. Cors.; in Fr. f.  Corse

   corslet   (armour) cuirass; combined waistband and brassiЉre; not -elet

   corso     (It.), (horse-)race, street for it

   Corstorphine
             Edinburgh

   cort.     cortex

   cortЉge   (funeral) procession

   Cortes    the legislative assembly of Spain

   Cort‚s (Hernando)
             1485-1547, conqueror of Mexico

   cort/ex   bark; pl. -ices, abbr.  cort.

   Corunna   in Sp. La Coru¤a

   corv‚e    (Fr. f.), feudal forced labour, drudgery

   corvette  a small frigate

   Coryate (Thomas)
             ?1577-1617, English traveller

   corybant/ a Phrygian priest; pl.  -es (not ital.); adj. -ic, frenzied

   Corycian nymphs
             the Muses

   coryphae/us
             a chorus leader, not -eus; pl. -i

   coryph‚e  (Fr. m.), chief ballet-dancer

   COS       Chief of Staff

   Cos       Gr. island, not Kos; hence cos lettuce

   cos       (math.), cosine (no point)

   co. sa.   (mus.), come sopra, as above

   cosec     (math.), cosecant (no point)

   cosh      (math.), hyperbolic cosine (no point)

   cosh/ar, -er
             (Heb.), use kosher

   CosЌ fan tutte
             ("All women are like that"), opera by Mozart, 1790

   co-signatory
             (hyphen)

   cosine    (math., no hyphen), abbr. cos

   cosmogony, cosmography
             abbr.  cosmog.

   COSPAR    Committee on Space Research

   coss.     consules (consuls)

   cosseted  pampered, not -etted

   co-star   (hyphen)

   cotangent (math., no hyphen), abbr.  cot

   cote      (Fr. f.), market quotation, figure, mark, share

   c“te      (Fr. f.), hillside, shore

   c“t‚      (Fr. m.), side

   C“te d'Azure
             eastern Mediterranean coast of France

   C“te-d'Or d‚p. France

   c“telette (Fr. f.), a cutlet

   coterie   a "set" of persons (not ital.)

   coterminous
             use cont-

   C“te-r“tie
             (Fr. f.), a red wine

   c“tes de boeuf
             (Fr. f.), ribs of beef

   C“tes-du-Nord
             d‚p. France

   cotillion a dance; in Fr. m.  cotillon

   cottar    peasant, not -er

   cotter    pin, wedge, etc.

   Cotter's Saturday Night (The)
             by Burns, 1786

   Cottian Alps
             France and Italy

   cottier   a cottager

   cotton/   in Fr. m. coton; -tail (one word), American rabbit; -- wool (two
             words), raw cotton

   Cottonian Library
             in British Museum (British Library, Reference Division)

   cottonize to make cotton-like, not -ise

   couch     a kind of grass. See also cutch

   coud‚     (astr.), telescope with light-path bent at an angle

   Cou‚ism   psychotherapy by auto-suggestion (Emile Cou‚, 1857-1926)

   couldn't  to be printed close up

   couldst   (no apos.)

   coul‚     (mus.), a slur

   coul‚e    a lava-flow

   couleur   (Fr. f.), colour; -- de rose, roseate (figurative)

   coulisses (pl.), the wings in a theatre

   couloir   a gully

   Coulomb (Charles Augustin de)
             1736-1806, French physicist; coulomb (elec.), unit of charge,
             abbr. C

   coulter   a plough blade, not col-

   council/  assembly; -lor, member of a council, abbr. Cllr.

   council/ estate, -- flat, -- house
             (two words), properties owned by council; -house (hyphen), in
             which council meets

   counsel/  advice, barrister; -led, -ling; -lor, one who counsels

   count/    -ess (cap. as title); abbr.  Ct.

   countdown (noun, one word)

   counter   (typ.), space wholly or mainly enclosed within a letter, e.g.the
             centre of O

   counter/balance, -charge
             (one word)

   counter/-cheer, -claim
             (hyphens)

   counter-clockwise
             (one hyphen)

   counter-quarte
             (fencing) (hyphen), not -carte

   counter/-reformation
             (caps. with hist. reference); -revolution (hyphens)

   counter-tenor
             (mus.), abbr. C.

   Countesthorpe
             Leics.

   Counties palatine
             Cheshire and Lancs. (cap. C only)

   countrif/y,-ied
             not country-

   country/ dance, -- house
             (two words)

   countryside
             (one word)

   country-wide
             (hyphen)

   county    abbr. Co.

   County Council/, -lor
             abbr. CC

   County court
             (one cap.), abbr. CC

   coup      a stroke, esp. a political revolution

   Coupar Angus
             Tayside (no hyphen), not Cupar --

   coup/ de foudre
             (Fr. m.), stroke of lightning; -- de fouet (fencing), a "beat";
             -- de grѓce, a finishing stroke; -- de main, sudden attack to
             gain a position; -- de maЊtre, a master-stroke; -- de pied, a
             kick; -- de poing, blow with the fist, -- de soleil, sunstroke;
             -- d'essai, first attempt; -- d'‚tat, sudden or violent change
             in government; -- de theatre, sudden sensational act; -- d'oeil,
             a glance, wink

   coupe     a shallow dish

   coup‚     a covered motor car for two (accent, not ital.)

   coupee    in dancing, a salute to partner

   couper    (Sc.), a dealer

   Couperin (Fran‡ois)
             1688-1733, French composer

   coup manqu‚
             (Fr. m.), a failure

   courante  (music for) dance with gliding step, not coranto

   Cour de Cassation
             see Cassation

   courgette small marrow (not ital.)

   courier   travelling attendant, in Fr. m. courrier

   Court     abbr. C. or Ct.

   Courtauld Institute of Art
             London

   court bouillon
             (Fr. cook. m.), fish stock

   Courtelle propr. term for an acrylic fibre (cap.)

   Courtenay fam. name of Earl of Devon

   courtesan prostitute with wealthy clients

   court-house
             abbr. CH

   Courtmantle
             use Cu-

   court martial
             (noun, two words), pl.  courts --; court-martial (verb, hyphen)

   Court of/ Appeal
             abbr. CA; -- -- Common Pleas, abbr. CCP; -- -- Probate, abbr.
             CP; -- -- St James's (apos.); -- -- Session, abbr. CS

   Courtrai  Belgium, not -ay; in Fl., Kortrijk

   Courts of Justice
             (caps.)

   courtyard (one word)

   couscous  NW African dish of granulated flour steamed over broth. See also
             cuscus

   cousin-german
             not -aine, -ane; pl.  cousins-german

   co–te que co–te
             (Fr.), at any cost, not -- qui --

   Coutts & Co.
             bankers

   coutur/ier, -iЉre
             a dressmaker

   Covenanter
             (Sc. hist.)

   covenantor
             (law)

   Coventry: sig. of Bp. of Coventry (colon)

   Coverley (Sir Roger de)


   cover-up  (noun, hyphen)

   Cowling   Lancs., N. Yorks.

   Cowlinge  Suffolk

   Cowper (William)
             1731-1800, English poet

   cowrie    the shell, used as money in Africa and S. Asia, not -ry. See
             also kauri

   coxcomb   a fop. See also cocks-comb

   coxswain  (naut.), not cocks-; colloq. cox

   Coy.      (mil.), company

   coyote    N. American prairie wolf

   coypu     S. American aquatic rodent, source of nutria fur, not -ou

3.16 CP...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CP        Cape Province (of S. Africa), Central Provinces, now Madhya
             Pradesh (India), Chief Patriarch, Civil Power, --Procedure,
             Clarendon Press, Clerk of the Peace, Code of Procedure, College
             of Preceptors, Common Pleas, -- Prayer, Communist Party,
             Congregatio Passionis (Passionist Fathers), Court of Probate

   cp.       compare

   c.p.      candlepower, carriage paid

   CPC       Clerk of the Privy Council

   c.p./i.   characters per inch; --l., ditto per line; --m., ditto per
             minute; --s., ditto per second, cycles per second

   Cpl.      Corporal

   CPO       Chief Petty Officer, Compulsory Purchase Order

   CPR       Canadian Pacific Railway

   CPRE      Council for the Protection of Rural England

   CPS       Custos Privati Sigilli (Keeper of the Privy Seal)

   CPSA      Civil and Public Services Association

   CPSU      Communist Party of the Soviet Union

   CPU       (comp.), central processing unit

3.17 CR...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CR        Carolina Regina (Queen Caroline), Carolus Rex (King Charles),
             Civis Romanus (a Roman citizen), Community of the Resurrection,
             Custos Rotulorum (Keeper of the Rolls), credit rating, current
             rate

   Cr        chromium (no point)

   Cr.       credit, -or, Crown

   cr.       created

   Crabb (George)
             1778-1854, English philologist

   Crabbe (George),
             1754-1832, English poet

   Cracow    acceptable Anglicized spelling of Krakўw, Poland

   Craigton  Glasgow

   Crane (Harold Hart)
             1899-1932, US poet; -- (Stephen), 1871-1900, US novelist and
             poet

   cranes-bill
             plant of the genus Geranium, not cranesbill

   crani/um  skull; pl. -a

   crap/e    gauzelike fabric, usu.  black, for mourning; adj. -y. See also
             cr€pe

   crassa negligentia
             (law), criminal negligence

   crawfish  large marine lobster

   crayfish  freshwater crustacean

   CRC       camera-ready copy

   cream/-laid
             a writing paper with wire marks; ---wove, ditto without

   created   abbr. cr.

   Creation (the)
             (cap.)

   crЉche    a day nursery

   Cr‚cy (battle of)
             1346, not Cressy, Cr‚ci

   credit/, -or
             abbr. Cr.

   credit card
             (two words)

   cr‚dit/ foncier
             (Fr. m.), society for loans on real estate; -- mobilier, ditto
             on personal estate

   credo/    creed; pl. -s

   creese    use kris

   Crefeld   W. Germany, use Krefeld

   Creighton (Mandell)
             1843-1901, Bp.  and historian

   crematori/um
             pl. -a

   crЉme de la crЉme
             (Fr. f.), the very best, not cre-, cr€-

   Cremona   a violin made there (cap.)

   crenate   (bot.), notched (of leaves)

   crenellate(d)
             (mil.), furnish(ed) with battlements

   crenulate (bot.), finely notched

   Creole    (strict use, usu. cap.)  pure-blooded descendant of French,
             Spanish, Portuguese settlers in W.  Indies, Louisiana,
             Mauritius, Africa, and E. Indies; (loose use, not cap.), a Negro
             born in America; a Creole-Negro half-breed speaking a Spanish or
             French dialect; dialect thus imposed by a dominant group

   creosote  not kreosote

   cr€pe/    (Fr. m.), crape fabric other than black, (f.) pancake; -- de
             Chine, raw silk crepe; -- lisse, smooth crepe; -- Suzette, small
             pancake. See also crape

   crescendo/
             (mus.), growing in force; abbr. cres., cresc.; (non-techn.),
             gradually increasing noise; pl. -s

   Cressy    use Crecy

   cretaceous
             chalky, not -ious

   Cretan    of Crete

   cretin    type of mental defective; in Fr. m. cr‚tin, f. cr‚tine

   cretonne  a cotton cloth

   Creusot (Le)
             d‚p. Saone-et-Loire, France, not -zot

   crevasse  large fissure, esp. in the ice of a glacier

   CrЉvecoeur (Michel Guillaume Jean de)
             1735-1813, French-born US writer

   crЉve-coeur
             (Fr. m.), heart-break; pl. same

   crevette  (Fr. f.), prawn

   crevice   small fissure

   Criccieth Gwynedd

   Crichton (James)
             1560-?85, Scottish scholar and soldier, "the Admirable --"

   cricket/, -er, -ing


   cri de coeur
             (Fr. m.), passionate appeal

   crim. con.
             (law), criminal conversation, adultery

   crime passionnel
             (Fr. m.), crime caused by sexual passion (two ns)

   Crimplene propr. term for bulked Terylene (cap.)

   cring/e, -ing


   crinkum-crankum
             intricate, crooked, not -cum -cum

   cris/is   pl. -es

   crispbread
             thin rye etc. biscuit (one word)

   crit.     critic/al, -ized

   criteri/on
             standard of judgement; pl. -a

   criticaster
             a petty critic

   criticize not -ise

   critique  a review (not ital.)

   Critique of Pure Reason
             in German Kritik der reinen Vernunft, by Kant, 1781

   CRMP      Corps of Royal Military Police

   Croat     a native of Croatia; Serbo-Croat Hrvat

   crochet/  hooked-needle work; -ed, -ing

   Crockford in full Crockford's Clerical Directory, the "Who's Who" of the
             clergy, from 1858

   Crockford's
             London club

   crocus/   pl. -es

   Croesus   6th c. BC, rich king (and the last) of Lydia

   croissant crescent-shaped roll, not croisant

   Croix de Guerre
             French decoration

   Cro-Magnon
             (anthrop.), of a prehistoric race, remains found at --, d‚p.
             Dordogne, France

   Cromartie (Earl of)


   cromesquis
             (Fr. cook. m.), see kromesky

   Crome Yellow
             by Aldous Huxley, 1921

   Cronos    use K-

   Crookback sobriquet of Richard III, not Crouchback

   Crookes (Sir William)
             1832-1919, English physicist

   Croonian Lecture
             of Royal Society

   croquet/  game (not ital.); as verb, -ed, -ing

   croquette (Fr. f.), rissole (not ital.)

   crore     (Ind.), ten millions, point thus: 1,00,00,000. See also lakh

   crosette  use crossette

   crosier   Bp.'s or Abp.'s staff, not -zier

   croslet   use crosslet

   cross     (typ.), proof-correction sign for a battered sort

   crossbar  (one word)

   cross-bench(er)
             (Parl.) (hyphen)

   cross-bill
             (law), a promissory note given in exchange; a bill brought by
             defendant against plaintiff in a Chancery suit (hyphen)

   crossbill a passerine bird

   crossette (archit.), a ledge, not crose-

   Crossgates
             Cumbria, Fife, Powys, N.  Yorks.

   Cross Gates
             W. Yorks.

   Crosshill Fife, Strathclyde

   Cross Hill
             Derby., Shropshire

   Crosskeys Co. Antrim, Co. Cavan, Gwent

   Cross Keys
             Kent, Wilts.

   crosslet  (her.), small cross, not croslet

   cross, Maltese; Latin; Greek; Tau
             (See Figure 4 in topic FRONT_4)

   crossroad(s)
             (one word)

   cross/-section, -wind
             (hyphens)

   crossways not -way, -wise

   crossword (puzzle)

   crotchet/ a mus. note; a whim; -ed, -ing, -y

   Crouchback
             use Crookback

   croupier  gaming-table attendant

   cro–ton   (Fr. m.), a bit of crust or toast

   Crowland  Lincs., Suffolk, not Croy-

   Crown (the)
             (cap. C) abbr. Cr.

   crown     former size of paper, 15 x 20 in.; -- 4to, 10 x 7.5in.; -- 8vo,
             7.5 x 5in. (untrimmed); basis for size of metric crown, 768 x
             1008 mm. See also book sizes

   Crowner's quest
             dialectal for Coroner's inquest (cap. C only)

   Crown Office
             abbr. CO

   Crowther-Hunt (Baron)
             (hyphen)

   crozier   use cros-

   CRP       Calendarium Rotulorum Patentium (Calendar of the Patent Rolls)

   CRR       Curia Regis Roll

   CRT       cathode ray tube

   cru       (wine), growth (no accent)

   Crucifixion (the)
             (cap. C)

   Cruft's Dog Show
             not -s'

   Cruikshank (George)
             1792-1878, English caricaturist and illustrator

   crumhorn  use krummhorn

   cruse     a jar, not cruise

   crush bar (two words)

   crush-barrier
             (hyphen)

   Cruso     NC, US

   Crusoe (Robinson)
             by Defoe, 1719

   crux      of an argument; pl. cruces (not ital.)

   crux/ ansata; commissa; decussata; stellata
             (See Figure 4 in topic FRONT_4)

   cryogenics
             the study of low-temperature refrigeration

   cryptogam/
             (bot.), any member of the Cryptogamia, flowerless plants; adj.
             -ous

   crypto/gram
             anything written in code; -grapher, -graphic, -graphy

   crypton   (chem.), use k-

   cryptonym a private name

   crystal.  crystallography

   crystalliz/ation, -e
             not -is-; -ed, -ing

3.18 CS...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CS        Chemical Society (now part of Royal Society of Chemistry), Civil
             Service, Clerk to the Signet, College of Science, Common
             Serjeant, Court of Session, Custos Sigilli (Keeper of the Seal)

   Cs        caesium (no point)

   c/s       cycles per second

   Csar      etc., use Ts-

   csardas   Hungarian dance, pl. same, not cz-

   CSC       Civil Service Commission, Conspicuous Service Cross (now DSC)

   CSE       Certificate of Secondary Education

   CSI       Companion of the Order of the Star of India

   CSM       Company Sergeant-Major

   CSU       Civil Service Union

3.19 CT...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CT        Connecticut (off. postal abbr.)

   Ct.       Count, Court

   ct.       cent

   CTC       Cyclists' Touring Club

   Ctesiphon city of anc. Mesopotamia

   ctl.      central, -s

   cto.      (mus.), concerto

   cts.      centimes, cents

3.20 CU...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   CU        Cambridge University

   Cu        cuprum (copper) (no point)

   cu.       cubic

   cube root (two words)

   cubic/    abbr. c., cu., or cub.

   cubicul/um
             (archaeol.), burial-chamber; pl. -a

   cudgel/, -led, -ling


   CUDS      Cambridge University Dramatic Society

   cue/, -ing.
             See also queue

   Cufic     use Kufic

   cui bono? (Lat.), who gains by it?

   cuidad    use ciudad

   Cuillins  mountains in Skye

   cuirass/  body armour; -ier, soldier wearing it

   cuisine   cookery (not ital.)

   culch     oyster spawn, not cultch

   cul-de-sac
             a blind alley, a trap, pl. culs-de-sac

   cul/ex    a gnat; pl. -ices

   cullender use colan-

   Cullinan  famous diamond

   Culpeper  Va., US, from Governor -- (Thomas, Lord), 1578-1662

   cultivar  (bot.), variety made by cultivation, abbr. cv.

   CUM       Cambridge University Mission

   cum       (Lat.), with (not ital.)

   Cumaean   of Cumae, near Naples

   Cumbernauld
             Strathclyde, "new town", 1956

   Cumbria   county of England

   cum dividend
             with dividend; abbr.  c.d.

   cumfrey   use co-

   cum grano salis
             (Lat.), with a grain of salt

   cumin     plant with aromatic seeds, not cummin

   cummerbund
             a waistbelt, not ku-, -band

   Cummings (Edward Estlin)
             1894-1962, US poet who renounced use of capital letters

   cum multis aliis
             (Lat.), with many others

   cum. pref.
             cumulative preference

   cumquat   use k-

   cumul/us  (meteor.), a cloud form; pl. -i; abbr. k.

   cuneiform wedge-shaped, not cunif-, cunef-

   Cunninghame Graham (Robert Bontine)
             1852-1936, British writer

   CUP       Cambridge University Press

   Cupar/    Fife; -- Angus, Tayside, use Coupar Angus

   cupbearer (one word)

   cupro-nickel
             alloy of copper and nickel

   cuprum    copper, symbol Cu

   cur.      currency, current

   curable   not -eable

   cura‡ao   liqueur, not -oa

   curare    a drug, not -a, -i, urari

   curb      for verb, and curb of bridle.  See also kerb

   curbstone use kerb-

   cur‚      French priest; petit --, French curate

   cure-all  a universal remedy (hyphen)

   curfuffle use ker-

   Curia/    the papal court (cap.); -- advisare vult, the court desires to
             consider; abbr. c.a.v.

   Curie (Marie Sklodowska)
             1867-1934, and her husband -- (Pierre), 1859-1906, French
             scientists

   curie     unit of radioactivity, abbr.  Ci (cap.); now replaced by
             becquerel

   curio/    an object of art; pl. -s (not ital.)

   curium    symbol Cm

   curlicue  a decorative curl, not -eque, -ycue

   currach   a coracle, not -agh

   Curragh (The)
             Co. Kildare

   curren/t, -cy
             abbr. cur.; electric current, symbol I or i (ital.)

   currente calamo
             (Lat.), easily, fluently

   curricul/um
             course of study, pl.  -a; -um vitae, summary of a career, pl. -a
             vitae; abbr. c.v.

   Currie    Lothian

   Curry     Co. Sligo

   cursor    (comp.), movable spot of light on VDU (q.v.) screen, indicating
             item being edited

   curtain-raiser
             (theat.), Fr. lever de rideau

   Curtiss (Glenn Hammond)
             1878-1930, US pioneer aviator

   Curtmantle
             sobriquet of Henry II, not Cou-

   curtsy/   not -sey; -ing

   curvilinear
             (one word)

   Curwen (John)
             1816-80, pioneer of tonic sol-fa

   cuscus/   a marsupial; ---grass, of India. See also couscous

   custodia legis
             (Lat.), in the custody of the law

   custom-house
             (hyphen); abbr. CH

   cust/os   (Lat. m.), a custodian, pl.  -odes; Custos/ Privati Sigilli,
             Keeper of the Privy Seal, abbr.  CPS; -- Rotulorum, Keeper of
             the Rolls, abbr. CR; -- Sigilli, ditto Seal, abbr. CS

   cut and dried
             (adj., no hyphens)

   cut-back  (noun, hyphen)

   Cutch     India, use K-

   cutch     catechu, extract of Indian plants, tough paper sheets used by
             gold-beaters, not k-. See also couch

   cut/-off -out
             (nouns), -price (adj.)  (hyphens)

   cuts      (typ.), illustrations

   Cutty Sark
             famous clipper, now in dry dock at Greenwich

   cutty-stool
             stool of repentance

   cuv‚e     a vatful, or sort, of wine

   Cuyp      Dutch artists, not K-

3.21 cv....
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   cv.       (bot.), cultivar

   c.v.      curriculum vitae

   CVO       Commander of the Royal Victorian Order

3.22 Cwlth...
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   Cwlth     (no point), Commonwealth (Australian)

   Cwmbran   Gwent, "new town", 1949

   Cwmcarn   Gwent

   CWS       Co-operative Wholesale Society

   cwt.      hundredweight (but no point in scientific and technical work)

3.23 cybernetics...
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   cybernetics
             study of communication processes in animals and machines

   cyc.      cyclopaed/ia, -ic

   Cycle of the Saros
             (astr.), 6,585.5 days

   cyclopaed/ia, -ic;
             but use -ped- in quoting titles using that form; abbr. cyc.

   Cyclop/s  a giant with one eye; pl.  -es; adj. -ean

   cyclotron apparatus for accelerating particles, used in nuclear
             disintegration, artificial radioactivity, etc.

   cyder     use cider

   Cym.      Cymric

   cyma      (archit.), a moulding of the cornice

   cymbalist a cymbal-player. See cembalist

   cymbal/o  a dulcimer, pl. -os

   cymbiform boat-shaped, not cymbae-

   Cymmrodorion (Honourable Society of)
             (two ms)

   Cymric    Welsh, not K-

   Cymru     Wales

   Cymry     the Welsh nation

   CYMS      Catholic Young Men's Society

   Cynewulf  eighth century, Anglo-Saxon poet

   cynocephalus
             a dog-headed creature

   Cynthia   the moon

   Cynthius  epithet of Apollo

   cypher    use cipher

   cy pres   (law), as near as possible to a testator's intentions

   Cyprian   of Cyprus; --, in Lat.  Thascius Caecilius Cyprianus, c.200-58,
             Christian writer and martyr

   Cypriot   inhabitant or language of Cyprus

   Cyprus    independent republic 1960

   Cyrenaic  pertaining to Cyrene or its school of philosophy

   Cyrillic  (pertaining to) the alphabet used by Slavonic peoples of the
             Eastern Church (two ls)

   cyst/     (biol.), sac; -ic; not ci-

   Cytherean pertaining to Aphrodite, not -ian

3.24 CZ...
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   CZ        Canal Zone (Panama)

   Czar      etc., use Ts-

   cz rd s   use cs-

   Czech     native or language of Bohemia

   Czechoslovak
             not -ian, (person) belonging to Czechoslovakia

   Czerny (Karl)
             1791-1857, Austrian composer

4.0 D
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4.1 D...
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   D         500, deuterium (= heavy hydrogen), the fourth in a series

   D.        Deputy, (US) Democrat, Duke, Deus (God), Dominus (Lord), prefix
             to enumeration of Schubert's works (see Deutsch)

   d         (prefix) deci-

   d.        date, daughter, day, dead, degree, departs, desert/ed, -er,
             died, dime, dioptre, dose, (Fr.)  douane (customs), droite (the
             right hand), (it.) destra (right), (Lat.)  decretum (a decree),
             denarii (pence), denarius (penny), (meteor.) drizzling

   d'        as prefix to an un-Anglicized proper name should, in accordance
             with continental practice, be lower case and not cap., as
             d'Arsonval, except at beginning of sentence.  Signatures to be
             copied. See also accents

4.2 DA...
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   DA        deposit account, (US) District Attorney

   Da.       Danish

   da        (prefix) deca-

   DAB       Dictionary of American Biography

   da/ ballo (mus.), dance style; -- capo, or -- capo al fine, repeat to the
             word fine, abbr. DC; -- capo dal segno, repeat from the sign,
             abbr. DS; -- capella, or -- chiesa, in church style

   Dacca     use Dhaka

   d'accord  (Fr.), I agree

   Dachau    Nazi concentration camp, 1933-45

   dachshund badger-dog

   dacoit    Indian robber, not dak-, dec-

   dactyl/   foot of three syllables, adj. -ic (See Figure 1 in
             topic FRONT_4)

   Dada/     unconventional art c.1920; -ism

   daddy-long-legs
             the crane-fly (hyphens)

   dado/     wooden skirting; pl. -s

   Daedalus  builder of the Cretan labyrinth

   daemon    (Gr. myth.), supernatural being, indwelling spirit, not daimon,
             demon

   daffadowndilly
             a daffodil, not daffi-, daffo-, daffy- (one word)

   Dagapur   Ethiopia

   dagger, double --
             See reference marks (See Figure 5 in topic FRONT_4) The dagger
             in Eng. before, in Ger. after, a person's name, signifies "dead"
             or "died"

   daggle-tail
             use draggle-

   dago/     Spaniard, Portuguese, or Italian (derog.), pl. -s

   Dagonet, Sir
             King Arthur's fool

   Daguerre (Louis Jacques Mand‚)
             1789-1851, French pioneer of photography

   daguerreotype
             (not cap.)

   dahabeeyah
             Nile sailing-boat

   Dahomey   W. Africa, now Benin

   D il ђireann
             Lower House of Irish Parliament

   d'ailleurs
             (Fr.), besides

   daimio/   Japanese noble; pl. -s

   Daimler   motor car

   daiquiri  a cocktail

   dais      small platform, not da‹s

   dakoit    use dac-

   Dakota (North and South)
             off.  abbrs. N. Dak. or ND, S. Dak. or SD

   Dalai Lama
             the Grand Lama of Tibet

   Dali      (Salvador), 1904-89, Spanish painter

   Dalila    see Delilah

   Dallapiccola (Luigi)
             1904-75, Italian composer

   Dalmatian spotted dog, not -ion

   dal segno (It. mus.), repeat from the sign, abbr. DS

   damageable
             not -gable

   Damara/, -land
             SW Africa

   damascen/e, -er
             ornament(er) in metal, not -keen, -kin

   Dame aux Camelias (La)
             play by Dumas fils, 1848

   Damien de Veuster (Joseph)
             1840-89, Belgian priest to leper colony in Hawaiian Islands,
             "Father Damien"

   damnosa hereditas
             (Lat.), a legacy involving loss

   damnum absque injuria
             (Lat.), damage without wrong

   Damon and Pythias
             (Gr. myth.), model friends

   Dan.      (Book of) Daniel

   Dan/a‰    mother of Perseus, also asteroid; Danaea, fern genus; -a‹d, dau.
             of Danaus; -aus, son of Belus

   Dandie Dinmont
             breed of Scottish terrier, from Andrew Dinmont, farmer in
             Scott's Guy Mannering

   dandruff  scurf, not -riff

   Danegeld  land-tax, not -lt

   Daniel (Book of)
             abbr. Dan.

   Daniell's battery
             (elec.), usu.  called a Daniell cell

   Danish/   abbr. Da.

   danke sh”n
             (Ger.), many thanks

   Dannebrog Danish national standard, also order of knighthood, not Dane-

   d'Annunzio (Gabriele)
             1864-1938, Italian writer

   danse macabre
             (Fr. f.), dance of death

   danseuse  (Fr. f.), a female dancer

   Dant/e Alighieri
             1265-1321, Italian poet; -ean, -esque, -ist (caps)

   Danzig    Baltic free port

   daou      use dhow

   DAR       daughters of the American revolution

   d'Arblay (Mme)
             1752-1840, the English novelist Fanny Burney

   Darby and Joan
             devoted old married couple

   d'Arc (Jeanne)
             Joan of Arc, 1412-31

   Darcy de Knayth (Baroness)


   daredevil (one word)

   daren't   to be printed close up

   dare say  (two words)

   Dar es Salaam
             cap. of Tanzania (no hyphens)

   Darjeeling
             not Darji-

   Dark Ages (the)
             (caps.)

   dark-room (hyphen)

   darshan   (Hindi), seeing a revered person

   Darwen    Lancs., not Over --

   Darwin/ (Charles Robert)
             1809-82, author of Origin of Species; -- (Erasmus), 1731-1802,
             English physician and poet, grandfather of Charles; -ian, -ism,
             -ist

   das       (Ger.), the (neut. sing.  nominative and accusative); also that.
             See also das heisst

   dash      see punctuation XII

   dashboard (one word)

   das/ heisst
             (Ger.) that is to say, abbr. d.h.; -- ist, that is, abbr.  d.i.

   dass      (Ger.), that (conjunction)

   dat.      dative

   data      see datum

   data/bank, -base
             (one word)

   datable   capable of being dated, not -eable

   data processing
             (hyphen when attrib.)

   date      abbr. d. The order is day, month, year, as 5 June 1903; in Fr.
             le 5 juin 1903; in Ger. den 5. Juni 1903. Names of days and
             months generally in full, but may be abbreviated in footnotes.
             All-figure form in Britain 5.6.03; in US 6.5.03 (month first),
             international dating system (see BS 4795) is year, month, day,
             e.g.  1971-04-20. No comma in four-figure years, but 10,000 BC,
             etc. For periods use least number of figures, as 1904-7, 1920-1,
             1926-8; but 1890-1905, 1913-15, and always in full in display
             matter

   date-line (hyphen)

   dative    indirect object; abbr. dat.

   dat/um    thing known or granted, pl.  -a

   daube     braised meat stew

   Daudet (Alphonse)
             1840-97, French novelist; -- (L‚on), 1867-1942, French writer
             and politician

   daughter/ abbr. d. or dau.; ---in- law, pl. daughters-in-law (hyphens)

   d'Aumale (duc)


   Daumier (Honor‚)
             1808-79, French painter

   Dauntsey's School
             Devizes

   dauphin   eldest son of King of France, 1349-1830; dauphiness, his wife,
             in Fr. dauphine

   Dauphin‚  region of SE France

   Dav.      David

   Davenant (Sir William)
             1606-68, English playwright and poet, Poet Laureate 1660-8

   Davies (Sir Henry Walford)
             1869-1941, musician; -- (William Henry), 1871-1940, poet

   da Vinci (Leonardo)
             see Leonardo da Vinci

   Davis     (Jefferson), 1808-89, Pres.  Confederate States

   Davis/    apparatus, for escape from submarine; -- Cup, tennis trophy

   Davy      (Sir Humphry), not -ey, -ey, 1778-1829, English chemist,
             inventor of Davy lamp

   Davy Jones's locker
             the sea-bed

   Dawley    Shropshire

   day       abbr. d.; (typ.), of the week, and of fasts, feasts, festivals,
             holidays, to have initial caps.  Abbr., when necessary, Sun.,
             Mon., Tue., Wed., Thur., Fri., Sat. In Fr. the names do not take
             caps., as lundi

   Dayak     use Dyak

   day-bed   (hyphen)

   daybook   (one word); abbr. d.b.

   daybreak  (one word)

   day-dream (hyphen)

   Day-Lewis see Lewis

   daylight  (one word)

   day/-long, -room
             (hyphens)

   day nursery
             (two words)

   day's journey
             (Heb.), 16.95 miles

   day/time, -work
             (one word)

   Dayton    Ohio, US

   Daytona Beach
             Fla., US

4.3 DB...
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   DB        Domesday Book

   dB        decibel (no point)

   d.b.      daybook, double bed, double-breasted

   DBE       Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire

   dbk.      drawback

   dbl.      double

4.4 DC...
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   DC        600, deputy-consul, District of Columbia (US), (mus.) da capo
             (from the beginning)

   d.c.      direct current (elec.)

   D.Ch.     Doctor of Surgery

   DCL       Doctor of Civil Law

   DCM       Distinguished Conduct Medal

   DCMG      Dame Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George

   DCVO      Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order

4.5 DD...
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   DD        direct debit, Divinitatis Doctor (doctor of Divinity)

   D.d.      Deo dedit (gave to God)

   dd        in Welsh, a separate letter, not to be divided

   dd.       delivered

   d.d.      dono dedit (gave as a gift)

   DDA       Dangerous Drugs Act

   D-Day     6 June 1944

   DDD       dat, dicat, dedicat (gives, devotes, and dedicates); dono dedit
             dedicavit (gave and consecrated as a gift)

   DDR       (Ger.), Deutsche Demokratische Republik (German Democratic
             Republic)

   DDS       Doctor of Dental Surgery

   DDT       dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane (an insecticide)

4.6 DE...
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   DE        Delaware (off. postal abbr.), Department of Employment

   de        as prefix to a proper name, in accordance with continental
             practice, should not have initial cap., as de Candolle; except
             when Anglicized, as De Vinne, or at beginning of sentence.
             Signatures to be copied

   deaconate use diac-

   dead      abbr. d.

   dead heat (noun), dead-heat (verb)

   Dead Letter Office
             now Returned ditto; dead/line, -lock (one word); -- reckoning
             (naut.), abbr. DR; -- reprint (typ.), a reprint with no
             correction; -- weight, abbr. d.w.

   dean      wooded valley, use dene

   Dean of Faculty
             (Sc.), (not of the), president of the Faculty of Advocates;
             abbr. DF

   Dear/ Madam, -- Sir
             in printed letter full left (comma, no dash)

   deasil    (Sc.), clockwise, opp. to withershins

   deathbed  (one word)

   death/ -rate, -roll, -trap, -warrant, -watch beetle
             (hyphens)

   deb       colloq. for d‚butante (no point)

   deb.      debenture

   d‚bѓcle   a downfall

   debarkation
             disembarkation

   debatable not -eable

   debauchee a libertine

   debenture/
             abbr. deb.; ---holder (hyphen)

   debonair  gaily elegant, not -aire; in Fr. d‚bonnaire

   Debrett (Peerage)


   debris    ruins (no accent); in Fr. m.  d‚bris

   d‚but/, -ant
             fem. -ante (not ital.). See also deb

   Dec.      Decani, December, (archit.)  Decorated

   dec.      deceased, declaration, declared, declension, declination,
             decorative

   dec.      (mus.) decrescendo

   d‚c.      (Fr.), d‚c‚d/‚, fem. -‚e (deceased), d‚cembre (not cap.)
             (December)

   deca-     prefix meaning ten, abbr. da

   Decalogue the Ten Commandments

   Decameron (The)
             by Boccaccio, 1352

   Decan     India, use Decc-

   Decani    dean's or south side of a choir (north side in Durham
             Cathedral), abbr. Dec.; opp. to Cantoris

   decanter  bottle to hold decanted liquor

   Deccan    India, not Decan

   deceased  abbr. dec.

   d‚c‚d/‚   (Fr.), fem. -‚e, deceased; abbr. d‚c.

   December  abbr. Dec.; in Fr. m.  d‚cembre, abbr. d‚c. (not cap.)

   decenni/um
             a decade; pl. -a

   decentralize
             not -ise

   decern    (Sc. law), to judge. See also discern

   deci-     prefix meaning one-tenth, abbr. d

   decibar   one-tenth of a bar, q.v.

   decibel   unit for comparing intensity of noises, power, etc.; abbr. dB

   Decies (Baron)


   decigram  not -mme, abbr. dg (no point in scientific and technical work)

   decilitre abbr. dl (no point in scientific and technical work)

   decimal currency
             (British, as from 15 February 1971). For amounts less than a
             pound express as (new) pence: 54p (roman, no point); for amounts
             of one pound or more express as pounds and decimal fractions of
             a pound (point in medial position, omitting p); the (new)
             halfpenny should be expressed as a fraction

   decimal fractions.
             No decimal can be plural, or take verb in pl., however many
             numerals it contains; (typ.) print in numerals. The decimal
             point should be on the line, as 1.5, except in decimal currency.
             In languages other than English, a decimal comma is often used
             (1,5)

   decimalize
             not -ise. But Decimal Currency Board used -ise, -isation

   decimal point
             (two words)

   decimator one who decimates, takes every tenth part or man, not -er

   decimetre one-tenth of a metre, 3.937 in., not -er; abbr. dm (no point in
             scientific and technical work)

   decimo-octavo
             (typ.), 18mo (not ital.); see eighteenmo

   deckle edge
             ragged edge of hand-made paper, not -el

   declar/ation, -ed
             abbr. dec.

   Declaration of Independence
             US, 4 July 1776

   d‚class/‚ (Fr.), fem. -‚e, who has fallen to an inferior status

   declension
             (gram.), system of case-endings; abbr. dec.

   declinable
             not -eable

   declination
             (astr.), angular distance from the celestial equator; abbr. dec.

   decoit    use dac-

   decollate to behead; Decollation of St John the Baptist, 29 August

   d‚collet/age
             (Fr. m.), (wearing of) low neck of dress; -‚, fem. -‚e, with
             low-necked dress

   decolorize
             not -ise

   decolour  to render colourless

   d‚cor     stage or room furnishings and fittings

   decorat/e, -or


   Decoration Day
             (US), usu. last Mon.  in May

   decorative
             abbr. dec.

   decorum   propriety of conduct

   decree nisi
             (law), the first stage in the dissolution of a marriage

   decrepit  decayed, not -id

   decrescendo/
             (mus.), decreasing in loudness; abbr. dec. or decres.; as noun,
             pl. -s

   decret/um (Lat.), a decree; pl. -a; abbr. d.

   Dedlock (Sir Leicester and Lady)
             in Dickens's Bleak House

   deducible able to be inferred, not -cable

   deductible
             able to be subtracted, not -able

   deemster  a judge (Isle of Man), not dempster

   de-escalate
             (hyphen)

   def.      defective, defendant, deferred (shares), defined, definite,
             definition, defunct

   de facto  (Lat.), in actual fact

   defecat/e, -or
             not defae-

   defective abbr. def.

   defector  not -er

   defence   not -se (except US)

   defendant abbr. def.

   d‚fense/ d'afficher
             (Fr.), stick no bills; -- d'entrer, no admittance; -- de fumer,
             no smoking

   defensible
             not -ceable, -sable

   defensor fidei
             (Lat.), Defender of the Faith; abbr. DF

   defer/,-ence, -rable, -red, -rer
             -ring

   deferred  (shares), abbr. def.

   de fide   (Lat.), authentic, to be believed as part of the (Christian)
             faith

   definable not -eable

   defin/ed, -ite, -ition;
             abbr. def.

   definite article
             see the

   deflate   to remove air, to reverse economic inflation

   defle/ct  to bend downwards; -xion, correct, but -ction is increasingly
             common, and usual in US

   Defoe (Daniel)
             1661-1731, English writer, not de Foe

   defunct   abbr. def.

   deg.      degree(s)

   d‚gag/‚   (Fr. m.), fem. -‚e, unconstrained

   Degas (Hilaire Germain Edgar)
             1834-1917, French painter (no accent)

   de Gaulle (General Charles Andr‚ Joseph Marie)
             1890-1970, French President 1944-5, 1959-69

   degauss/, -ing
             anti-magnetic-mine device or method

   degradable
             not -eable

   degree    1/360th part of circle; -- of latitude, 69 statute or 60 geog.
             miles; abbr. d. or deg.

   degrees of/ inclination
             (typ.), to be in words, as "an angle of forty-five degrees",
             except in scientific and technical work; -- -- temperature, to
             be in figures

   d‚gringolade
             (Fr. f.), rapid deterioration

   de/ haut en bas
             (Fr.), contemptuously; -- haute lutte, with a high hand

   De‹aneira wife of Hercules; also an asteroid

   de-ice    (hyphen)

   Dei/ gratia
             (Lat.), by the grace of God; abbr. DG; -- judicium, the
             judgement of God (see also Deo)

   Deity (the)
             see capitalization

   d‚j… vu   (Fr.), seen before

   d‚jeuner/ (Fr. m.), breakfast or lunch; petit --, coffee and rolls on
             rising; -- … la fourchette, meat breakfast, early lunch

   de jure   (Lat.), by right

   Dekker (Thomas)
             c.1570-1640, English playwright

   Del.      Delaware (off. abbr.)

   del.      delegate, delete

   del.      delineavit (drew this)

   Delacroix (Ferdinand Victor EugЉne)
             1799-1863, French painter

   de la Mare (Walter)
             1873-1956, English poet

   de la Ram‚e (Louise)
             pseud. Ouida

   De la Roche (Mazo)
             1885-1961, Canadian novelist

   Delaroche (Paul)
             1797-1856, French painter

   Delaware  off. abbr. Del. or (postal) DE

   De La Warr (Earl)


   dele      (typ.), delete (proof-correction sign )

   deleatur  (Lat.), let it be deleted

   delegate  abbr. del.

   delenda   (Lat.), things to be deleted

   delft, delftware
             glazed earthenware made at Delft (formerly Delf) in Holland

   Delibes (L‚o)
             1836-91, French composer

   delicatesse
             delicacy (not ital.); in Fr. f. d‚licatesse

   delicatessen
             (Germanic pl. of above), prepared foods, shop or department
             selling them

   Delilah   (OT), but Dalila in Milton's Samson Agonistes

   delineable
             that can be delineated

   delineavit
             (Lat.), drew this; abbr.  del.

   delirium/ disordered state of mind, with hallucinations, pl. -s; --
             tremens, delirium with trembling induced by heavy drinking,
             abbr.  d.t., d.t.'s

   De L'Isle (Viscount)


   deliverer not -or

   Della Cruscan
             (noun and adj.), (member) of Florentine Accademia della Crusca,
             concerned with purity of Italian, sixteenth century; or of
             English poetical group in Florence, eighteenth century

   Della Robbia
             an enamelled terracotta invented by Luca della Robbia. See also
             Robbia

   Delphi    Greece, site of ancient oracle, in Gr. Delphoi

   de luxe   (Fr.), luxurious

   dem       (Ger.), to or for the (m. and neut. sing., dative)

   dem.      (typ.), demy

   demagog/ue, -y, -uery, -ic
             (of, action of) a leader of the people

   dem/ain   use -esne

   de mal en pis
             (Fr.), from bad to worse

   demarcate to mark the limits of, not -kate

   demarch   chief officer of anc. Attic deme; modern Greek mayor

   d‚marche  (Fr. f.), political procedure

   demean    to lower in dignity, to conduct (oneself)

   demeanour bearing towards another

   d‚menti   (Fr. m.), official denial

   dementia  mental enfeeblement (not ital.)

   demesne   a landed estate, not -ain

   demi/god, -john
             (one word)

   demilitarize
             not -ise

   demi/-monde
             (Fr. f.), prostitutes (ital., hyphen); ---pension, accommodation
             with one main meal per day; ---saison, spring or autumn fabric

   demise    death; to bequeath, not -ize

   demitasse small coffee-cup; in Fr.  f. demi-tasse

   demo/     colloq. for demonstration, pl. -s

   demobilize
             to discharge from the army; not -ise; colloq. demob

   Democrat/, -ic
             abbr. (US) D.

   democratize
             not -ise

   Democrit/us
             5th c. BC, Greek philosopher; adj. -ean

   d‚mod/‚   (Fr.), fem. -‚e, out of fashion

   demoiselle
             young lady (not ital.)

   Demoivre (Abraham)
             1667-1754, French mathematician (one word)

   demon     see daemon

   demon.    demonstrative

   demonetize
             to divest of value as currency, not -ise

   demon/ic, -ize
             not dae-

   demonstrable
             not -atable

   demonstrator
             not -er

   demoralize
             not -ise

   De Morgan (Augustus)
             1806-71, English mathematician; -- (William Frend), 1839-1917,
             his son, English novelist

   de mortuis nil nisi bonum
             or bene (Lat.), speak nothing but good of the dead

   demos     the people (not ital.)

   dempster  use deem-

   demurrable
             that may be demurred to

   demurrage undue detention of ship, railway wagon, etc.; compensation for
             this

   demurrer  (law), plea that opponent's facts, though true, do not support
             his case

   demy      a scholar at Magdalen Coll., Oxford; pl. demies

   demy      pron. demeye, with stress on second syllable (typ.), former size
             of paper, 17.5 x 22.5 in.; -- 4to, 11.25 x 8.75in.; -- 8vo, 8.75
             x 5 in. (untrimmed); basis for size of metric demy, 888 x 1128
             mm. See also book sizes

   D.En.     Department of Energy

   den       (Ger.), the (m. sing., accusative); to the (pl., dative)

   Den.      Denmark

   denar     use dinar

   denar/ius penny; pl. -ii, pence; abbr. d.

   denationalize
             not -ise

   dene      wooded valley, not dean

   D.Eng.    Doctor of Engineering

   dengue    not -- fever, denga, -gey

   Denholm   Borders

   Denholme  W. Yorks.

   deniable  etc., see deny

   denier    one-twelfth of French sou; unit of silk, rayon, nylon yarn
             weight

   denim     twilled cotton fabric for overalls, etc.

   Denmark   abbr. Den. See also Assemblies

   de nos jours
             (Fr.), of our time

   denouement
             an unravelling (no accent, not ital.)

   denounce  give notice to terminate (treaty)

   de nouveau
             (Fr.), afresh

   de novo   (Lat.), afresh

   dent.     dent/al, -ist, -istry

   dentelle  (Fr. f.), lace-work

   dentil    one of the toothlike blocks under the bed-moulding of a cornice,
             not -el, -ile

   den/y, -iable, -ial, -ier


   deoch an doris
             (Sc.), a parting-cup, not the many variants

   deodand   personal chattel that has caused death

   deodar    E. Indian cedar

   deodoriz/e
             not -ise; -er

   Deo/ favente
             (Lat.), with God's favour; -- gratias, thanks to God; --
             volente, God willing, abbr. DV (see also Dei)

   dep.      departs, deposed, deputy

   d‚p.      (Fr.), d‚partement (shire), d‚put‚ (deputy)

   DEP       Department of Employment and Productivity, now DE

   d‚partement
             (Fr. m.), shire; abbr.  d‚p.

   department
             abbr. dept.

   departmentalize
             not -ise

   Department of Education and Science
             abbr. DES

   Department of Employment
             abbr. DE

   Department of Energy
             abbr. D.En.

   Department of Health and Social
             Security, abbr. DHSS

   Department of Industry
             abbr. DI

   Department of the Environment
             abbr.  D.o.E.

   Department of Trade
             abbr. D.o.T.

   Department of Trade and Industry
             see now Department/ of Trade, -- Industry

   d‚pays/‚  (Fr.) fem. -‚e, out of one's usual element

   depend/ant
             (noun), -ence, -ent (adj.)

   depilatory
             removing, or remover of, hair

   de pis en pis
             (Fr.), from bad to worse

   de plano  (law), clearly

   depolarize
             not -ise

   deposed   abbr. dep.

   depositary
             a person

   depositor not -er

   depository
             a place

   depot     in Fr. m. d‚p“t

   depressible
             not -able

   de profundis
             (Lat.), out of the depths

   de proprio motu
             (Lat.), of his, or her, own accord

   dept.     department

   d‚put‚    a member of the lower French Chamber

   deputize  not -ise

   deputy    abbr. dep.

   Deputy Lieutenant
             abbr. DL

   De Quincey (Thomas)
             1785-1859, English essayist

   der       (Ger.), the (m. sing.  nominative) of or to or for the (f.
             sing., genitive and dative, or m., f, and neut. pl., genitive)

   der.      deriv/ation, -ative, -ed

   Derbyshire
             abbr. Derby.

   de rЉgle  (Fr.), in order

   de rigueur
             (Fr.), according to etiquette

   derisible laughable, not -able

   derisory  derisive, scoffing

   deriv/ation, -ative, -ed;
             abbr. der.

   derm      the true skin; also derm/a, -is

   dernier/  (Fr.), last; -- cri, the very latest; -- ressort, a last
             resource

   derring-do
             daring action, not doe

   Derry     postally acceptable abbr. of Londonderry (town or county)

   der Tag   (Ger.), the (great) day

   derv      fuel oil for heavy vehicles

   DES       Department of Education

   des       (Fr.), of the (pl.); as prefix to a proper name, treat as de,
             q.v.

   dЉs       (Fr.), since

   des       (Ger.), of the (m. and neut.  sing., genitive)

   Descartes (Ren‚)
             1596-1650, French mathematician and philosopher; adj.  Cartesian

   descend/ant
             (noun), person or thing descended; -ent (adj.), descending

   descender (typ.), lower part of letters such as g, j, p, q, y

   descendible
             that may descend or be descended, not -able

   desert    a wilderness; to abandon.  See also dessert

   desert/ed, -er
             abbr. d.

   d‚shabill‚
             (Fr. m.), undress, dishabille

   desiccate to dry, not dessicate

   desiderat/um
             something desired; pl.  -a (not ital.)

   desirable not -eable

   Des Moines
             Iowa, US

   desorb, desorption
             release from adsorbed state

   despatch  use dis-

   desperado/
             a desperate man; pl. -es (not ital.)

   despicable


   despise   not dis-, -ize

   despotize to act the despot, not -ise

   dessert   a dinner course. See also desert

   dessertspoonful/
             pl. -s, two drams (one word)

   dessicate use desiccate

   destra/   (It.), right-hand side, abbr. d.; -- mano (mus.), the right
             hand, abbr. DM

   destructible
             not -able

   destructor
             a refuse-burning furnace, not -er

   desuetude disuse

   desunt/ cetera
             (Lat.), the rest are missing; -- multa, many things are wanting

   Detaille (Jean Baptiste ђdouard)
             1848-1912, French painter (no accent)

   detector  (person or thing), not -er

   de te fabula narratur
             (Lat.), of thee is the story told

   detent    a catch (mechanical)

   d‚tente   (Ft. f.), cessation of strained relations between States

   d‚tenu/   (Fr.), fem. -e, one detained in custody

   deterrent not -ant

   detonat/e, -or


   detour    a circuitous way; in Fr. m.  d‚tour

   detract/or
             fem. -ress

   detritus  debris (not ital.)

   de trop   (Fr.), not wanted; superfluous

   Deus/     (Lat.), God, abbr. D.; -- avertat! God forbid! -- det, God
             grant; -- misereatur, God be merciful

   deus ex machina
             "a god from a machine" (device in anc. Gr.  theatre), a solution
             or intervention in the nick of time

   deuterium symbol D (no point); -- oxide, heavy water

   Deuteronomy
             abbr. Deut.

   Deutsch/  (Andr‚), Ltd., publishers; -- (Otto Erich), 1883-1967 compiler
             of thematic catalogue of Schubert's works, see D.

   Deutsche Mark
             (W. Ger. curency), usu. written and spoken Deutschmark or
             D-Mark, abbr. DM (no point). See also mark

   Deutschland, Deutsches Reich
             Ger.  names for Germany

   de Valera (ђamon)
             1882-1975, Prime Minister of Ireland, 1937-48, 1951-4, 1957-9,
             President, 1959-73

   Devanagari
             Ind. alphabet

   develop/, -able, -ment
             not -pe

   devest    see divest

   deviat/e, -or
             not -er

   deviling  a young devil

   devilling working as a hack

   devilry   not -try

   devil's advocate
             official at papal court who proposed objections to a
             canonization, an adverse critic

   Devil's Island
             penal settlement, Fr. Guiana

   devis/e   not -ize; -er, one who devises (non-legal)

   devis/ee  one who is bequeathed real estate; -or, one who bequeaths it

   devitalize
             to render lifeless, not -ise

   devoir    an act of civility (not ital.

   Devon     off. name of the county

   Devonshire
             abbr. Devon.

   De Vries (Hugo)
             1848-1935, Dutch botanist

   DEW       distant early warning

   Dewalee   use Diwali

   dewar     vacuum flask (not cap.)

   De Wet (Christian Rudolph)
             1854-1922, Boer general and statesman

   Dewey (George)
             1837-1917, US admiral; -- (John), 1859-1952, US philosopher; --
             (Melvil), 1851-1931, US librarian; -- (Thomas Edmund), 1902-71,
             US politician

   De Witt (Jan)
             1625-72, Dutch statesman

   dexter    (her.), the shield-bearer's right, the observer's left, opp.
             sinister

   dextrous/ not -erous; -ly

4.7 DF...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   DF        defensor fidei (Defender of the Faith), Dean of Faculty,
             direction-find/er, -ing

   DFC       Distinguished Flying Cross

   DFM       Distinguished Flying Medal

   dft.      draft

4.8 DG...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   DG        Dei gratia (by the grace of God), Deo gratias (thanks to God),
             Director-General, Dragoon Guards

   dg        decigram(s) (no point in scientific and technical work

   d.h.      (Ger.), das heisst (that is to say)

4.9 Dhaka...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   Dhaka     Bangladesh

   dhobi     Indian washerman

   dhooly    use doolie

   dhoti     nether garment of male Hindu, not -ee, -ootie

   dhow      an Arab vessel (accepted misspelling of dow), not daou, daw

   DHSS      Department of Health and Social Security

   Dhuleep   use Du-

   dhurrie   Indian cotton fabric, not durrie

4.10 DI...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   DI        Defence Intelligence, Department of Industry

   d.i.      (Ger.), das ist (that is)

   dia.      diameter

   diablerie devilry, not -ry (not ital.)

   diachylon a plaster, not -um, -culum

   diaconate office of deacon, not de-

   diaeresis (typ.), sign directing the second of two vowels to be pronounced
             separately, as in na‹ve; not die-

   Diaghilev (Sergei Pavlovich)
             1872-1929, Russian ballet impresario

   diagnos/is
             pl. -es

   dial/, -led, -ling


   dialect/, -al, -ic, -ical;
             abbr.  dial.

   diallage  (rhet.), figure of speech in which various arguments are brought
             to bear on one point, (mineral.) a brown, grey, or green mineral
             similar to augite

   dialling/ code, -- tone
             (two words)

   dialogue  conversation in drama, novels, etc., not necessarily between two
             persons only

   dialyse   (chem.), to separate by filtration through a membrane, not -ize,
             -yze

   dialys/is pl. -es

   diamant‚  (Fr.), sparkling with powdered crystal

   diameter  abbr. dia. or diam.

   diamond   (typ.), name for a former size of type, about 4.5 pt.

   diarchy   rule by two authorities, not dy-

   diarrhoea not -oea

   diaspora  a dispersal; (cap.) that of the Jews after the Babylonian
             captivity of 597-538 BC

   diatessaron
             a harmony of the four gospels (not cap.)

   diathes/is
             a habit of body, pl. -es

   DIC       Diploma of Membership of Imperial College, London

   dic/ey    risky, not -cy; -ier, -iest

   dichotomize
             to divide into two parts, not -ise

   Dickens House
             London, headquarters of the Dickens Fellowship (no apos.)

   dickey    use dicky

   Dicksee (Sir Frank)
             1853-1928, painter, PRA 1924-8

   dicky     rear seat (usu. folding type), false shirt-front, small bird,
             not -ey

   dict.     dictator, dictionary

   Dictaphone
             (propr. term)

   dictionnaire
             (Fr. m., two ns), dictionary

   dict/um   a saying; pl. -a

   dicy      use dicey

   didactyl  two-fingered, not -le

   didn't    to be printed close up

   Didot     (typ.), European system for type measurement; 12 pt. Didot =
             4.512 mm. See also body

   didst     (no apos.)

   die       (Ger.), the (f. sing., and m., f., and neut. pl., nominative and
             accusative)

   diecious  use dioe-

   died      abbr. d. See also dagger

   die-hard  (hyphen)

   dieresis  use diae-

   dies      (Lat.), day(s)

   diesel    compression-ignition engine

   dies/ fausti
             (Lat.), auspicious days; -- infausti, inauspicious days; --
             irae, day of wrath

   dies/is   (typ.), rare name for double dagger; pl. -es (See Figure 5 in
             topic FRONT_4)

   dies/ juridicus
             (Lat.), a day on which courts sit; -- nefasti, blank days; --
             non (law), a day on which no business is done

   die-stamping
             (typ.), intaglio (q.v.)  process leaving raised impression

   dietitian not -cian

   Dieu et mon droit
             God and my right (English royal motto)

   Die Wacht am Rhein
             (Ger.), the Watch on the Rhine, famous German patriotic song

   differ/, -ence
             abbr. diff.

   differenti/a
             a distinguishing mark; pl. -ae

   digamma   archaic Gr. letter

   digester  person or instrument, not -or

   digestible
             not -able

   digitiz/ation
             (comp.), electronic reduction of characters, by scanning, to a
             series of digital signals; -ed fount, fount so prepared stored
             electronically in photosetter (also called ECM)

   dignitary not -atory

   digraph   two letters represeing one sound, as ph in digraph. See also
             dipthongs and Hart's Rules, p. 62

   dike      not dyke

   diktat    categorical statement (not ital.)

   dil.      dilute

   dilapidat/e, -ed, -ion
             not de-

   dilatable not -eable

   dilatation
             expansion, "more correct than dilation" (OED)

   dilator   muscle or instrument that expands, incorrectly formed but more
             common than dilatator

   dilemma/  position involving choice between two unsatisfactory lines of
             argument or action; pl. -s

   dilettant/e
             (It.), a lover of or dabbler in the fine arts; pl. -es or -i

   Dilhorne (Viscount)
             fam. name Manningham-Buller

   diligence a stage-coach (not ital.)

   Dillon (Viscount)


   diluvi/um (geol.), aqueous deposit; pl. -a (not ital.)

   dim.      dimidium (one half), diminutive

   dim.      diminuendo

   dime      (US), ten cents; abbr. d.

   diminuendo
             (It. mus.), getting softer; abbr. dim.

   DIN       Deutsche Industrie-Norm; the international paper-size system
             (some trimmed sizes in mm.): A0, 841 x 1,189; A4, 210 x 297; A5,
             148 x 210; B0, 1,000 x 1,414; B1, 707 x 1,000. For some
             untrimmed sizes in this system, see book sizes

   Dinan     d‚p. Cotes-du-Nord, France

   Dinant    Belgium

   dinar     Byzantine gold coin (denarius); unit of currency in various
             Asian and African countries and Yugoslavia, not de-

   Dinard    d‚p. Cotes-du-Nord, France

   d'Indy (Paul Marie Th‚odore Vincent)
             1851-1931, French composer (small d)

   Ding an sich
             (Ger. philos. n.), thing in itself

   ding-dong (hyphen)

   dinghy    small boat, not -gey, -gy

   dingo/    Australian native dog; pl.  -es

   dingy     grimy. See also dinghy

   dining/-car, -room, -table
             (hyphens)

   dinner-jacket
             abbr. DJ

   dioces/e, -an;
             abbr. dioc.

   dioecious (bot.), not die-

   Diogenes  412-323 BC, Cynic philosopher

   Diogenes Laertius
             biographer of philosophers, about AD 200

   dionym    a binomial name, as Homo sapiens

   Dionysia  (noun pl.), orgiastic and dramatic festival(s) of Dionysus

   Dionysi/ac
             of Dionysus; -an, of Dionysus or of Dionysius

   Dionysius 430-367 BC, and his son, fl. 350 BC, tyrants of Syracuse

   Dionysus  Greek god Bacchus

   dioptre   lens measure, abbr. d.

   Dioscuri (the)
             Castor and Pollux

   Dip.      Diploma

   Dip. A.D. Diploma in Art and Design

   Dip. Ed.  Diploma in Education

   Dip. H.E. Diploma of Higher Education

   diphtheria
             not dipth-

   diphthongs
             (typ.), combined letters to represent single sounds, are
             employed in Danish, French, Icelandic, Norwegian, and
             Old-English words, and as phonetic symbols, instead of the
             separate letters ae, oe. ae and oe should be used in Latin and
             Greek words.  Generally no ligatures are used in US. See also
             German

   diplomat  not now diplomatist; abbr.  dipl.

   diplomate one holding a diploma; in Fr. dipl“m/‚, fem. -‚e

   Diplomatic
             Lectureship in, not Diplomatics

   dipsomania/, -c


   Directoire
             French Directory of 1795-9; adj., of the dress or furniture of
             the period (cap.)

   directress
             female director

   directrix (geom.)

   Dirichlet series (math.)

   dirigible

   dirigisme (Fr. m.), economic control by the State

   dirndl    Alpine peasant bodice and full skirt

   dis-      see dys-

   dis.      discipline, discontinue, -ed, discount, (typ.) distribute

   dis aliter visum
             (Lat.), the gods have thought otherwise

   disappoint
             (one s, two ps)

   disassemble
             take (machine) apart.  See also dissemble

   disassociate
             use dissociate

   disburden not -then

   disbursement
             not -sment

   disc      now accepted for disk, esp. in compds., disc harrow, disc
             jockey, slipped disc; also compact (optical) disc

   disc.     discover/ed, -et; discount

   disc      jockey, abbr. DJ

   discern/  to see; -ible. See also decern

   disciplinary
             not -ery

   discipline
             abbr. dis.

   discipular
             disciple-like

   disco/    dancing-party with records, pl. -s

   discobol/us
             a discus-thrower, not -ulus; pl. -i (not cap.). The Discobolus
             (cap.), the lost statue by Myron, of which discoboli are copies

   discoloration
             not discolour-

   discolour/, -ed, -ment
             not discolor

   discomfit/, -ed, -ing
             to thwart; noun, -ure

   discomfort
             (noun) lack of ease; (verb) to make uneasy

   disconnection


   discontinu/e, -ed
             abbr. dis.

   discoth‚que
             room or small hall used for dancing to recorded music

   discount  abbr. dis.

   discover/ed, -er;
             abbr. disc.

   discreet  judicious

   discrete  separate

   disect    use dissect

   disenfranchise
             use disfranchise

   disenthral/
             not -enthrall, -inthral(l); -led, -ment

   disenthrone
             use dethrone

   diseu/r   (Fr. m.), artist entertaining with monologues, fem.  -se

   disfavour not -vor

   disfranchise
             not -ize

   disguis/e, -er


   dishabille
             untidy dress

   dishevelled
             with hair or dress in disorder, not -eled

   disinterested
             impartial (not the same as uninterested)

   disjecta membra
             (Lat.), scattered remains, but "disjecti membra poetae" (Horace)

   disk      (in comp. input) of limp plastic, storing input-material and
             driving photosetter

   dismissible
             not -able

   disorganiz/e, -er
             not -ise

   disorient/ed, -ing
             and disorientat/ed, -ing, are equally established in modern
             usage. See also orient

   dispatch/, -er
             not des-

   dispensable
             not -ible

   dispensary
             abbr. disp.

   dispise   use de-

   display/  (typ.), the setting and leading of titles, advertisements, etc.,
             direction to set in this style; -- type, of size or cut suited
             to this, or any type cast in an especially durable metal

   Disraeli (Benjamin)
             1804-81, Earl of Beaconsfield

   d'Israeli (Isaac)
             1766-1848, writer, father of the foregoing

   dissect/, -ion, -or
             not dise-

   disseis/e to dispossess wrongfully, not -ze; -ee, -in, -or, -oress

   dissemble to conceal. See also disassemble

   disseminat/e
             to scatter abroad; -or

   Dissenter from Church of England (cap.)

   dissertation
             abbr. diss.

   dissociate
             to separate, not disassociate

   dissoluble
             not -uable

   dissolvable
             not -ible

   dissyllable
             use disy-

   dissymmetry
             not disy-

   dist.     distance, distilled, distinguish, -ed, district

   distension
             state of being stretched, not -tion

   distich/  couplet; pl. -s

   distil/   but -lation; -led, abbr.  dist.

   distingu/‚
             (Fr.), fem. -‚e, distinguished-looking

   distinguish/, -ed;
             abbr. dist.

   distrait/ (Fr.), fem. -e, absent-minded

   distributary
             one of the streams of a river delta

   distribute
             (typ.), to put type back into case, or to melt down type; abbr.
             dis.

   distributor
             one who or that which distributes

   district  abbr. dist.

   District/ Attorney
             (US), abbr. DA; -- Court, -- of Columbia, abbr. DC; -- Registry,
             DR

   disyllab/le, -ic, -ize
             of two syllables, not diss-; in Fr. m.  dissyllabe

   disymmetry
             use diss-

   ditheism  belief in two gods, not dy-

   dithyramb wild hymn of Bacchic revellers, not dythi-

   ditto     abbr. do.

   div.      divide, -d, dividend, divine, division, divisor, divorce, (Fr.)
             divers (diverse)

   divers    sundry

   diverse   different

   diverticul/um
             a byway, esp. of the intestines; pl. -a

   divertiment/o
             (It.), a kind of ballet, (mus.) entertainment-piece, pl. -i;
             also (Fr.) divertissement

   divest    not de- (except in law, as devest out of)

   divid/e, -ed, -end, division
             divisor, abbr. div. Sign for ц

   divide et impera
             (Lat.), divide and rule

   Divina Commedia (La)
             1300-18, by Dante, not Come-

   Divis     (Ger. typ. n.), the hyphen

   divisi    (mus.), in several parts

   divisible not -able

   divisim   (Lat.), separately

   division of words.
             Usually divide a word after a vowel, taking over the consonant.
             In present participles take over -ing, as sound-ing, divid-ing;
             but trick-ling, chuck-ling, and similar words. Generally, when
             two consonants or vowels come together divide between them, as
             splen-dour, appreci-ate.  Terminations such as -cian, -sion,
             -tion should not be divided when forming one sound, as Gre-cian,
             ascen-sion, subtrac-tion.  Hyphenated words should be divided at
             the hyphen, and in lexical work etc. a second hyphen may be used
             to clarify their spelling, e.g.  second-/-hand. Avoid divisions
             which might confuse: leg-ends (le-gends), reap-pear (re-appear),
             ex-acting (exact-ing). American printers divide strictly
             according to pronunciation. For a fuller treatment and for
             word-division in foreign languages see Hart's Rules, pp. 14-16,
             97-8, etc.

   divisor   (math.), a factor

   divorc/‚  fem. -‚e, a divorced person; Eng. divorcee is common gender

   Diwali    Hindu festival, not Dewalee

   Dixie/    or -land (one word), the Southern States, US

   DIY       do it yourself

4.11 DJ...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   DJ        dinner-jacket, disc jockey

   Djakarta  Indonesia, use Jak-

   djellaba, djibbah
             use j-

   Djibouti  formerly French Territory of Afars and Issas, use Jibuti

   djinn     see jinnee

4.12 DL...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   DL        Deputy-Lieutenant

   dl        decilitre(s) (no point in scientific and technical work)

   D.Lit.    Doctor of Literature; D.Litt., Doctor of Letters. See also
             Lit.D., Litt.D.

   DLM       (mus.), double long metre

   DLO       Dead Letter Office, now Returned -- --

4.13 DM...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   DM        Deputy Master, Deutsche Mark (W.  Ger. currency), Doctor of
             Medicine (Oxford), (Fr.) Docteur en M‚decine (Doctor of
             Medicine), (It. mus.)  destra mano (the right hand)

   dm        decimetre(s) (no point in scientific and technical work)

   D-Mark    see Deutsche Mark

   D.Mus.    Doctor of Music

4.14 DN...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   DN        Dominus noster (our Lord)

   DNA       deoxyribonucleic acid

   DNB       Dictionary of National Biography

   Dnieper River
             White Russia-Ukraine; in Russ. Dnepr

   Dniester River
             Ukraine; in Russ.  Dnestr

   D-notice  official request to news editors not to publish item

4.15 do...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   do        (noun), pl. dos

   do        (mus.), use doh

   do.       ditto, the same

   DOA       dead on arrival

   doat      use dote

   Dobermann pinscher
             German breed of hound

   doc.      document(s)

   Docent    (Ger. m.) a university teacher, now Doz-

   doch-an-doris
             use deoch an doris

   docket/, -ed, -ing


   dockyard  (one word)

   Doctor    abbr. D., (but Dr before name); Doctor of/ Canon Law or Civil
             Law, DCL; -- -- Dental Surgery, DDS; -- -- Divinity, DD; -- --
             Laws, LL D; -- -- Letters, D.Litt. or Lit(t).D.; -- --
             Literature, Lit.D.; -- -- Medicine, MD or DM; -- -- Music,
             D.Mus. or Mus.D.; -- -- Philosophy, Ph.D or D.Phil.; -- --
             Science, D.Sc. or Sc.D.; -- -- Veterinary Science or Surgery,
             DVS

   Doctors' Commons
             London, where marriage licences were formerly issued by the
             Bishop of London's Registry (apos.)

   doctrinaire
             an unpractical theorist; theoretical and unpractical (not ital.)

   documentary
             (noun), factual report or film

   documents (typ.), to be an exact reprint; abbr. doc.

   dodecaphonic
             (mus.), of the twelve-note scale

   dodgem    (car at fun-fair)

   dodo/     extinct flightless bird; pl.  -s

   D.o.E.    Department of the Environment

   doesn't   to be printed close up

   dogana    (It. f.), custom-house

   dogate    office of doge, not -eate (not ital.)

   dogcart   (one word)

   dog-days  3 July-11 August (hyphen)

   doge      chief magistrate of Venice (not ital.)

   dogfight, dogfish
             (one word)

   doggerel  unpoetic verse, not -grel

   Doggett's Coat and Badge
             trophies of Thames Watermen's championship

   doggie    noun; doggy, adj.

   doghouse  (one word)

   dog-Latin barbarous Latin (hyphen)

   dogma/    authoritative doctrine; pl.  -s

   dogmatize not -ise

   dogsbody  (naut. slang) junior officer; general drudge

   dog-star  (hyphen)

   doh       (mus.), not do

   Dohn nyi (Ern”)
             1877-1960, Hungarian composer

   doily     a napkin, not -ey, doyley, -ly, d'oyley, -ie

   dolce     (mus.), sweetly

   dolce/ far niente
             (It.), delightful idleness; -- vita, sweet life

   doleful   not -ll

   Dolgellau Gwynedd, not -ey

   dollar mark
             (typ.), to be before, and close up to, the figures, as $50.
             Various dollars differentiated as $A (Australian), $HK (Hong
             Kong), $US, etc.

   Dollfuss (Engelbert)
             1892-1934, Austrian politician, Chancellor 1932-4

   doll's house
             not -s'

   dolman    Turkish robe, hussar's jacket, woman's mantle

   dolmen    prehistoric tomb

   dolorous  doleful, but dolour

   DOM       Deo optimo maximo (To God the best and greatest); Dominus omnium
             magister (God the Master, or Lord, of all)

   Dom       (Ger.), cathedral; (Russ.)  house; (Port.) title of nobility;
             also title of certain monks, as Dom Gasquet; not Don

   dom.      domestic, dominion

   domaine   a vineyard

   Domenichino
             real name Domenico Zampieri, 1581-1641, Italian painter

   "Domesday Book"
             not Dooms-; abbr.  DB

   domestic  abbr. dom.

   domicile  not -cil

   Domine dirige nos
             (Lat.), O Lord, direct us (motto of the City of London)

   Dominica  one of the Windward Islands, W. Indies

   Dominican Republic
             W. Indies, formerly Santo Domingo, the eastern portion of the
             island of Hispaniola

   dominie   (old Sc.), teacher, preacher; (current locally) headmaster

   dominion  abbr. dom.

   Dominion Day
             Canada, 1 July

   domino/   cloak, mask, piece in game; pl. -es

   Dominus/  (Lat.), Lord; abbr. D.; -- noster, our Lord, DN

   Domus Procerum
             (law), the House of Lords; abbr. DP or Dom. Proc.

   Don       Spanish title; see Dom

   Donegal   Ireland

   Donegall (Marquess of)


   Donizetti (Gaetano)
             1797-1848, Italian composer

   donna     (It.), a lady (ital.)

   Donne     (John), 1573-1631, English poet

   donn‚e    (Fr. f.), basic fact

   don't     to be printed close up

   doolie    (Ind.), a litter, palanquin, not dhooley, -lie, -ly, dooly

   Doolittle (Eliza)
             heroine of Shaw's Pygmalion; -- (Hilda), 1886-1961, US poet

   "Doomsday Book"
             use Domesday

   door-keeper
             (hyphen)

   doormouse use dor-

   Doornik   Fl. for Tournai

   dop       (Afrik.), brandy, tot

   doppelg„nger
             (Ger. m.), a wraith

   Doppelpunkt
             (Ger. typ. m.), the colon

   doppio (movimento)
             (It.), double (speed)

   Doppler effect
             (phys.), apparent change of frequency when source of vibrations
             is approaching or receding, from Christian Johann Doppler,
             1803-53, Austrian physicist; not ”

   Dor.      Doric

   DORA      Defence of the Realm Act, 1914

   Dor‚ (Paul Gustave)
             1833-83, French painter and engraver

   dormer window
             (two words)

   dormeuse  (Fr. f.), a settee, nightcap, travelling sleeping carriage

   dor/mouse not door-; pl. -mice

   dormy     (golf), as many up as there are holes to play, not -ie

   Dorneywood
             Bucks., country house used as off. residence by any Minister
             designated by the Prime Minister

   dorp      (Afrik.), village, country town

   d'Orsay (Alfred Guillaume Gabriel, Count)
             1801-52, "the last dandy"

   Dorset    not Dorsetshire

   dory, John Dory
             fish, not -ey

   dos- -dos (Fr.), back to back, a sofa made for sitting so

   dosage    (med.), not -eage

   dose      (med.), abbr. d.

   dosimeter not dosemeter

   Dos Passos (John Roderigo)
             1896-1970, US writer

   dossier   papers referring to some matter (not ital.)

   Dostoevsky (Fyodor Mikhailovich)
             1821-81, Russian novelist

   D.o.T.    Department of Trade

   dot       (Fr. f.), dowry

   dot/e     to show great fondness, not doat; -age, -ard

   Douai     d‚p. Nord, France, not -y; Douai School, but Douay Bible

   douane    custom-house; abbr. d.

   double    (typ.), a word, etc., erroneously repeated

   double-barrelled
             (hyphen), not -eled

   double-bass
             (mus.), (hyphen)

   double entendre
             word or phrase of two meanings, one of them usu.  indecent (obs.
             Fr., now Anglicized; the mod. Fr. is double entente (un mot …))

   double pica
             (typ.), name for a former size of type, about 22 pt.

   doublure  (Fr. typ. f.), ornamental inner lining to a book-cover

   doucement (Fr. mus.), sweetly

   douceur   (Fr. f.), a gratuity

   douche    jet of water directed at the body (not ital.)

   doughboy  (US), a dumpling, an American infantryman (one word)

   doughnut  (one word)

   Doukhobors
             use Duk-

   Dounreay  Highland, atomic research station

   douse     to drench with water, extinguish. See also dowse

   douzaine  (Fr. f), dozen; abbr. dzne.

   dovecot   not -cote

   dow       use dhow

   dowager   a widow with a dower or retaining her title; abbr. dow.

   dowel/    headless pin usu. of wood, to fasten with this; -led, -ling

   dower     widow's life-interest in her husband's property

   Dow-Jones NY Stock Exchange index (hyphen)

   Down      N. Ireland

   downbeat  (one word)

   Downe (Viscount)


   down/fall, -hill
             (one word)

   down-market
             (adj., hyphen)

   down/pour, -right, -stairs, -stream, -trodden, -wind
             (one word)

   dowry     money or property brought by a bride to her husband

   dowse     to use a divining rod (see also douse)

   doyen/    the senior member of a society (not ital.); fem. -ne

   d'oyl/ey, -ie
             use doily

   D'Oyly Carte (Richard)
             1844-1901, theatrical impresario

   doze      to sleep

   dozen/    -s, abbr. doz.

   Dozent    (Ger. m.), a university teacher, not now Doc- (cap.)

4.16 DP...
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   DP        displaced person (refugee); (law) Domus Procerum (the House of
             Lords)

   DPAS      Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society

   DPH       Diploma in Public Health

   D.Phil.   Doctor of Philosophy (Oxford, Sussex, York); Ph.D. more usual

   DPP       Director of Public Prosecutions

4.17 DR...
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   DR        (naut.) dead reckoning, dispatch rider, District/ Railway, --
             Registry, (Ger.) Deutsches Reich (German Empire)

   Dr        doctor (before name)

   dr.       drachm, -s, drachma (dram or coin), -s, dram, -s, drawer

   drachm    use dram, except for apothecaries' measure and weight; abbr. dr.

   drachma/  a dram, various coins; pl.  -s, abbr. dr.

   draft     a deduction in weighing, a mil. party, a money order, a rough
             sketch; to draw off, to sketch; abbr. dft. See also draught

   draftsman one who drafts documents.  See also draughtsman

   drag‚e    a sweetmeat enclosing drug or nut or fruit

   draggle-tail
             a slut, not daggle-

   dragoman/ Arabic interpreter; pl.  -s, not -men

   dragon-fly
             (hyphen)

   dragonnade
             French persecution of Protestants in 1681, not -onade, -oonade

   Dragoon Guards
             abbr. DG; these are not "Guardsmen"

   dram      sixty grains, one teaspoonful, sixty minims, small drink, see
             drachm; pl. -s, abbr. dr.

   dramat/ic, -ist
             abbr. dram.

   dramatis personae
             (list of) characters in a play, abbr. dram.  pers.

   dramatize not -ise

   Drang nach Osten
             (Ger.), desire for expansion eastwards

   Drapier's Letters
             by Swift, 1724

   draught   act of drawing, a take of fish, 20 lb. of eels, act of drinking,
             a dose, a vessel's depth in water, a current of air, liquor "on
             draught". See also draft

   draughtsman
             one who makes drawings, plans, etc., piece in game of draughts.
             See also draftsman

   drawback  in tech. meaning of excise duty remitted, abbr. dbk.

   drawer    abbr. dr.

   drawing-room
             (hyphen)

   draw-on   cover (bind.), limp cover glued to back of book

   Drdla (Franz)
             1868-1944, Czech composer

   dreadnought
             thick cloth, battleship, not -naught

   Dred Scott
             Negro slave (19th c.), subject of US law case

   Dreiser (Theodore)
             1871-1945, US novelist

   driblet   a trickle, not dribb-

   dri/er, -est, -ly;
             also drier, one who or that which dries; but dry/ish, -ness

   driftwood (one word)

   drip/-dry, -proof
             (hyphens)

   drivable  not -eable

   drivell/ed, -er, -ing
             (two ls)

   drive out (typ.), to set matter with wide word spacing, such setting

   drizzling (meteor.), abbr. d.

   droit     moral and legal right

   droit de seigneur
             (Fr. m.), lord's right to enjoy vassal's bride

   droite    (Fr. f.), the right hand; abbr. d.

   Drontheim use Trondheim

   dropped head
             (typ.), opening title of chapter etc. set lower than first line
             of text on other pages

   droshky   (Russ. pl. drozhki), a four-wheeled vehicle, not -sky

   drought/, -y
             arid(ity), not drouth

   DRP       Deutsches Reichspatent (German patent)

   drum/beat, -fire, -head, -stick
             (one word)

   drunkenness
             (three ns)

   Druse     one of a Syrian sect, not Druz, -e

   Dryasdust a dull pedant (character in prefaces of Scott's novels) (one
             word, cap.)

   dry/er, -est, -ly
             use dri-

   dry goods (US), textiles

   dry/ish, -ness


   dry-point etching needle, the work produced by it (hyphen)

4.18 DS...
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   DS        (mus.) dal segno (from the sign) disseminated sclerosis

   Ds.       dominus; at Cambridge, a Bachelor of Arts

   DSC       Distinguished Service Cross

   D.Sc.     Doctor of Science

   DSIR      Department of Scientific and Industrial Research

   DSM       Distinguished Service Medal; (mus.) double short metre

   DSO       (Companion of the) Distinguished Service Order

   d.s.p.    decessit sine prole (died without issue)

   d.t., d.t.'s
             delirium tremens

4.19 Du....
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   Du.       Dutch

   du        as prefix to a proper name, in accordance with continental
             practice, should not have initial cap., as du Chѓtelet, except
             when Anglicized or at beginning of sentence. Signatures to be
             copied

   Dual Monarchy
             (caps.)

   dub.      dubitans (doubting), dubius (dubious)

   Du Barry (Marie Jeanne B‚cu comtesse)
             1746-93, favourite of Louis XV of France

   dubbin    grease for leather, not -ing

   Dublin    abbr. Dubl.

   Dubois-Raymond (Emil)
             1818-96, German physiologist, not du Bois

   duc       (Fr.), Duke; fem. duchesse (not cap.)

   duces tecum
             (Lat.), a subpoena

   du Chaillu (Paul Belloni)
             1837-1904, French-American explorer in Africa

   duckbill  (one word); duck-billed platypus (one hyphen)

   ductus    (Lat. med.), a duct; pl. same

   Dudevant  see Sand (George)

   duell/er, -ing, -ist
             (two ls)

   duenna    Spanish chaperon (not ital.)

   duffle/   coarse woollen cloth; -bag, -coat (hyphens)

   Dufy (Raoul)
             1877-1953, French painter

   dug-out   canoe made from single tree-trunk (hyphen)

   Duguesclin (Bernard)
             1314-80, Constable of France

   duiker    (Afrik.), a small antelope, not duy-

   duke      cap. as title, abbr. D.; in Fr. duc (not cap.)

   Dukhobors Russian sect, not Douk-

   Duleep Singh
             not Dhuleep, Dulip

   dullness  not dulness

   Dulong and Petit (law of)
             (physics)

   Dumas (Davy de la Pailleterie Alexandre)
             1802-70, French writer; -- (fils, Alexandre), his son, 1824-95,
             also writer; -- (Jean Baptiste Andr‚), 1800-84, chemist

   du Maurier (George Louis Palmella Busson)
             1834-96, English artist and author; -- (Sir Gerald), 1873-1934,
             his son, actor-manager; -- (Dame Daphne), 1907-89, his daughter,
             author

   Dumbarton Strathclyde

   Dumbarton Oaks
             estate in Washington, DC, at which -- -- Conference was held,
             1944

   dumb-bell (hyphen)

   dumbfound/, -ed, -er
             not dumf-

   Dumfries & Galloway
             region of Scotland

   dum sola (et casta)
             (law), while unmarried (and chaste)

   Dunbarton former Scottish county.  See also Dumbarton

   Dunblane  Central, not Dum-

   Duncan-Sandys (Baron)
             (hyphen)

   Dunelm:   sig. of Bp. of Durham (colon); of Durham University (no point,
             no colon)

   dungaree  coarse calico; pl.  overalls made of it; not -eree(s)

   duniwassal
             (Sc.), a Highland gentleman, not dunni-

   Dunkirk   d‚p. Nord, France; in Fr.  Dunkerque

   Dun Laoghaire
             port of Dublin

   Dunnottar Castle
             Grampian

   Duns Scotus (Johannes)
             1265 or 1274-1308, metaphysician

   duo/      pair of artistes; pl. -s

   duodecimo/
             or twelvemo/ (typ.), a book based on 12 leaves, 24 pages, to the
             sheet; pl. -s; abbr. 12mo

   duologue  (stage) conversation between two

   duplex/ apartment
             (US), one on two floors; -- house (US), one for two families

   duplication of points
             see punctuation XV

   Du Pont   family of American industrialists

   Duquesne/ (Abraham, marquis)
             1610-88, French admiral; -- Fort, French fort, 1754, renamed
             Fort Pitt (Pittsburg, Pa.), 1758, on its capture by the English

   dur       (Ger. mus.), major

   durab/le, -ility


   DЃrer (Albrecht)
             1471-1528, German painter; Dureresque, in his style

   duress    constraint, not -e

   D'Urfey (Thomas)
             1653-1723, English playwright

   Durham    abbr. Dur.

   DЃrrenmatt (Friedrich)
             b. 1921, Swiss playwright

   durrie    use dhurrie

   Dushanbe  formerly Stalinabad, cap.  of Tadjikistan, USSR

   Dussek (Jan Ladislav)
             1760-1812, Bohemian composer

   DЃsseldorf
             W. Germany

   dust-bowl area denuded of vegetation by drought (hyphen); Dust Bowl
             (caps., no hyphen), the region along the western edge of the
             Great Plains, US

   Dutch/    abbr. Du.; -- alphabet (typ.), same as English but q and x are
             used only in borrowed foreign words. Accented letters are often
             used in stressed syllables. Marked letters ‰ and ”, diaeresis.
             ch must never be separated; for y use ij, cap. IJ

   dutiable  subject to duty

   duumvir/  one of a pair of Roman officials; Eng. pl. -s

   dux       top pupil (not ital.)

   dux       (Lat.), a leader, pl. duces; -- gregis, leader of the flock

   duyker    use dui-

4.20 DV...
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   DV        Deo volente (God willing)

   DVS       Doctor of Veterinary Science (or Surgery)

4.21 d.w....
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   d.w.      dead weight, delivered weight

   dwarf/    pl. -s

   dwt.      pennyweight, -s, 24 troy grains, not pwt.

   d.w.t.    dead-weight tonnage

4.22 Dy...
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   Dy        dysprosium (no point)

   Dyak      of Borneo, not Day-

   dyarchy   use diarchy

   Dyce Airport
             Aberdeen

   dyeing    (cloth, etc.)

   dye-line  diazo print (hyphen)

   Dyfed     Welsh county

   dying     (ceasing to live)

   dyke      use dike

   dynamics  science of matter and motion (sing.); abbr. dyn.

   dynamo/   pl. -s

   dyne      unit of force; abbr. dyn (no point)

   dyotheism use ditheism

   dys-      prefix meaning difficult or defective; distinguish it from dis-,
             meaning apart

   dysentery

   dyslex/ia word-blindness; adj. -ic

   dyspep/sia
             chronic indigestion, not dis-; adj. -tic

   dysprosium
             symbol Dy

   dytheism  use di-

   dythiramb use dithy-

4.23 dzho...
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   dzho      cow-yak hybrid, not the many variants

   dziggetai Mongolian wild ass, not the many variants

   dzne.     (Fr.), douzaine (dozen)

   D-Zug     (Ger. m.), Durchgangszug (an express train)

5.0 E
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5.1 E...
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   E         Egyptian, einsteinium (no point), (prefix) exa-, the fifth in a
             series. See also Lloyd's

   E.        Earl, east, -ern, English

   e         eccentricity of ellipse, (dyn.)  coefficient of elasticity,
             (elec.)  electromotive force of cell

   e         (It., Port.), and

   ‚         (Port.), is

   Љ         (It.), is

   Љ         (e grave accent), to be used for the last syllable of past
             tenses and participles when that otherwise mute syllable is to
             be separately pronounced, as "Hence, loathЉd Melancholy!". See
             also accents

   e.        (meteor.), wet air but no rain

5.2 each...
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   each      (gram.) must be followed by verb and pronoun in sing., as "each
             dog knows its own master"; abbr.  ea.

   EAEC      European Atomic Energy Community (now Euratom)

   eagre     tidal wave, not -er

   E. & O. E.
             errors and omissions excepted

   earache   (one word)

   ear-drum  (hyphen)

   earl      (cap. as title); abbr. E.

   Earls Court
             London (no apos.)

   ear/mark, -phone
             (one word)

   ear/-piece, -plug, -ring
             (hyphens)

   earth (the)
             cap. only in astronomical contexts and in a list of planets (See
             Figure 3 in topic FRONT_4)

   earthwork (one word)

   east/, -ern
             abbr. E. See also capitalization, compass

   eastbound (one word)

   East Bridgford
             Notts.

   East End  London (caps.)

   East-Ender
             (hyphen)

   Easter Day
             first Sunday after the calendar full moon on, or next after, 21
             March

   East Kilbride
             Strathclyde, "new town", 1947

   easy chair
             (two words)

   easygoing (adj., one word)

   eau/-de-Cologne, -- de-Nil, -- de-vie
             (hyphens); -- forte, nitric acid, also an etching; ---fortiste,
             an etcher; ---sucr‚e, sugar and water (not ital.)

5.3 EB...
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   EB        Encyclopaedia Britannica

   Ebbw Vale Gwent, a town

   ebd.      (Ger.), ebenda, ibid.

   Eblis     chief of fallen angels in Muslim myth., not I-

   ebonize   not -ise

   Ebor.     Eboracum (York)

   Ebor:     sig. of Abp. of York (colon)

   EBU       European Broadcasting Union

   eburnean  like ivory, not -ian

5.4 EC...
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   EC        East-Central (postal district of London), Education(al)
             Committee, Electricity Council, Engineer Captain, Episcopal
             Church, Established Church, Executive Committee

   ‚cart‚    a game of cards

   Ecce Homo "Behold the Man"

   eccentric/, -ally, -ity.
             For math.  sense see also excentric

   Ecclefechan
             Dumfries & Galloway, birthplace of Carlyle, Dec. 1795

   Ecclesiastes
             in OT, abbr. Eccles.

   ecclesiastical
             abbr. eccles.  Eccelsiatical signs (See Figure 4 in
             topic FRONT_4)

   Ecclesiasticus
             in Apocr., abbr.  Ecclus.

   ECG       electrocardiogram

   Echegaray (Jos‚)
             1833-1916, Spanish playwright

   echelon   (not ital., no accent)

   echo/     pl. -es, not -os

   echt      (Ger.), genuine

   ‚clair    small pastry filled with cream

   ‚claircissement
             (Fr. m.), explanation

   ‚clat     renown (not ital.)

   eclectic  borrowing freely from various sources

   eclogue   a pastoral poem

   ECM       electronic character master.  See also digitized fount

   ecology   the study of organisms in their environment, not oe-; abbr.
             ecol.

   Economist (The)
             (cap. T)

   economize not -ise

   econom/y, -ical, -ics, -ist
             abbr.  econ.

   ‚cossais  (Fr.), fem. -e, Scottish (not cap.); also ‚cossaise, a dance
             (not ital.)

   ecraseur  surgical instrument (no accent)

   ‚crevisse (Fr. f.), crayfish

   ecru      unbleached linen colour (no accent, not ital.)

   ECSC      European Coal and Steel Community

   ecstasy   rapture, not ex-, -cy

   ECT       electroconvulsive therapy

   ECU       European Currency Unit

   Ecuador/  not Eq-; abbr. Ecua., adj.  -ean

   ecumenic/, -al
             belonging to the entire Christian Church, not oec- except in
             special uses

   eczema    a skin inflammation

5.5 ed....
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   ed.       edited, editor

   ed. cit.  the edition cited

   EDD       English Dialect Dictionary

   Edda/     a collection of Icelandic legends; pl. -s; The Elder --, a
             collection of poems, eleventh century and earlier; The Younger
             --, thirteenth-century stories, prosody, and commentary

   Eddy (Mary Morse Baker)
             1821-1910, founder of Christian Science

   Eddystone Lighthouse


   edelweiss Alpine plant

   edema/, -tous
             use oed-

   Edgbaston Birmingham, not Edge-

   edge-tool not edged --, but "with edged tools" (fig. sense)

   edgeways  not -way, -wise

   Edgeworth (Maria)
             1767-1849, English novelist; -- (Richard Lovell), 1744-1817, her
             father, English educationist

   Edgware   London; -- Road

   edh       use eth

   edidit    (Lat.), edited this

   edile     use aedile

   Edinburgh abbr. Edin.

   Edipus    use Oe-

   Edirne    formerly Adrianople, Turkey

   Edison (Thomas Alva)
             1847-1931, US inventor

   ‚dit/‚    fem. -‚e, par (Fr.), published by

   ‚diteur   (Fr. m.), a publisher, not editor

   edition   the state of a book (also the copies, or any one copy, so
             printed) at its first publication, and after each revision,
             enlargement, abridgement, or change of format (2nd, 3rd,
             etc./revised/enlarged/abridged/ paperback, etc., edition); not
             any reprint containing no substantial alteration (see
             impression); abbrev. edn.; in trade practice 1/e, 2/e, etc. =
             1st, 2nd, etc., edn. See also reprint

   ‚dition de luxe
             (Fr.), a sumptuous edition (ital.)

   editio/ princeps
             a first printed edition; pl. -nes principes

   editor    abbr. ed., pl. eds. or edd.

   edn.      edition

   EDP       electronic data processing

   EDS       English Dialect Society

   educ/ate, -able


   educationist
             not -alist

   educ/e, -ible


   Eduskunta Parliament of Finland

5.6 EE...
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   EE        Early English

   ee        (Sc.), eye; pl. een

   E.E. & M.P.
             Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary

   EEC       European Economic Community (the Common Market)

   EEG       Electroencephalogram

   eerie     weird, not -y; eerily

   EETS      Early English Text Society

5.7 effect...
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   effect/er one who effects; -or (biol.), an organ that effects a response
             to a stimulus

   Effendi   Turkish title of respect, not -dee

   effluvi/um
             vapour from decaying matter; pl. -a

   effluxion that which flows out, not -ction

   EFTA      European Free Trade Association

5.8 e.g....
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   e.g.      exempli gratia (for example) (l.c., not ital., comma before).
             Use "for example" rather than e.g.

   egg/head, -shell
             (one word)

   ego/      the self which is conscious and thinks; pl. -s

   egotize   to act egotistically, not -ise

   egret     the lesser white heron (see also aigrette)

   Egypt/, -ian.
             See also United Arab Republic

   egyptian  (typ.), a typeface with thick stems and slab serifs

   Egyptolog/ist, -y
             abbr. Egyptol.  (cap.)

5.9 eh...
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   eh        when exclamation, to be followed by exclamation mark; when
             question, by question mark

   Ehrenburg (Ilya Grigorevich)
             1891-1967, Russian writer

5.10 ei...
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   -ei-      not -ie-, in: beige, ceiling, conceit, conceive, counterfeit,
             cuneiform, deceit, deceive, forfeit, geisha, heifer, heinous,
             inveigh, inveigle, kaleidoscope, leisure, meiosis, neigh/,
             -bour, -bourhood, neither, nonpareil, obeisance, perceive,
             plebeian, receipt, receive, Seidlitz, seigneur, seigniorage,
             seise, seize, seizure, sleight, surfeit, their, weir, weird. See
             also -ie-

   eidol/on  a phantom; pl. -a

   Eifel Mountains
             W. Germany

   Eiffel/ (Alexandre Gustave)
             1832-1923, French engineer; -- Tower, Paris

   eigen/frequency, -function, -value
             (math. and phys., one word)

   eighteenmo/
             (typ.), a book based on 18 leaves, 36 pages, to the sheet; also
             called octodecimo, decimo-octavo; pl. -s; abbr. 18mo

   Eighteenth Amendment
             to the Constitution of the US, 1920, introducing prohibition of
             intoxicating liquor; repealed by Twenty-first Amendment, 1933

   eigret/, -te
             use aigrette. See also egret

   eikon     use icon

   Eikon Basilike
             pamphlet reputedly by Charles I, more probably by John Gauden,
             1605-52, bishop and writer; another, written by Titus Oates,
             ded. to William III and attacking James II

   Einstein (Albert)
             1879-1955, German physicist (naturalized American 1940); --
             (Alfred), 1880-1952, German musicologist

   einsteinium
             symbol E

   Eire      in Gaelic means "Ireland"; former off. name of the Republic of
             Ireland (or "the Irish Republic"), i.e. the 26 counties,
             formerly Irish Free State

   eirenicon a peace proposal, not ir-

   Eisenhower (Dwight David)
             1890-1969, President of US, 1953-61 American general, Supreme
             Commander of Allied Expeditionary Force in Second World War

   Eisenstein (Sergei Mikhailovich)
             1898-1948, Russian film-director

   eisteddfod/
             a congress of Welsh bards; pl. -s

   either    (gram.), correlative or, not nor; for number of following verb,
             see neither

5.11 ejector...
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   ejector   one who, that which, ejects, not -er

   ejusdem/  (Lat.), of the same, abbr.  ejusd.; -- generis, of the same kind

5.12 El...
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   El        (Heb.), God

   el        (Sp. m.), the

   ‚l        (Sp.), he

   Elagabalus
             204-22, emperor of Rome 218-22, not Elio-, Helio-

   El Al     Israel Airlines, Ltd.

   El Alamein
             Egypt; battle, 1942

   ‚lan      dash, spirit; -- vital, life-force (ital.)

   Elbrus    (Mount), Caucasus, not -ruz, -urz

   Elburz    mts., Iran, not -bruz

   elchee    Anglicized version of elchi, Turkish ambassador

   Elder Brethren
             of Trinity House (caps.)

   El Dorado the golden land (two words, not ital.)

   eldorado/ place of great abundance, pl. -s

   elec.     electricity, electrical, electuary

   elector   not -er; (hist.) German prince electing emperor (cap. as title)

   Electra complex
             exaggerated attachment of daughter to father, the fem. analogue
             of Oedipus complex

   electress not -toress

   electro/  (no point), abbr. of electrotype; pl. -s

   electrocute
             to put to death by electricity, not -icute

   electroencephalogram
             (one word), abbr. EEC

   electrolyse
             to break up by electric means, not -yze

   electrolyte
             solution able to conduct electric current

   electromagnet/ic, -ism
             (pertaining to) electricity and magnetism (one word)

   electrometer
             electricity measurer (one word)

   electromotive
             producing electricity (one word)

   electromotor
             an electric motor (one word)

   electron-volt
             unit of energy (hyphen); abbr. eV (one cap.)

   electroplate
             coat with metal by electrolysis, objects thus made (one word)

   electrostatic
             of electricity at rest (one word)

   electrotype
             duplicate printing plate made by copper electrolysis (one word);
             abbr. electro

   electuary a sweetened medicine; abbr. elec.

   eleemosynary
             charitable

   eleg/y    funeral song, pensive poem; adj. -iac; -ist, writer of elegy,
             not -iast; -ize, write elegy, not -ise. See also elogy, eulogy

   elementary
             abbr. elem.

   elements  (chemical), no point after symbols. See also under each name

   elench/us (logic), a refutation; pl.  -i; adj. elenctic, not -chtic

   elephant  name for a former size of paper, 20 x 27 in.

   Elephantine
             Egypt, famed for archaeological yields

   elevator  not -er

   Elgin Marbles
             transported to British Museum from Athens, 1805-12, by Earl of
             Elgin

   El Giza   Egypt, site of the pyramids, use Giza

   Elia      pseud. of Charles Lamb

   Elias     Gr. form of Elijah used in NT (AV)

   Elien:    sig. of Bp. of Ely (colon)

   eligible  not -able

   Eliogabalus
             use Ela-

   Eliot     fam. name of Earl of St Germans; - (George), 1819-90, pseud. of
             Mary Ann, or Marian, Evans, English novelist; -- (Thomas
             Stearns), 1888-1965, US (naturalized British) poet

   ђlisabethville
             Zaire, now Lubumbashi

   elision   (typ.), suppression of letters or syllables in such contractions
             as e'en, there'll, I'd, you've, it's (it is, has), William's
             (William is, has). In Eng. and Ger. set close up. In Fr.  put a
             space after an apostrophe following a word of two or more
             syllables (e.g. bonn' petite but j'ai). In It. set close up
             where the apostrophe follows a consonant (e.g. dall'aver but a'
             miei). In Gr., Lat., Sp. to be spaced. See also ellipsis

   ‚lite     the chosen ones; size of letters on some typewriters (not ital.)

   elixir    alchemist's preparation to change metals into gold or to prolong
             life indefinitely

   Elizabeth abbr. Eliz.

   Ellice Islands
             W. Pacific, now Tuvalu

   Elliot    in fam. name of Earl of Minto; family in Jane Austen's
             Persuasion

   Elliott (Ebenezer)
             1781-1849, English poet

   ellips/is the omission of words; pl. -es; (typ.) three points (not
             asterisks) separated by normal space of line are sufficient.
             When three points are used at the end of an incomplete sentence
             a fourth point should not be added; normal space before the
             first point. Where the sentence is complete, the closing point
             is set close up, followed by the three points for omission. See
             Hart's Rules for rules in foreign languages. See also elision

   Ellis Island
             New York harbour

   ‚loge     (Fr. m.), an oration of praise; Anglicized as eloge (no accent)

   elogy; elogi/um
             pl. -a; eloge (see above); (funeral) oration of praise. See also
             elegy, eulogy

   Elohim    (Heb.), the Deity

   eloin     (law), to abscond, not -gn

   Elois/a, -e
             see H‚lo‹se

   E. long.  east longitude

   El Paso   Texas, US, not -ss-

   El Salvador
             republic of Cent.  America, cap. San Salvador

   Elsass-Lothringen
             use Alsace-Lorraine

   Elsevier  see Elzevier

   Elsinore  Eng. for Dan. Helsingor

   elucidator
             one who makes clear, not -er

   elusive   difficult to grasp, mentally or physically. See illusive

   elver     a young eel

   Elyot (Sir Thomas)
             ?1499-1546, English writer

   Elys‚e    palace, Paris

   Elysium   (Gr. myth.), abode of dead heroes (cap., not ital.)

   elytr/on  hard wing-case of beetle; pl. -a (not ital.)

   Elzevier  Dutch family of booksellers and printers, in business
             ?1583-1712, not Elzevir, although the form is found in some
             bibliographical sources. The name of the modern publisher is
             Elsevier

5.13 EM...
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   EM        Earl Marshal, Edward Medal, Equitum Magister (Master of the
             Horse)

   Em.       Emmanuel, Emily, Emma

   em        (typ.), the square of the body of any size of type; also the
             standard unit of typographic measurement, equal to 12 pt., 4.2
             mm., the "pica" em

   'em       them

   EMA       European Monetary Agreement

   Emanuel School
             Wandsworth

   embalmment
             preservation of dead body by aromatic drugs (three ms);
             embalming is the more usual noun

   embargo/  temporary ban on trade; pl. -es

   embarkation
             not -cation

   embarras/ (Fr. m.); -- de richesse(s), a superfluity of good things; -- du
             choix, difficulty of choosing, not de

   embarrass/, -ment


   embassy   not am-

   embathe   not im-

   embed/, -ded, -ding
             not im-

   embezzlement
             fraudulent appropriation of money, not -lment

   emblaz/e, -onry
             not im-

   embod/y, -ied, -ier, -iment
             not im-

   embolden  not im-

   embonpoint
             plumpness (not ital.)

   embosom   to receive into one's affections, not im-

   emboss    to raise in relief, not im-

   embouchement
             a river-mouth (not ital.)

   embouchure
             (mus.), mouthpiece, shaping of the mouth

   embower   to shelter with trees, not im-

   embrangle to entangle, confuse, not im-

   embrasure door or window recess, widening inwards, not -zure

   embroglio use im-

   embroil   to confuse, involve in hostility, not im-

   embrue    use im-

   embryo/   pl. -s

   embryology
             abbr. embryol.

   embue     use im-

   em dash   (typ.), a long dash (--); see punctuation XII

   emend     to alter or remove errors in a text etc. See also amend

   emerald   (typ.), name for a former size of type, about 6.5 pt.

   emerit/us honourably retired; pl -i; fem. -a

   emerods   use haemorrhoids

   Emerson (Ralph Waldo)
             1803-82, US poet, essayist, and philosopher

   emeu      (bird), use emu

   ‚meute    (Fr. f.), insurrection

   e.m.f.    electromotive force

   EMI       Electrical and Musical Industries (Ltd.)

   ‚migr/‚   (Fr.), fem. -‚e, an emigrant, esp. political exile

   ‚minence grise
             (Fr. f.), power behind the throne

   Emir      in Turk. and Indian titles.  See also Amir

   Emmanuel/ College
             Cambridge; -- (I -III), Kings of Italy, properly Emanuele

   Emmental  Swiss cheese, not -thal

   emmesh    use enm-

   Emmet (Robert)
             1778-1803, Irish patriot

   Emp.      Emperor, Empress

   empaestic connected with embossing, not -estic

   empanel/  to enrol, not im-; -led, -ling

   empassion use im-

   Emperor   abbr. Emp.

   emphas/is pl. -es

   emphasize not -ise

   emplane   not en-

   employ/‚  (Fr.), fem. -‚e; pl. -‚s, fem. -‚es (not ital.), use employee/s
             (m. and f., no accent)

   empolder  use im-

   empori/um centre of commerce, large shop; pl. -a

   emprise   (arch.), chivalrous enterprise, not -ize

   emptor    a purchaser

   empyema   pus in a cavity, esp. of a lung

   empyre/an the highest heaven; adj.  -al

   empyreum/a
             the "burnt" smell of organic matter; not -ruma; pl. -ata

   em rule   (typ.), a long dash (--); see punctuation XII

   EMS       European Monetary System

   emu       Australian running bird, not emeu

   e.m.u.    electromagnetic unit(s)

   emulator  rival, not -er

5.14 en...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   en        (typ.), half the width of an em

   enactor   not -er

   enamel/led, -ler, -ling


   enamorato use in-

   enamoured inspired with love

   en/ arriЉre
             (Fr.), behind; -- attendant, meanwhile; -- avant, forward; --
             bloc, in the mass; -- brosse, bristly-cut

   enc.      enclos/ed, -ure

   encaenia  Commemoration at Oxford, not -cenia (not ital.)

   encage, encapsulate, encase
             not in-

   enceinte  pregnant, a fortified enclosure

   enchase   to put in a setting, engrave, not in-

   enchiridi/on
             handbook or manual; pl. -a (not ital.)

   en clair  (Fr.), in ordinary language (not in cipher)

   enclave   territory surrounded by foreign dominions

   enclos/e, -ure
             not in- (but Inclosure Acts)

   encomium/ a eulogy; pl. -s (not ital.)

   encore    again (not ital.)

   encroach  to intrude usurpingly, not in-

   encrust   not in-; but incrustation

   encumber  to hamper, burden, not in-

   encyclopaed/ia, -ic, -ical, -ism, -ist, -ize
             but use -ped- in quoting titles where that spelling was
             preferred; abbr. ency.

   Encyclopaedia Britannica
             abbr. EB, Ency. Brit.

   Encyclop‚die
             the French encyclopaedia ed. by Diderot, 1751-72;
             encyclop‚diste, a writer for it (not cap.)

   en dash   (typ.), a short dash as in "1914-18", "the Fischer-Spassky
             match"; contrast hyphen. See also punctuation XII

   endemic   regularly found in a specified place, opp. to epidemic

   endemn/ify, -ity
             use in-

   endent/, -ure
             use in-

   en/ dernier ressort
             (Fr.), as a last resource; -- deshabille, in undress

   end leaves
             see endpapers

   endors/e  to write on the back of, not in-; -able, not -eable, -ible

   endpapers (bind.), the sheets at the beginning and end of a book, half of
             each pasted to inside of cover, half forming flyleaf

   endue     to clothe, not in-

   endur/e, -able, -ed, -er, -ing
             not in-

   endways   not -wise

   Endymion  Greek legend, and Keats's poem; also Disraeli's last novel

   ENEA      European Nuclear Energy Agency

   enema/    (syringe for making) injection into rectum; pl. -s (not ital.)

   energize  not -ise

   en/ face  (Fr.), facing; -- famille, with one's family

   enfant/ gѓt‚
             (Fr. m.), spoilt child; -- prodigue (l'), the prodigal son; --
             terrible, indiscreet person

   enfeoff   (hist.), to transfer land to possession of a subordinate tenant.
             See also fee, feoff/ee, -ment

   en f€te   (Fr.), in festivity

   enfin     (Fr.), finally (one word)

   enfold    not in-

   enforce/, -able
             not in-

   enfranchis/e, -able, -ement, -ing
             not -ize

   Eng.      England, English

   eng.      engineer, -ing, engrav/ed, -er, -ing

   Engadine  Switzerland; in Ger.  Engadin

   engag/‚   (Fr.), fem. -‚e, morally committed

   en gar‡on (Fr.), as a bachelor

   Engels (Friedrich)
             1820-95, German socialist, associate of Karl Marx

   engineer/, -ing
             abbr. eng.

   engine-room
             (hyphen)

   Engl/and, -glish
             abbr. Eng.

   English   (typ.), name for former size of type, about 14 pt.

   engraft   not in-

   engrain   to dye in the raw state, not in-. See also ingrain

   en grande/ tenue
             or -- -- toilette (Fr.), in full dress; en grand seigneur,
             magnificently

   engross   to buy wholesale, copy in a large hand, absorb attention of, not
             in-

   engulf    not in-, -gulph

   enigma/   riddle; pl. -s

   enjambment
             in verse, the continuation of sense beyond the end of a line; in
             Fr. m.  enjambement

   en masse  (Fr.), in a body

   enmesh    to entangle, not emm-, imm-

   Enniskillen
             Co. Fermanagh; -- (Earl of), but Inniskilling Dragoons and
             Fusiliers

   ennui     boredom (not ital.)

   ennuy/‚   fem. -‚e, bored (not ital.)

   ENO       English National Opera

   enoculate use in-

   enology   use oen-

   en/ pantoufles
             (Fr.), relaxed; -- passant, by the way, in passing (also of a
             pawn capture in chess); -- pension, as a boarder

   enplane   use em-

   en/ poste (Fr.), in official position; -- prince, in princely style; --
             prise (chess), in a position to be taken

   enquire   to ask. See also inquire

   enquiry   a question, the general word, "inquiry" being reserved for an
             official investigation

   en/ rapport
             (Fr.), in sympathy; -- regle, as it should be, in order; --
             revanche, in revenge

   enrol/, -ment
             not enroll-; but -led, -ler, -ling

   en route  (Fr.), on the way

   en rule   (typ.), see en dash, punctuation XII

   ens       an entity; Lat. pl. entia

   En Saga   (Swed.), A Saga (title of tone-poem by Sibelius, 1892)

   Enschede  Netherlands, but Ensched‚ en Zonen, printing house at Haarlem

   ensconce  to protect with an earthwork, establish snugly, not ins-, es-

   en secondes noces
             (Fr.), by second marriage

   ensemble  general effect, group of players (not ital.)

   ensheath  not -the

   ensilage  storage of green fodder in pits or silos

   ensnare/, -ment
             not in-

   en somme  (Fr.), in short

   ensuing   not -eing

   en suite  (Fr.), to match, forming a unit

   ensuite   (Fr.), after, following (one word)

   ensure    to make safe. See also assurance, insurance

   enswathe  to wrap, not in-

   ENT       ear, nose, and throat

   entailed estate
             one settled on a series of heirs, not in-

   entente/  meaning; -- cordiale, cordial understanding, (caps.) that
             between Britain and France, 1904 onwards; entente (un mot …
             double), a word or phrase with two meanings, pl. mots … double
             entente. See double entendre

   enterprise
             not -ize

   enthral/, -led, -ler, -ling, -ment


   enthron/e, -ization
             not in-

   entitle   not in-. See also intitule

   entomology
             the study of insects; abbr. entom.

   entourage surroundings, attendants (not ital.)

   en-tout-cas
             (Fr.), umbrella-cum-parasol; En-Tout-Cas (caps.) propr. term for
             type of hard tennis-court

   entozo/on internal parasite; pl. -a (not ital.)

   entr'acte/
             (performance in) the interval between two acts; pl. -s

   en train  (Fr.), in progress

   entrain   to board a train, to put aboard a train

   entrain   (Fr. m.), heartiness

   entrammel/
             to entangle; -led, -ling

   entrap/, -ped, -ping
             not in-

   entreat   to beseech, not in-

   entrechat a jump in which a dancer strikes the heels together several
             times (not ital.)

   entrec“te (cook.), the "undercut"

   entr‚e    a dish served between courses, right of admission (not ital.)

   entremets side dishes (not ital.)

   entrench  not in-

   entre nous
             (Fr.), confidentially

   entrep“t  a market (not ital.)

   entrepreneur/
             person in control of business enterprise, a contractor (not
             ital.); adj. -ial

   entresol  a storey between ground floor and first floor (not ital.)

   entrust   not in-

   Ent. Sta. Hall
             Entered at Stationers' Hall

   en/twine, -twist
             not in-

   enunciat/e, -or


   enure     use inure

   envelop/  (verb), -ed, -ment

   envelope  (noun)

   Env. Extr.
             Envoy Extraordinary

   enweave   use in-

   enwrap/, -ped, -ping
             not in-

   enwreath  not in-

   enzootic  endemic in animals

   enzyme    (chem.), protein with catalytic properties

5.15 EO...
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   EO        Education Officer

   Eocene    (geol.) (cap., not ital.)

   e.o.d.    every other day

   EOL       (comp.), end of line

   eon       use aeon

   Eothen    ("from the east"), by Kinglake, 1844

5.16 EP...
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   EP        electroplate

   Ep.       Epistle

   e.p.      (chess), en passant

   epact     age of the moon on 1 Jan.

   ‚pat/ant  (Fr.), shocking; -er les bourgeois, to shake up the hidebound

   epaulette shoulder-piece, not -et

   EPDA      Emergency Powers Defence Act

   ‚p‚e      sword used in fencing

   epergne   table ornament to hold flowers or fruit (not ital., no accent)

   ђpernay   French white wine

   Eph.      Ephesians, Ephraim

   ephah     Hebrew measure, not epha

   ephedrine an alkaloid used as cardiac depressive or for asthma, not -in

   ephemer/a same as -on; pl. -as (not ital.)

   ephemer/is
             an astronomical almanac; pl. -ides

   ephemer/on
             insect that lives for a day, pl. -ons (not ital.); (bibliog.)
             printed item intended for transient use (e.g. theatre programme,
             bottle label), pl. -a

   Ephesians abbr. Eph.

   ephod     Jewish priestly vestment

   ephor/    Spartan magistrate, pl. -s

   ephphatha (Aram.), "Be opened"

   epicedi/um
             funeral ode; pl. -a

   epicene   sexless (contemptuous), (gram.) referring to either sex

   epicentre point over centre of earthquake

   Epicoene  by Ben Jonson, 1609

   epicure/  one who indulges in a refined way in the pleasures of the table;
             adj. -an

   Epicurean a philosopher who identifies pleasure with virtue, following the
             Greek Epicurus, 342-270 BC

   epideictic
             adapted for display, not -ktic

   epidemic  (disease) breaking out locally and lasting only for a time

   epidermis the outer skin or cuticle

   epilogue  concluding part of a lit.  work

   epiornis  use aepy-

   epiphany  the manifestation of a god; (cap.) 6 Jan., the manifestation of
             Christ to the "wise men"

   epiphyte  a plant that lives on the surface of another

   Epirot    inhabitant of Epirus, not -te

   episcopal belonging to bishops; abbr. episc.; (cap.) title of Anglican
             Churches in Scotland and US

   "Epithalamion"
             by Spenser, 1595

   epithalami/um
             a nuptial song; pl.  -a

   epitheli/um
             surface tissue; pl. -a

   epitomize to shorten, summarize, not -ise

   epizo/on  (zool.), an animal that lives on the surface of another; pl. -a;
             -otic, epidemic in animals

   e pluribus unum
             (Lat.), many made one (motto of US)

   EPNS      electroplated nickel silver

   eppur si muove
             (It.), and yet it does move (ascribed to Galileo, after his
             recantation)

   ‚preuve   (Fr. typ. f.), a proof

   ‚pris/    (Fr.), fem. -e, enamoured

   Epstein (Sir Jacob)
             1880-1959, English sculptor

   epuis/‚   (Fr.), fem. -‚e, exhausted; out of print

   epyornis  use ae-

5.17 eq....
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   eq.       equal

   equable   uniform, not easily disturbed. See also equatable

   Equador   use Ecu-

   equal/    to (no longer with) -led, -ling

   equaliz/e, -ation
             not -ise

   equal mark
             (typ.), = (a space before and after)

   equanimity
             evenness of mind or temper

   equatable able to be regarded as equal. See also equable

   Equator/, -ial
             abbr. Eq.

   equerry   off. attendant on royal personage, not -ery

   equestri/an
             horseman; fem. -enne

   equilibri/um
             balance, pl. -a

   equinoctial
             not -xial

   equinox/  period of year when night and day are equal; pl. -es

   equivalent
             abbr. equiv.

   equivocator
             user of misleading words, not -er

   equivoque a quibble (not ital.)

5.18 ER...
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   ER        Eastern Region, Edwardus Rex (King Edward), Elizabetha Regina
             (Queen Elizabeth)

   Er        erbium (no point)

   eraser    one who, or that which, rubs out, not -or

   Erasmus (Desiderius)
             1466-1536, Dutch scholar

   Erato     (Gr.), the lyric muse

   erbium    symbol Er

   Erckmann-Chatrian
             joint pseud. of two French writers collaborating from 1848 to
             1870

   Erdgeist  (Ger. myth.), an earth-spirit

   Erechtheum
             temple at Athens

   erector   one who, or that which, erects, not -er

   erethism  (path.), excitement, not ery-

   Erevan    Armenia, use Yerevan

   Erewhon   by Butler, 1872

   erf       (Afrik.), plot of ground; pl.  erven

   erg       unit of work

   ergo      therefore

   Erie      one of the Great Lakes (US and Canada)

   Erin go bragh
             (Ir.), Erin for ever

   Eriny/s   (Gr. myth.), ally of the three Furies, Eumenides, or avenging
             deities; pl. -es

   Eris      Greek goddess of discord

   erl-king  in Germanic myth.; in Ger.  Erlk”nig (rom. quoted as title of
             poem by Goethe and of songs by Loewe, Schubert, and others)

   Ernie     device for selecting weekly and monthly winners in Premium
             Savings Bonds (Electronic Random Number Indicator Equipment)

   "Eroica" Symphony
             by Beethoven, 1804

   Eros      Greek god of love

   erpetolog/y, -ist
             use h-

   errat/um  error in writing or printing; pl. -a (not ital.)

   erroneous wrong, not -ious

   ersatz    (Ger.), substitute

   Erse      the Highland or Irish Gaelic language

   erstens   (Ger.), in the first place; erstgeboren, first-born

   erven     see erf

   erysipelas
             a skin disease, St Anthony's fire, not -us

   erythism  use ere-

   Erzerum   Turkish Armenia, not -oum, -om

5.19 ES...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   ES        (paper), engine-sized

   ESA       European Space Agency

   escalade  to mount and enter by a ladder

   escalat/e, -ion
             to rise, rising, steadily and inevitably, like an escalator

   escallop  shellfish, use scallop

   escalope  collop, slice of meat

   escargot  edible snail

   escarp/, -ment
             a steep slope, not -pe

   Escaut    Fr. for Schelde

   eschalot  use shallot

   eschatology
             (theol.) doctrine of last things

   escheator official who watches over forfeited property, not -er

   eschscholtzia
             a yellow-flowered plant

   esconce   use ens-

   Escorial  Spain, not Escu-

   escritoire
             not -oir (not ital.)

   Esculap/ius, -ian
             use Ae-

   escutcheon
             heraldic shield, plate for keyhole, etc., not scut-

   Esdras    in the Apocrypha, First, Second, Book of, abbr. 1, 2 Esd.

   Eskimo/   not Esquimau; pl. -s

   ESN       educationally subnormal

   esophag/us, -eal
             use oes-

   esp.      especially

   ESP       extra-sensory perception

   espagnol/ fem. -e (Fr.), Spanish

   espagnolette
             fastening for french window

   espalier  a lattice-work, a trained fruit-tree (not ital.)

   especially
             abbr. esp.

   Esperanto an artificial universal language, invented by L. L.  Zamenhof,
             1887

   espiЉglerie
             roguishness (not ital.)

   espionage spying (not ital.)

   espressivo
             (mus.), with expression, not ex-

   espresso  apparatus for making coffee under pressure, the coffee produced,
             not exp- (not ital.)

   esprit/   (Fr. m.), genius, wit; -- de corps, members' respect for a
             society; -- de l'escalier, inspiration too late; -- fort, a
             strong-minded person, pl. esprits forts (ital.)

   Esquimalt Vancouver Island, Canada, not -ault

   Esquimau  use Eskimo

   Esquire   abbr. Esq.; J. Smith, jun., Esq., not Esq., jun.

   ess       name of the letter s; pl. esses

   ess.      essences

   essays    (typ.), cited titles to be roman quoted; caps. as in title

   Essouan   use Aswan

   established
             abbr. est.

   Established Church
             (caps.); abbr. EC

   Establishment (the)
             (the values held by) the established sector of society (cap.)

   estamin   a woollen fabric, not ‚t-

   estaminet (Fr. m.), a caf‚

   estanci/a (Sp.-Amer.), cattle farm; -ero, its keeper

   Estate/s of the Realm
             the Parliament of Scotland before union with England in 1707; -s
             (the Three), Lords Spiritual (bishops), Lords Temporal, Commons;
             -- (the Third), French bourgeoisie before the Revolution; --
             (the Fourth), the Press

   Esther    (OT), not to be abbr., but Rest of Esth. (Apocr.)

   esthet/e, -ic
             use aes-

   estimator not -er

   estiv/al, -ation
             use aes-

   Estonia   not Esth-, a Soviet Socialist Republic. See also USSR

   estoppel  (law), a conclusive admission, not -ple, -pal

   estr/ogen, -us
             use oe-

   ESU       English-Speaking Union

   e.s.u.    electrostatic unit(s)

5.20 ET...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   ET        English translation

   ETA       estimated time of arrival

   et alibi  (Lat.), and elsewhere; abbr. et al.

   et alii   (Lat.), and others; abbr. et al., not et als.

   etalon    (phys.), interference-device (no accent, not ital.)

   ‚tamin    use estamin

   ‚tat-major
             (Fr. m.), a staff of military officers

   et cetera (not ital.), abbr. etc.; comma before "etc." if more than one
             term precedes; comma after "etc." if it would be needed after an
             equivalent phrase such as "and the like".

   etceteras extras, sundries (one word)

   Eternal City (the)
             Rome

   eth       Old-English and Icelandic letter (distinguish from thorn and
             wyn, qq.v.), also used in phonetic script; not edh

   ether     medium filling all space, not ae-

   ethereal/, -ity, -ly
             not -ial

   Etherege (Sir George)
             ?1635-91, English playwright

   ethics    the science of morals

   Ethiopia  modern name of Abyssinia

   ethn/ic   concerning races; -ology, -ological, abbr. ethnol.

   et hoc genus omne
             (Lat.), and all this kind of thing

   ethology  the study of character formation or animal behaviour

   etiology  use ae-

   etiquette conventions of courtesy (not ital.)

   Etna      Sicily, not Ae-

   ‚trier    (Fr. m.), short rope-ladder

   et sequen/s
             and the following, abbr. et seq.  or et sq.; pl. -tes, n. -tia,
             abbr. et sqq.

   ‚tude/    a study; ‚tude de concert (mus.), concert study (ital.)

   ‚tui      case for small articles, not etwee (not ital.)

   etymolog/y
             the study of derivations; -ical, -ically, -ist, -ize; abbr.
             etym.

   etym/on   a root-word, pl. -a

5.21 Eu...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   Eu        europium (no point)

   eucalypt/us
             (bot.), pl. -uses

   euchre    a card-game, not eucher, eucre

   Euclid/   c.300 BC, Athenian geometer, his treatise (cap.); adj.  -ean
             (cap.)

   eudemon   a good angel

   Euer      (Ger. m.), your; abbr. Ew.

   EugЉne    French Christian name (Љ); -- (Prince, of Savoy), 1663-1736,
             Austrian general

   Eug‚nie (Empress)
             1826-1920, wife of Napoleon III (‚)

   eulogium/ eulogy; pl. -s

   eulogize  not -ise

   eulogy    (a not an), spoken or written praise. See also elegy, elogy

   Eumenides (Gr. myth.), the avenging Furies: Alecto, Tisiphone, and
             Megaera; (ital.) play by Aeschylus

   euonymus  (a not an), plant of genus Euonymus, e.g. spindle-tree

   euphem/ism
             (a not an), a mild term for something unpleasant; -istic(al);
             abbr. euphem.

   euphemize not -ise

   euphonize not -ise

   euphony   (a not an), agreeable sound

   euphorbia (bot.), spurge

   euphor/ia a feeling of well-being; -ic

   Euphues   a prose romance in affected style, 1579, by John Lyly; hence
             euphuism

   Euratom   European Atomic Energy Community

   Eure-et-Loir
             Fr. d‚p.; not Loire; not to be confused with Fr. d‚p.  Eure

   eureka    I have found (it)!, not heu- (not ital.). See also heuristic

   eurhythmic
             not eury-

   Europe    abbr. Eur.

   European  (a not an); abbr. Eur.

   Europeanize
             not -ise (cap.)

   europium  symbol Eu

   Euterpe   (Gr.), muse of music

   euthanasia
             peaceful death, mercy killing

5.22 eV...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   eV        electron-volt

   evangelize
             to inform about the Gospel, not -ise

   evaporimeter
             instrument to measure evaporation, not -ometer

   evening   abbr. evng.

   even pages
             (typ.), the left-hand, or verso, pages

   even s. caps.
             (typ.), word(s) set entirely in small capitals

   ever      joined to interrogatives used universally (whatever is, is
             right) but not to those used emphatically (what ever do you
             mean?)

   everglades
             (US), tracts of low swampy ground; (cap.) a large area like this
             in Florida

   evermore  (one word)

   every     must be followed by verb and pronoun in sing., as "every bird
             tries to protect its young"

   every/body, -day
             (adj.), Everyman, -one (but -- one when each word to retain its
             meaning; cf. Hart's Rules, p. 77), -thing, -way (adverb), -where
             (one word)

5.23 Ew....
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   Ew.       (Ger.), Euer etc. (your)

   ewe       female sheep (a, not an)

   ewer      jug (a, not an)

   Ewigkeit  (Ger. f.), eternity

5.24 ex...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   ex        (Lat.), out of, excluding (not ital.)

   ex.       example, executed, executive

   exa-      prefix meaning 10«18 times, abbr. E

   exactor   one who exacts, not -er

   exaggeration


   exalter   one who exalts, not -or

   examination/
             colloq. exam; -- paper, the questions; -- script, the answers

   examplar  use exemplar

   example   abbr. ex., pl. exx.; in Fr.  m. exemple

   exanimate lifeless, depressed

   ex animo  (Lat.), from the mind, earnestly

   exasperate
             to irritate, not -irate

   Exc.      Excellency

   exc.      excellent, except, -ed, -ion

   exc.      excudit (engraved this)

   Excalibur King Arthur's sword, not -bar, -boor (not ital.). See also
             Caliburn

   ex cathedra
             (Lat.), from the Pope's, professor's, chair, with authority

   excavator not -er

   excellence/
             superiority; pl. -s, not -cies

   Excellenc/y
             pl. -ies (persons), abbr. Exc.

   excellent abbr. exc.

   excentric used in math. sense instead of eccentric to avoid sense of "odd"

   except/, -ed, -ion
             abbr. exc.

   exceptionable
             open to criticism

   exceptional
             out of the ordinary

   exceptis excipiendis
             (Lat.), with the necessary exceptions

   excerpt   an extract

   exch.     exchange, exchequer

   exchange  abbr. exch.; Stock -- (caps.), abbr. St. Ex.

   exchangeable
             not -gable

   exchequer abbr. exch.

   excisable liable to excise duty, removable by excision, not -eable

   excise    (verb), not -ize

   excit/able
             not -eable; -ability, not -ibility

   exciter   one who, or that which, excites, (elec.) auxiliary machine
             supplying current for another, not -or

   excitor   (anat.), a nerve stimulating part of the body, not -er

   exclamat/ion, -ory
             abbr. excl., or exclam.

   exclamation mark
             (!), see punctuation VII

   excreta   pl., excreted matter (not ital.)

   excudit   (Lat.), engraved this; abbr.  exc.

   ex curia  (Lat.), out of court, not -ѓ

   excursus/ a digression; pl. -es (not ital.)

   excusable not -eable

   ex-directory
             (hyphen)

   ex dividend
             without next dividend; abbr. ex div. or x.d.

   exeat/    "let him depart", a formal leave of temporary absence; pl. -s
             (not ital.) See also exit, exit

   execut/ed, -ive
             abbr. ex.

   execut/or one who carries out a plan, etc.; (law) person appointed to
             execute will, not -er, abbr.  exor.; fem. -rix, abbr. exrx., pl.
             -rices

   exege/sis explanation; pl. -ses (not ital.); adj. -tic

   exemplaire
             (Fr. m.), a specimen, a copy; in Ger. n. Exemplar

   exemplar  pattern, not exa-

   exemple   (Fr. m.), example

   exempli gratia
             (Lat.), for example; abbr. e.g. (l.c., not ital., comma before)

   exequatur/
             an off. recognition by a foreign government of a consul or other
             agent; pl. -s (not ital.)

   exequies  (pl.), funeral ceremony (not ital.)

   exercise  not -ize

   Exeter    in Lat. Exonia, abbr. Exon.  See also Exon:

   exeunt/   see exit; -- omnes (Lat.  stage direction), they all leave

   ex gratia (Lat.), voluntary

   exhibitor not -er

   exhilarat/e
             to enliven; -ing, -ion

   ex hypothesi
             (Lat.), by hypothesis

   exigency  urgency

   exigent   urgent

   exiguous  small, scanty

   ex interest
             without next interest; abbr. ex int. or x.i.

   existence not -ance

   existentialism
             the philosophy that the individual is a free and responsible
             agent determining his own development

   exit/     a way out; pl. -s

   exit      (Lat. stage direction), he or she goes out; pl. exeunt, they go
             out (ital.). See also exeat

   ex lege   (Lat.), arising from law

   ex-libris (sing. and pl.), "from the library of", a book-plate (not
             ital.); abbr. ex lib.

   ex new    without the right to new shares; abbr. ex n. or x.n.

   ex nihilo nihil fit
             (Lat.), out of nothing, nothing comes

   exodi/um  conclusion of a drama, a farce following it; pl. -a; Anglicized
             as exode. See also exordium

   exodus    a departure, esp. of a body of people; (cap., OT), departure of
             Israelites from Egypt, biblical book, abbr. Exod.

   ex officiis
             (Lat.), by virtue of official positions

   ex officio
             (Lat.), by virtue of one's official position

   exon      officer of the Yeomen of the Guard

   Exon:     sig. of Bp. of Exeter (colon)

   exor.     executor

   exorcize  to expel an evil spirit from, not -ise

   exordium/ introductory part of a discourse; pl. -s. See also exodium

   exotic type
             non-roman faces, e.g.  Arabic, Hebrew

   exp.      export, -ation, -ed, express

   expanded type
             (typ.), a type with unusually wide face

   ex parte  (Lat.), one-sided(ly)

   ex pede Herculem
             (Lat.), judge from the sample

   expendable
             able to be sacrificed for some end

   expense   not -ce

   experimenter
             not -or

   expertise expert knowledge

   expertize give expert opinion

   experto crede
             (Lat.), believe one who has tried it

   expi/ate, -able


   explanation
             abbr. expl.

   explicit  (Lat.) (here) ends; as noun, the conclusion (of a book)

   export/, -ation, -ed
             abbr. exp.

   expos‚    explanation, exposure (not ital.)

   expositor one who expounds, not -er

   ex post facto
             (Lat.), after the fact

   expostulator
             one who remonstrates, not -er

   Ex-President
             (caps.)

   express   abbr. exp.

   expressible
             not -able

   expressivo
             (mus.), with expresion, use es-

   expresso  use es-

   expressway
             (one word)

   exrx.     executrix

   ext.      extension, exterior, external, -ly, extinct, extra, extract

   extasy, extatic
             use ecs-

   extempore (adj. and adv.), unprepared, without preparation (not ital.)

   extemporize
             not -ise

   extender  not -or

   extendible
             not -able, but in gen.  use next

   extensible
             not -able

   extension abbr. ext.

   extensor  a muscle, not -er

   extent    (typ.), the amount of printed space, expressed in ens (see en)
             or pages, filled by a given batch of copy

   exterior  abbr. ext.

   external/, -ly
             abbr. ext.

   externalize
             not -ise

   externe   non-resident hospital physician, day-pupil

   exterritorial
             use extra-

   extinct   abbr. ext.

   extirpator
             one who destroys completely, not -er

   extol/, -led, -ler, -ling


   extra     extract, abbr. ext.

   extractable
             not -ible

   extractor not -er

   extracts  see authorities, quotations

   extra/-marital
             outside marriage, -mural, outside the scope of ordinary teaching
             (one word); but Extra-Mural Studies (of universities)

   extraneous
             brought in from outside, not -ious

   extra-sensory perception
             abbr. ESP

   extraterritorial
             not under local jurisdiction, not exterr-

   extravaganza
             a fantastic composition (not ital.)

   extrovert not extra-

   ex ungue leonem
             (Lat.), judge from the sample

   exuviae   cast coverings of animals

   ex voto/  an offering made in pursuance of a vow; pl. -s

   exx.      examples

   Exzellenz (Ger. f.), Excellency; abbrev. Exz., not Exc-

5.25 Eyck...
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   Eyck      see Van Eyck

   eye/ball, -bath, -bright, -brow, -ful, -glass
             (one word)

   eyeing    not eying

   eye/lash, -lid
             (one word)

   eye-muscles
             (hyphen)

   eye/piece (optics), -sight, -sore, -wash, -witness (one word)

   eyot      islet, use ait

   Eyre & Spottiswoode
             (Publishers), Ltd.

   eyrie     not aerie

   eyrir     coin of Iceland, one-hundredth of krona; pl. aurar

5.26 Ezekiel...
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   Ezekiel   abbr. Ezek.

   Ezra      not to be abbr.

6.0 F
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6.1 F...
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   F         Fahrenheit, fail, farad, fluorine, (photog.) focal length,
             (math.) function, (pencils) fine, (on timepiece regulator) fast,
             the sixth in a series

   F.        fair, Fellow, felon, formul/a, -ae, Friday, all proper names
             with this initial except those beginning ff

   f         femto-, (math.) function

   f.        farthing, fathom, female, feminine, filly, (photog.) focal
             length, (meteor.) fog, following, franc, free, from, furlong

   f         (mus.), forte (loud)

   f.        (Lat.), fortasse (perhaps) (Ger.)  fЃr (for)

6.2 FA...
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   FA        Football Association; F‚d‚ration A‚ronautique

   Fa.       Florida, use Fla.

   fa        (mus.), use fah

   Faber & Faber, Ltd.
             publishers

   fabliau/  a metrical tale; pl. -x

   fac.      facsimile

   fa‡ade    front face of a building (not ital.)

   face      (typ.), the printing surface of type; the design of a particular
             fount

   facet/    one side of a cut gem; -ed, -ing, not -tt-

   facetiae  humorous anecdotes (not ital.)

   facia     tablet over shop, with occupier's name; dashboard of a motor
             car. See also fascia

   facies    (nat. hist.), general aspect

   facile princeps
             (Lat.), easily best (ital.)

   facilis descensus Averni
             (not Averno) (Lat.), easy is the descent to Avernus

   fa‡on de parler
             (Fr.), mere form of words

   facsimile/
             exact copy (one word, not ital.;) pl. -s; abbr. fac.

   facta, non verba
             (Lat.), deeds, not words

   factious  characterized by faction(s)

   factitious
             not natural

   factorize not -ise

   factotum/ servant who attends to everything; pl. -s (not ital.)

   factum est
             (Lat.), it is done

   facul/a   bright solar spot; pl. -ae; not fae-

   fado/     Portuguese folk-song; pl. -s

   faec/es   pl., excrement; adj. -al

   faerie    (arch. and poet.), Fairyland, not -y

   Faerie Queene (The)
             by Spenser, 1590-6

   Faeroe Isles
             Danish, in N.  Atlantic, use The Faeroes; adj.  Faeroese

   fag-end   (hyphen)

   faggot    bundle of sticks, seasoned meatball, derog. name for woman

   fah       (mus.), not fa

   Fahrenheit
             temperature scale; abbr.  F

   FAIA      Fellow of the Association of International Accountants

   faience   glazed pottery, not fa‹-, fay-

   fain‚ant  idle, idler (not ital.)

   faint ruled
             (paper), use feint

   fair      abbr. F.

   fair and square
             (no hyphens except when attrib.)

   fair copy transcript free from corrections; abbr. f. co.

   Fair Isle Shetland, and knitting-design

   fair play (two words)

   fairway   not fare- (one word)

   fairyland (one word)

   fairy-tale
             (hyphen)

   fait accompli (un)
             (Fr. m.), an accomplished fact

   faith-heal/er, -ing
             (hyphen)

   Faizabad  Uttar Pradesh (India), use Fyz-

   fakir     Muslim or Hindu religious mendicant, not the many variants

   Falang/e, -ist
             (member of) political party in Spain or Syria

   faldstool not fold- (one word)

   Falernian wine of ancient Campania

   Falkland/ Islands
             S. Atlantic; -- (Viscount)

   Falk Laws 1874-5, German anti-Catholic laws introduced by politician
             Adalbert Falk

   Falla     (Manuel de), 1876-1946, Spanish composer

   fal-lal   piece of finery, not fallol; collect. noun fallallery

   fallible  liable to err, not -able

   Fallodon (Edward, Viscount Grey of)
             1862-1933, English statesman, not -en

   fall-out  (noun), from nuclear explosion (hyphen)

   falsa lectio
             (Lat.), a false reading; abbr. f.l.

   falucca   use felucca

   falutin   see high-falutin

   FAM       Free and Accepted Masons

   fam.      familiar, family

   familiarize
             not -ise

   family    abbr. fam. See also botany, zoology

   fan/ belt, club, dance
             (two words)

   fandango/ (Sp.), a dance or its music; pl. -es (not ital.)

   Faneuil Hall
             historic building, Boston, Mass., US

   fanfaronade
             arrogant talk, not -nnade, -farronade

   fanlight  (one word)

   fantas/ia (mus.), a free composition (not ital.); pl. -ias

   fantasize not -ise

   fantasmagoria
             use phantas-

   fantast   a dreamer, not ph-

   fantasy   not ph-

   Fanti     tribe in Ghana, not -te, -tee

   Fantin-Latour (Henri)
             1836-1904, French painter

   fantoccini
             (It.), marionettes

   fantom    use ph-

   FAO       Food and Agriculture Organization (of UN)

   FAP       First Aid Post

   faqu/eer, -ir
             use fakir

   far.      farriery, farthing

   farad/    (elec.), unit of capacitance; abbr. F (no point); -ic current
             (med.), not -aic

   Faraday (Michael)
             1791-1867, English chemist

   fareway   use fair-

   farewell  (one word)

   far/-fetched, -flung
             (hyphens)

   farinaceous
             starchy, not -ious

   Faringdon Oxon., not Farr-

   farm-hand (hyphen)

   farm/house, stead, yard
             (one word)

   Farne Islands
             N. Sea, not Farn, Fearne, Ferne

   far niente
             (It.), doing nothing. See also dolce -- --

   Faroe     use Faeroe

   farouche  sullen from shyness (not ital.)

   Farquhar (George)
             1678-1707, Irish dramatist

   farrago/  a hotchpotch, not fara-; pl. -s

   Farrar (Frederick William, Dean)
             1831-1903, English divine and writer

   farriery  horse-shoeing; abbr. far.

   Farringdon Within, Without
             wards of the City of London

   Farsi     language of Iran

   farth/er, -est
             use further/er, -est

   farthing  abbr. f. or far.

   FAS       Fellow of the Anthropological Society; ditto Antiquarian Society

   fasces    (pl.), a bundle of rods, the symbol of power

   fasci/a   (archit.), long flat surface under eaves or cornice; pl. -ae.
             See also facia

   fascicle, fascicule


   fascicul/us
             (pl. -i), a bundle, bunch; one part of a book published in
             instalments

   Fasc/ism, -ist
             (noun and adj.); -istic (adj.)

   Fastens/-een, -eve, -even
             (Sc.), Shrove Tuesday, not Feastings-

   fata Morgana
             mirage seen in Str. of Messina (ital.)

   Fates (the Three)
             Atropos, Clotho, and Lachesis

   fat face type
             display type (q.v.)  with thick stems and fine hair-lines

   Father    (relig.), abbr. Fr.; (the), as Deity (cap.)

   father-in-law
             pl. fathers-in-law (hyphens)

   father of the chapel
             see chapel

   fathom    abbr. f. or fm.

   fatstock  (one word)

   faubourg  (Fr. m.), a suburb, cap. F when with name (not ital.)

   Faulkland in The Rivals, by Sheridan

   Faulkner (William)
             1897-1962, US novelist

   faultfind/er, -ing
             (one word)

   faun/     Latin rural deity; pl. -s

   fauna/    (collect.sing.), the animals of a region or epoch; pl. -s not
             ital.)

   Faure (Fran‡ois F‚lix)
             1841-99, French statesman

   Faur‚ (Gabriel)
             1845-1924, French composer

   faute de mieux
             (Fr.), for want of better

   fauteuil/ (Fr.), armchair, membership of French Academy; pl.  -s

   Fauves (Les)
             group of painters led by Matisse; fauvism, style of painting
             associated with them (not cap.)

   faux pas  (Fr. m.), a blunder (two words, pl. same)

   favour/, -able, -ite, -itism


   Fawkes (Guy)
             1570-1606, conspirator

   fawn      young deer, its colour; as verb, to grovel

   fayence   use faience

   FBA       Fellow of the British Academy, not FRBA

   FBAA      Fellow of the British Association of Accountants and Auditors
             FBCS, Fellow ofthe British Computer Society

   FBI       (US) Federal Bureau of Investigation

   FBIM      Fellow of the British Institute of Management

   FBOA      Fellow of the British Optical Association

   FC        Football Club, Free Church (of Scotland)

   FCA       Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and
             Wales (or Ireland) (off.)

   FCGI      Fellow of the City and Guilds of London Institute

   FCIA      Fellow of the Corporation of Insurance Agents

   FCIB      Fellow of the Corporation of Insurance Brokers

   FCII      Fellow of the Chartered Insurance Institute

   FCMA      Fellow of the Institute of Cost and Management Accountants

   FCO       Foreign and Commonwealth Office

   f. co.    fair copy

   FCP       Fellow of the College of Preceptors

   fcp.      foolscap

   FCS       Fellow of the Chemical Society, now FRSC

   FCSA      Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and
             Administrators

   FCSP      Fellow of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy

   FCST      Fellow of the College of Speech Therapists

   FD        fidei dlfensor (Defender of the Faith)

   Fe        ferrum (iron) (no point)

   Fearne Islands
             use Farne

   feasible  practicable, not -able

   Feastings-
             see Fastens-

   featherfew
             use fever-

   featherweight paper
             light but bulky book paper

   February  abbr. Feb.

   fecal, feces
             use fae-

   fecerunt  (Lat. pl.), made this; abbr. ff

   fecial    use fetial

   fecit     (Lat.), made this; abbr. fec.

   fedayeen  Arab guerrillas (pl.)

   Federal Assemblies
             see Assemblies

   Federalist
             abbr. Fed.

   federalize
             not -ise

   fee/      (law), an inherited estate of land; -- simple, estate unlimited
             as to class of heir (two words); ---tail, estate so limited
             (hyphen). See also fief

   feedback  return of part of output to input (one word)

   feedstock (one word)

   feeoff    use fief

   feeoffee  use feoffee

   feet      see foot

   feff/     use fief; -ment, use feoffment

   Fehmgericht
             (Ger.), use Femgericht, qv.

   Feilding  fam. name of Earl of Denbigh. See also Fie-

   feint     (noun) sham attack, (verb) to pretend

   feint ruled
             (paper), not faint

   feld/spar a rock-forming mineral; adj. -spathic; not felspar

   F‚libre   member of F‚librige, school of Proven‡al writers

   Felixstowe
             Suffolk

   fellah/   Egyptian peasant; pl. -in, not -s, -een.

   fellmonger
             hide-dealer

   felloe    wheel rim, not felly

   Fellow    abbr. F; in Lat., socius; or, in the Royal Society, sodalis

   fellow/ citizen, - men
             (two words)

   fellow/-feeling, -traveller
             (hyphens)

   felly     use felloe

   felo de se
             (Anglo-Lat.), suicide; pl. felos de se

   felon     one who commits a grave crime; abbr. F.

   felspar   use feldspar

   felucca   small Mediterranean vessel, not fal-, fil-

   fem.      feminine

   female    (bot., zool., sociol.), abbr.  f.

   feme/     (law), wife, not femme; -- covert, married woman, -- sole, woman
             without husband (two words).  See also femme

   Femgericht/
             (Ger.), pl. -e, medieval German tribunal, Anglicized as
             Vehmgericht, q.v.

   feminine  abbr. f. or fem.

   feminize  to make feminine, not -ise

   femme/ de chambre
             (Fr. f.), chambermaid, lady's maid, pl.  femmes -- --; --
             fatale, a dangerously attractive woman; -- galante, a
             prostitute; -- incomprise, an unappreciated woman; -- savante, a
             learned woman. See also feme

   femto-    prefix meaning "10 to the power of -15", abbr. f

   fem/ur    thigh bone, pl. -ora (not ital.); -oral

   fencible  able to be fenced; (hist., noun) soldier liable only for home
             service; not -able

   F‚nelon (Fran‡ois de Salignac de La Mothe)
             1651-1715, French ecclesiastic and writer, not F‚n‚-

   fenestr/a (anat.), a small hole in a bone; pl. -ae (not ital.)

   fenugreek leguminous plant, not foenu-

   feoff     use fief

   feoff/ee  (hist.), one enfeoffed, not feeo-; -ment, act of enfeoffing.
             See also enfeoff, fee, fief

   ferae naturae
             (law), adj., wild (of animals), literally "of a wild nature"

   Ferd.     Ferdinand

   Ferdausi  Persian poet, use Fir-

   fer de lance
             venomous snake (trop.  S. Amer.)

   Ferghana  cent. Asia, not -gana

   Feringhee in the Orient, a European, esp. a Portuguese; not the many
             variants

   Fermanagh County
             N. Ireland, abbr.  Ferm.

   fermium   symbol Fm

   Ferne Islands
             use Farne

   Ferrara   Italy; -- (Andrea), 16th c., Italian swordsmith

   Ferrari (Paolo)
             1822-89, Italian dramatist

   Ferrero (Guglielmo)
             1871-1942, Italian historian

   ferret/, -ed, -er, -ing


   ferrule   metal cap on end of stick (two rs), not ferrel. ferule

   ferrum    iron, symbol Fe

   ferryman  (one word)

   fertilize not -ise

   ferule    a cane or rod for punishment (one r). See also ferrule

   fess      (her.), not fesse

   festa     (It.), a festival

   Festschrift/
             (Ger. f.), writings presented to scholar; pl. -en

   f€t/e     entertainment, -ed (not ital.); f€te-champ€tre outdoor
             entertainment; F€te-Dieu, feast of Corpus Christi, pl. Fetes---
             (ital., hyphen)

   fetial    ambassadorial, not fec-

   fetid     ill-smelling, not foe-

   fetish/   inanimate object worshipped by savages, (psych.) abnormal cause
             of sexual desire, not -ich, -iche; -eer, -ism,-ist (not ital.)

   fetor     bad smell, not foe-

   fetus     use foe-

   feu/      (Sc.), ground-rent, pl. -s

   feu/      (Fr.), late, deceased; fem. -e

   Feuchtwanger (Lion)
             1884-1958, German novelist

   feud.     feudal

   feudalize to make feudal, not -ise

   feu/ d'artifice
             (Fr. m.), firework, pl. feux --; -- de joie, a salute, pl. feux
             -- --

   feu-duty  (hyphen)

   feuille   (Fr. typ. f.), a sheet

   Feuillet (Octave)
             1821-90, French novelist and playwright

   feuillet/ (Fr. typ. m.), a leaf; -- blanc, blank leaf

   feuilletage
             (Fr. cook. m.), puff-pastry

   feuilleton
             (Fr. m.), light literature; in Fr. part of newspaper etc.
             devoted to this

   Feulhs    use Fulahs

   feverfew  (bot.), Chrysanthemum parthenium, not feather-, fetter-, -foe

   f‚vrier   (Fr. m.), February, abbr.  f‚v. (not cap.)

   fez/      a cap; pl. -zes (not ital.); adj. -zed

   FF        Felicissimi Fratres (Most Fortunate Brothers)

   ff        (typ.), as initials for proper name, not Ff; in Welsh, a
             separate letter, not to be divided

   ff.       folios, following (pl., preferred to et seqq.)

   ff        (mus.), fortissimo (very loud)

   ff        fecerunt, q.v.

   FFA       Fellow of the Faculty of Actuaries (Scotland)

   FFAS      Fellow of the Faculty of Architects and Surveyors

   fff       (mus.), fortississimo (as loud as possible)

   F.F.Hom.  Fellow of the Faculty of Homoeopathy

   FFPS      Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons

   FFR       Fellow of the Faculty of Radiologists

   FGS       Fellow of the Geological Society

   FH        fire hydrant

   FHA       Fellow of the Institute of Health Service Administrators

   FHS       Fellow of the Heraldry Society

   FIA       Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries

   F.I.A.A. & S.
             Fellow Architect Member of the Incorporated Association of
             Architects and Surveyors

   FIAC      Fellow of the Institute of Company Accountants

   fiacre    a four-wheeled cab

   FIAI      Fellow of the Institute of Industrial and Commercial Accountants

   fianc/‚   fem. -‚e, one betrothed (not ital.)

   fianchetto/
             (chess), placing bishop on long diagonal (pl. -es; not ital.)

   fianna    the militia of Finn and other legendary Irish kings; Fianna/,
             pl., the Fenians; -- Eireann, the Fenians of Ireland; -- F il,
             the Irish Republican party

   F.I.Arb.  Fellow of the Institute of Arbitrators

   FIAS      Fellow Surveyor Member of the Incorporated Association of
             Architects and Surveyors

   fiasco/   a failure; pl. -s

   fiat      formal authorization (not ital.)

   Fiat      Fabbrica Italiana Automobile Torino (It. motor car, company, and
             factory)

   fiat/ justitia
             (Lat.),let justice be done; -- lux, let there be light

   FIB       Fellow of the Institute of Bankers

   F.I.Biol. Fellow of the Institute of Biology

   fibrin    blood protein appearing as network of fibres, not -ine

   fibul/a   leg-bone, brooch; pl. -ae

   FICE      Fellow of the Institute of Civil Engineers

   fiche     microfiche; pl. same

   fichu     woman's neckerchief (not ital.)

   FICS      Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers; ditto
             International College of Surgeons

   fic/tion, -titious
             abbr. fict.

   fictionalize
             not -ise

   FID       Fellow of the Institute of Directors

   fidalgo   (Port.), a noble

   fiddle-de-dee
             nonsense (hyphens)

   Fidei Defensor
             (Lat.), Defender of the Faith; abbr. FD or Fid. Def.

   fides Punica
             (Lat.), Punic faith, bad faith

   fidget/, -ed, -ily, -ing, -y
             (one t only)

   FIDO      Fog Investigation Dispersal Operation

   fidus Achates
             (Lat.), a trusty friend

   FIEE      Fellow of the Institution of Electrical Engineers

   fief      (hist.), land held by tenant of a superior, not feoff. See also
             enfeoff, fee, feoff/ee, -ment

   field-glasses
             (hyphen)

   Fielding (Henry)
             1707-54, English novelist. See also Fei-

   Field Marshal
             (two words, caps. as title); abbr. FM

   Field Officer
             (two words, caps. as title); abbr. FO

   fieri facias
             (Lat.), "see that it is done", a writ; abbr. fi. fa.

   fiesta    festivity, holiday

   FIFST     Fellow of the Institute of Food Science and Technology

   fift/y, -ieth
             symbol L

   fig.      figure, figurative, -ly, figure

   figurant/ (Fr. m.), a member of the ballet chorus, pl. -s; fem. -e, pl.
             -es. Also (It. m. or f.) -e, pl. -i

   figure-head
             (hyphen)

   figures   term used by some printers for arabic numerals; BS 2961
             recommends the term numerals (q.v.)  for both arabic and roman.
             See also authorities, decimal currency, lakh

   FIHE      Fellow of the Institute of Health Education

   F.I.Inst. Fellow of the Imperial Institute

   FIJ       use FJI

   Fiji/     W. Pacific, indep. 1970; adj.  -an only of Polynesians,
             otherwise Fiji

   filagree  use filigree

   Fildes (Sir Luke)
             1844-1927, English painter

   filemot   a yellowish-brown, "dead leaf" colour, not filamort, filmot,
             phil-

   filet     (cook.), fillet

   filfot    use fy-

   filibeg   (Sc.), kilt, not the many variants

   filibuster
             one who obstructs public business by a long speech, the speech,
             not fill-

   filigree/ ornamental metallic lace-work, adj. -d, not fila-, file; --
             letter (typ.), an initial with filigree background

   filing cabinet
             (two words)

   Filipin/as
             Sp. for Philippine Islands; -o(s), native(s) of the islands

   fille de/ chambre
             (Fr. f.), chamber-maid, lady's maid, pl. filles -- --; -- joie,
             a prostitute

   fillet/   in Fr. m. filet; -ed, -ing

   fillibeg  use fili-

   filling-station
             (hyphen)

   fillip/   a stimulus; -ed, -ing

   fillipeen use philippina

   fillister a kind of plane-tool (two ls)

   filmot    use filemot

   filmsetting
             (typ.), composition and correction on photographic film instead
             of in metal

   filoselle floss silk (not ital.)

   fils      (Fr. m.), son, as Dumas fils (not ital.)

   filter/   device for separating solid matter from liquid; -bed, -paper
             (hyphens). See also philtre

   filucca   use felucca

   F.I.Mech.E.
             Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

   Fin.      Finland, Finnish

   finable   liable to a fine

   finale    conclusion (not ital.)

   finalize  not -ise

   fin de siЉcle
             (Fr. f.), end of the (nineteenth) century, decadent

   fine      (mus.), end of the piece

   Fine Gael Irish political party

   fine-paper edition
             abbr. FP

   finesse   subtlety (not ital.)

   fine-tooth comb
             (one hyphen)

   finger-mark
             (hyphen)

   finger/print, -tip
             (one word)

   finick/ing, -y
             fastidious

   finis     the end (not ital.)

   Finistere d‚p. France

   Finisterre/
             weather-forecast sea area; -- (Cape), Spain

   finnan haddock
             smoked haddock (two words), not the many variants

   Finnegans Wake
             novel by James Joyce, 1939 (no apos.)

   Finnish/  abbr. Fin.; -- language (typ.), is set in ordinary roman
             characters

   Finno-Karelia
             a former Soviet Socialist Republic. See USSR

   Fin. Sec. Financial Secretary

   F.Inst.P. Fellow of the Institute of Physics

   FIOB      Fellow of the Institute of Building

   FIOP      Fellow of the Institute of Printing

   fiord     (Norw.), arm of the sea, not now fjord (not ital.)

   fioritura (mus.), decoration of melody

   FIPA      Fellow of the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising

   FIQS      Fellow of the Institute of Quantity Surveyors

   fir.      firkin, -s

   Firbank (Ronald)
             1886-1926, English novelist

   Firdausi  ?930-1020, Persian poet, not Ferdausi, Firdousi, Firdusi

   fire/-alarm, -engine, -escape, -guard, -hydrant
             abbr. FH (hyphens)

   fire/arm(s), -man, -place, -side
             (one word)

   fire/ brigade, -- insurance
             (two words)

   Firenze   It. for Florence

   fire-plug abbr. FP

   fireproof (one word)

   firkin/   small cask; pl. -s; abbr.  fir.

   firman/   an edict, pl. -s

   firn      n‚v‚, granular snow not yet compressed into ice at head of
             glacier (not ital.)

   first     (adj.), abbr. 1st

   first aid (two words)

   first/-born, -class
             (adj. and adv.), -fruit (hyphens)

   firsthand (adj., one word), but at first hand (two words)

   first proof
             (typ.), the first impression taken, and corrected by the "copy"

   first-rate
             (hyphen)

   First World War
             1914-18 (caps.); also World War I

   firth     an estuary, not fri-

   FIS       Fellow of the Institute of Statisticians

   FISA      Fellow of the Incorporated Secretaries Association

   Fischer (Robert James)
             b. 1943, US chess master

   Fischer-Dieskau (Dietrich)
             b. 1925, German baritone

   fisgig    use fiz-

   fish/ cake, -- finger
             (two words)

   fishing/-line, -rod
             (hyphens)

   fissile   able to undergo fission, not fissionable

   FIST      Fellow of the Institute of Science Technology

   fisticuffs
             not fisty-

   fistul/a  opening of internal organ to the exterior or to another organ,
             pl. -ae (not ital.)

   fit (arch.)
             section of a poem, not fytte

   FitzGerald/
             fam. name of Duke of Leinster; -- (Edward), 1809-83, English
             poet and translator (one word), cap. G

   Fitzgerald/ (Francis Scott Key)
             1896-1940, US novelist; -- (George Francis), 1851-1901, Irish
             physicist, devised the theory of -- contraction, lower-case g

   Fitzwilliam/ College, -- Museum
             Cambridge

   fivefold  (one word)

   fixed star
             sign (See Figure 3 in topic FRONT_4)

   fizgig    flirtatious girl, small firework, not fis-, fizz-

   fizz      a sound, not fiz

   FJI       Fellow of the Institute of Journalists, not FIJ

   fjord     use fiord

   FL        (naval) Flag Lieutenant, Florida (off. postal abbr.)

   Fl.       Flanders, Flemish

   fl.       florin, fluid, (Neth. etc.)  gulden

   fl.       flores (flowers), floruit (flourished)

   f.l.      falsa lectio (a false reading)

   Fla.      Florida (off. abbr.)

   FLA       Fellow of the Library Association

   flabbergast
             to dumbfound, not flaba-, flaber-

   flabell/um
             (eccl. and bot.), a fan; pl. -a

   flag/-boat, -day
             (hyphens)

   flageolet (mus.) small flute, (bot.) kidney bean, not -elet (not ital.)

   flag-pole (hyphen)

   flag/ship, -staff
             (one word)

   flak      anti-aircraft fire, not -ck

   flamb‚    (Fr. cook.), served in flames

   flambeau/ a torch; pl. -s (not ital.)

   flamboyant
             showy, (archit.) with flamelike lines (not ital.)

   flamenco/ type of gypsy song or dance from Andalusia, pl. -s (not ital.)

   flame-thrower
             (hyphen)

   flamingo/ trop. bird; pl. -s

   flammable inflammable

   Flamsteed (John)
             1646-1719, first English Astronomer Royal (1675-1719), not
             -stead

   Flanders  abbr. Fl.

   flѓn/erie (Fr. f.), lounging; -eur, fem. -euse, an idler

   flannelette
             cotton imitation of flannel, not -llette

   flannelled
             not -eled

   flash/back, -light, -point
             (one word)

   flat/ back
             (bind.), see square back; ---impression or -- pull (typ.), see
             rough pull

   flat-fish (hyphen)

   flatworm  (one word)

   Flaubert (Gustave)
             1821-80 French novelist

   flautist  not flut-

   flavour/, -ed, -ing, -less
             but flavorous

   flЉche    (Fr. f.), an arrow; flЉche (archit., not ital.), a slender spire

   flection  use flexion

   fledgeling
             not fledgling

   Fleming   a native of Flanders

   Fleming (Sir Alexander)
             1881-1955, Scottish bacteriologist, discovered penicillin

   fleur-de-lis
             heraldic lily, not fleur-de-lys, nor flower-de-luce; pl.
             fleurs-de-lis (not ital.)

   fleuret   (bind.), flower-shaped ornament

   fleuron   a type ornament

   flexible  not -able

   flexion   not -ction

   flexitime system of working variable hours, not flext-

   flibbertigibbet
             frivolous person

   Fliegende Holl„nder (Der)
             (The Flying Dutchman), opera by Wagner, 1843

   flier     use flyer

   flintlock (one word)

   floatation
             use flotation

   floccinaucinihilipilification
             estimating as worthless (one word)

   floccul/us
             (Lat.), a small tuft, (astr.) small solar cloud, (anat.)  a
             small lobe in the cerebellum; pl.  -i

   flong     (typ.), material used for making the mould for stereotyping

   Flood     (the), in Genesis (cap.)

   flood/gate, -light
             (one word)

   floozie   not -sie

   flor.     floruit (flourished)

   flora/    (collect. sing.) the plants of a region or epoch; pl. -s (not
             ital.)

   floreat   may he, she, it flourish

   Floren/ce in It. Firenze; adj.  -tine

   flores    (Lat.), flowers; abbr. fl.

   florescen/ce, -t


   floriat/e, -ed
             florally decorated, not -eate

   Florida   off. abbr. Fla. or (postal) FL

   florilegi/um
             an anthology, pl. -a

   florin    abbr. fl.

   floruit   (Lat.), flourished, abbr.  fl., or flor., followed by date(s)
             (not ital. when used as noun)

   flotation not floatation

   flotsam and jetsam
             (naut.), floating wreckage and goods thrown overboard (esp. when
             washed ashore)

   flourished
             abbr. fl. (floruit)

   flow chart
             (two words)

   flower-de-luce
             use fleur-de-lis

   flowers   (typ.), type ornaments

   flow rate (two words)

   FLS       Fellow of the Linnean Society (off. spelling), not Linnae-

   Flt. Lt.  Flight Lieutenant

   Flt. Sgt. Flight Sergeant

   flu       influenza (no point)

   fluffing  (typ.), release of paper fluff or dust during printing

   FlЃgel (Johann Gottfried)
             1788-1855, German lexicographer

   flugelhorn
             kind of bugle

   flugelman use fugle-

   fluid     abbr. fl.

   fluidize  not -ise

   fluky     not -ey

   flummox   to confound, not -ix, -ox

   flunkey/  liveried servant (now derog.), pl. -s; not -ky

   fluoresce/, -nce, -nt
             be made luminous, etc.

   fluoridate
             add fluoride to

   fluorinate
             introduce fluorine into

   fluorine  not -in; symbol F

   fluoroscope
             instrument for X-ray examination, with fluorescent screen

   fluorspar (chem.), calcium fluoride as mineral

   flush     (typ.), set to margin of columns or page

   Flushing  Netherlands, in Du.  Vlissingen

   flustr/a  a seaweed; pl. -ae (not ital.)

   flutist   use flautist

   fluty, flutelike
             not -ey

   fluxions  (math.), not -ctions

   fly/      light carriage, pl. -s

   flyer     not flier

   fly/leaf  (typ.), a blank leaf at beginning or end of a book, also blank
             leaf of a circular; -sheet, a two- or four-page tract (one word)

   flyover   road or railway bridge (one word)

   fly-past  (noun, hyphen)

   flywheel  (one word)

   FM        field magnet, Field Marshal, Foreign Mission, frequency
             modulation

   Fm        fermium (no point)

   fm.       fathom

   FMS       Fellow of the Medical Society

   f.n., fn. footnote

   FO        Field Officer, (naval) Flag Officer, (RAF) Flying Officer,
             Foreign Office

   fo.       folio

   FOC       father of the chapel (see chapel)

   focalize  not -ise

   Foch (Ferdinand)
             1851-1929, French general

   fo'c'sle  use forecastle

   focus/    pl. -es, (sci.) foci

   focus/ed, -es, -ing
             not -uss-

   foehn     use fohn

   foenugreek
             use fe-

   Foerster (Friedrich Wilhelm)
             1869-1966, German philosopher and polit.  writer

   foet/id, -or
             use fe-

   foet/us   child or young animal developed in womb, pl. -uses; -al, -ation,
             -icide; not fet-

   fog       (meteor.), abbr. f.

   foggy     obscured by fog

   fog/y     one with antiquated notions, not -ey, -ie; pl. -ies

   f”hn      Alpine south wind, not foehn

   foie      (Fr. m.), liver

   Fokine (Michel)
             1880-1942, Russian-American choreographer

   fol.      folio, following

   fold      as suffix forms one word (e.g.  threefold)

   fold-out  oversize page in book (hyphen)

   foldstool use fald-

   foliaceous
             leaflike, not -ious

   foliate   (verb) number folios consecutively, (adj.) leaflike

   Folies BergЉre
             (ital.)

   folio/    (typ.), a sheet of MS or copy; a page number; a book based on
             two leaves, four pages, to the sheet; pl. -s; as verb, -ed, not
             -'d; abbr. fo., fol.

   foli/um   (Lat.), a leaf; pl. -a

   folk-dance
             (hyphen)

   Folketing Danish Parliament; not -thing

   folklor/e, -ism, -ist, -istic
             (one word)

   folk/-song, -tale
             (hyphens)

   follic/le (bot., med.), small sac, not -cule; but -ular, -ulated

   following abbr. f. or fol.

   fonda     (Sp.), an inn

   fondant   a sweetmeat (not ital.)

   fondue    melted cheese, eggs, etc., not fondu

   fons et origo
             (Lat.), source and origin

   font      (US typ.), Eng. fount

   Fontainebleau
             d‚p. Seine-et-Marne, France

   Fonteyn (Dame Margot)
             b. 1919, English prima ballerina

   foodstuff (one word)

   foolproof (one word)

   foolscap  former size of paper, 17 x 13.5 in.; -- 4to, 8.5 x 6.75 in.; --
             8vo, 6.75 x 4.25 in.(untrimmed).  See also book sizes

   foot      in metric system 30.48 centimetres; abbr. ft; not now in
             scientific use

   foot-and-mouth
             disease (hyphens)

   football  (one word)

   foot/-brake, -bridge
             (hyphens)

   foot candle
             (two words)

   foot/hills, -hold, -lights, -loose
             (one word)

   footnotes in copy should be written either at the bottom of the folio or
             on a separate sheet, with reference figures for identification;
             (typ.) all references In text to be by superior figures outside
             the punctuation mark or quote, except in math. setting (see
             reference marks). For a second set of cues use superior letters.
             At page make-up, leave apparent white between end of text and
             first line of notes

   foot/path, -plate, -print
             (one word)

   Foots Cray
             London

   Footscray Vic., Australia

   foot/sore, -step, -stool, -way, -wear
             (one word)

   for.      foreign, forestry

   foram/en  (anat., bot.), an orifice; pl. -ina

   forasmuch (one word)

   foray     a raid, not forr-

   forbade   see forbid

   for/bear  to abstain, past -bore, partic. -borne. See also forebear

   Forbes-Robertson (Sir Johnston)
             1853-1937, English actor

   for/bid   past -bade, partic.  -bidden, -bidding

   force majeure
             (Fr. f.), circumstances beyond one's control

   forcemeat meat finely chopped and seasoned, not forced- (one word)

   forceps   surgical pincers; pl. same

   forcible  not -cable

   Ford (Ford Madox)
             orig. surname Hueffer, 1873-1939, English writer

   forearm   (noun and verb, one word)

   forebear  ancestor. See also forbear

   forebod/e, -ing
             not forb-

   forecast

   forecastle
             not fo'c'sle

   foreclose

   foredge   (bind.), the edge of a book opposite the binding, not fore-edge.
             See also margins

   fore-edge (hyphen in non-technical uses)

   fore-end  not forend

   Forefathers' Day
             (US), anniversary of landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth, Mass.,
             21 Dec. 1620, usu.  celebrated on 22 Dec.

   forefend  use forf-

   fore/finger, -front
             (one word)

   foregather
             use forg-

   fore/go   to go before, past -went, partic. -gone, -going. See also forgo

   forehead

   foreign   abbr. for.

   Foreign and Commonwealth Office
             formed, 1968, from the two separate Offices; abbr. FCO

   Foreign/ Mission
             abbr. FM; -- Office (caps.), abbr. FO, combined, 1968, with the
             Commonwealth Office

   forel     early vellum-like covering for books, not forr-

   fore/leg, -lock, -mast, -play
             (one word)

   fore/run  past -ran, partic. -run; -runner (one word)

   fore/said, -see, -shadow, -shore
             -shorten, -sight, -skin, -stall, not for- (one word)

   Forester (Cecil Scott)
             1899-1966, English novelist

   foretell  not fort-, fortel

   for ever  for always (two words); forever, continually (one word)

   forewarn  not for- (one word)

   foreword  (of book), not forw-. See also preliminary matter

   forfeit

   forfend   avert, not fore-

   forgather not fore-

   forget-me-not
             (bot.)

   forgett/able, -ing


   forgivable
             not -eable

   for/go    to abstain from, past -went, partic. -gone, -going. See also
             forego

   formalin  a germicide or preservative, not -ine

   formalize not -ise

   format/   (typ.), the size (octavo, quarto, etc.) of a book; (loosely) its
             general typ. style and appearance; (comp.) a frequently-used set
             of typographical commands stored in the keyboard (not ital.); as
             verb, past -ted, partic. -ted, -ting

   forme     (typ.), a body of type secured in the frame called a chase; not
             form

   former    first of two. See also latter

   formul/a  pl. -as, (sci.) -ae (not ital.); abbr. F.

   forray    use foray

   forrel    use forel

   forsaid   use fore-

   Fors Clavigera
             by Ruskin, 1871-84

   Forster (John)
             1812-76, English biographer (see also Foster); -- (Edward
             Morgan), 1879-1970, English novelist

   forsw/ear, -ore, -orn


   forsythia ornamental shrub

   Fort      cap. F when with name, as Fort Southwick, Tilbury Fort; abbr.
             Ft.

   fort.     fortification, fortified

   forte/    person's strong point (not ital.); (mus.), strong and loud,
             abbr. f; ---piano, loud, then immediately soft (hyphen), abbr.
             fp; --piano, early form of pianoforte (one word)

   fortell   use fore-

   fortissimo/
             (mus.), very loud; as noun, pl. -s; abbr. ff

   fortississimo/
             (mus.), as loud as possible; as noun, pl. -s; abbr.  fff

   fortiter in re
             (Lat.), bravely in action. See also suaviter in modo

   FORTRAN   Formula Translation, a computer compiler language

   forty-eightmo
             (typ.), a book based on 48 leaves, 96 pages, to tbe sheet; abbr.
             48mo

   forwarn   use fore-

   forzando  (mus.), forced; abbr.  fz (no point). See also sforzando

   foss/a    (anat.), a cavity; pl. -ae

   fosse     a ditch, not foss

   fossilize not -ise

   Foster (Birket)
             1825-99, English painter; -- (John), 1770-1843, Englisb essayist
             (see also Forster); -- (Stephen Collins), 1826-64, US
             song-writer; -- (Sir Harry Hylton-), see Hylton-Foster

   Fotheringhay Castle
             Northants, 1066-1604

   Foucault (John Bernard L‚on)
             1819-68, French physicist

   Foucquet  use Fouq-

   foul/     adv. -ly; -up (hyphen as noun)

   Foulahs   use Fulahs

   foulard   a fabric (not ital.)

   foul proof
             (typ.), a proof-reader's marked proof as opposed to the
             corrected (or clean, q.v.) proof which succeeds it

   foundry   not -ery; -- proof, final proof from forme which has been
             prepared for plating

   fount     (typ.), a complete set of type of one particular face and size;
             in US font

   Fouqu‚ (Friedrich, Baron de la Mode)
             1777-1843, German poet and dramatist

   Fouquet (Jean)
             1416-80, French painter; -- (Nicolas), 1615-80, French
             statesman; not Foucq-

   four-colour process
             (typ.), printing in yellow, magenta, cyan, and black to give a
             complete colour reproduction

   fourfold  (one word)

   Fourier (Fran‡ois Marie Charles)
             1772-1837, French socialist, hence Fourier/ism, -ist, -ite; --
             (Jean Baptiste Joseph), 1768-1830, French mathematician and
             physicist, hence Fourier Series

   four-poster
             four-post bed

   four/score, -some
             (one word)

   four-stroke
             (hyphen)

   Fourth of July
             US Independence Day (caps.)

   Fourth of June
             George III's birthday, day of celebration at Eton

   Fowler (Francis George)
             1870-1918, English lexicographer; -- (Henry Watson), 1858-1933,
             English lexicographer, author of Modern English Usage and joint
             author, with brother F. G., of The King's English

   Fox (Charles James)
             1749-1806, English politician; -- (George), 1624-91, English
             preacher, founder of Society of Friends (Quakers)

   Foxe      (John), 1516-87, English martyrologist

   foxed paper
             stained with yellowish-brown spots

   fox/glove, -hole, -hound
             (one word)

   fox/-hunt, -terrier
             (hyphens)

   foxtrot   (one word)

   foyer     theatre lounge (not ital.)

   FP        Fine Paper (the best edition of a work); fire-plug; (Sc.) former
             pupil(s)

   f.p.      freezing-point

   fp        (mus.), forte-piano, loud, then immediately soft

   FPA       Family Planning Association, Foreign Press Association

   F.Ph.S.   Fellow of the Philosophical Society of England

   FPS       Fellow of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

   Fr        francium (no point)

   Fr.       Father, France, French, Friar, Friday; (Ger.) Frau (Mrs, wife)
             (It.) Fratelli (Brothers)

   fr.       fragment, franc, from, (Ger.)  frei (free)

   fra       (It.), brother, friar (no point)

   fracas    noisy quarrel; pl. same (not ital.)

   fractionalize
             not -ise

   fractions (typ.), spell out simple fractions in textual matter, e.g.
             one-half, two-thirds, one and three-quarters; hyphenate
             compounded numeral in compound fractions such as nine
             thirty-seconds, forty-seven sixty-fourths; in statistical matter
             use one-piece fractions where available, but if these are not
             available use split fractions, i.e. those with dividing line
             attached to denominators and the numerator justified above it;
             but to avoid difficult handwork complex non-displayed fractions
             are now often set in fount-size numerals with a solidus between,
             e.g. 19/100. For math. setting, see Hart's Rules, pp. 55-6

   fractions, decimal
             see decimal fractions

   FRAD      Fellow of the Royal Academy of Dancing

   fraenum   not fre-

   F.R.Ae.S. Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society

   F.R.Ag.Ss.
             Fellow of the Royal Agricultural Societies

   FRAI      Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute

   Fraktur   (typ.), name for German style of black letter

   FRAM      Fellow of the Royal Academy of Music

   framable  not -eable

   framework (one word)

   franc     (Fr. m.), coin (not ital.); abbr. f. or fr., pl. f. or frs., to
             be put after the figures, as 10 f.  50 c., or 10.50 fr.

   fran‡aise (… la)
             (Fr.), in the French style, not cap. F

   France    abbr. Fr.

   Franche-Comt‚
             province, France

   franchise the right to vote, not -ize

   francium  symbol Fr

   Franck (C‚sar Auguste)
             1822-90, Belgian-born French organist and composer

   Franco (General Francisco)
             1892-1975, Spanish head of state 1939-75

   franc-tireur
             (Fr. m.), an irregular sharpshooter; pl. francs-tireurs

   franglais (Fr. m.), French regarded as including too many borrowings from
             English

   Frankenstein
             (in Mary Shelley's novel), the maker of the monster, not the
             monster

   Frankfort Ind. and Ky. (US)

   Frankfurt/-on-Main
             W. Germany; -- -on-Oder, E. Germany; in Ger.  Frankfurt/ am
             Main, -- an der Oder (no hyphens)

   frankfurter
             seasoned smoked sausage

   Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
             German newspaper, not Frankfor-, fur-

   Franz Josef Land
             Arctic Ocean (USSR)

   frappant  (Fr.), striking, affecting

   frapp‚    (Fr.), iced

   FRAS      Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, ditto Asiatic Society

   Fraser    family name of Barons Lovat, Saltoun, and Strathalmond. See also
             Frazer

   Fraser River
             Brit. Columbia, Canada

   Fraser's Magazine


   frat/e    (It.), a friar; pl. -i

   fraternize
             not -ise

   Frau/     (Ger. f.), Mrs, wife, not Fr„u; abbr. Fr.; pl. -en

   Fr„ulein  (Ger. n.), Miss, unmarried lady; pl. same; abbr. Frl.

   Fraunhofer/ (Joseph von)
             German physicist, discoverer of -- lines in sun's spectrum (no
             umlaut)

   Frazer (Sir James George)
             1854-1941, English anthropologist. See also Fraser

   FRBS      Fellow of the Royal Botanic Society; Fellow of the Royal Society
             of British Sculptors

   FRCGP     Fellow of the Royal College of General Practitioners

   FRCM      Fellow of the Royal College of Music

   FRCO      Fellow of the Royal College of Organists

   FRCOG     Fellow of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

   FRCP      Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, London

   F.R.C.Path.
             Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists

   FRCS      Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, England

   FRCVS     Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, London

   F.R.Econ.S.
             Fellow of the Royal Economic Society

   Fred.     Frederic, Frederick. When it is a full name, or a diminutive of
             familiarity, it takes no point

   Fredericton
             New Brunswick, Canada, not -ck-

   free and easy
             (three words)

   freeboard (one word)

   free-born (hyphen)

   freedman  an emancipated slave; freeman, one to whom the freedom of a city
             has been given

   free/-for-all, -hand
             (adj.)  (hyphens)

   free/hold, -holder
             (one word)

   free-lance
             (noun & verb)

   Freemantle
             use Frem-

   Freemason/, -ry
             (cap., one word)

   free-range
             (adj., hyphen)

   free/-thinker, -thought
             (hyphens)

   free will the power of self-determination (two words); freewill (adj., one
             word)

   freeze    to convert to ice. See also frieze

   freezing-point
             abbr. f.p.

   frei      (Ger.), free; abbr. fr.

   Freiberg  Saxony, Germany

   Freiburg/ im Breisgau
             Baden, Germany; Ger. abbr. -- i.B.

   Freiburg  Switzerland, use Fribourg

   Freiherr  Get. title; abbr. Frhr.

   FreischЃtz (Der)
             opera by Weber, 1819

   freize    use frieze

   Fremantle W. Australia, not Free-

   French    abbr. Fr.; (typ.), alphabet as English; see accents. There are
             strict rules for capitalization, division of words, spacing,
             etc.  The following must suffice here, but reference to Hart's
             Rules, pp.  89-103, is strongly recommended.  Division of words
             is according to spoken syllables, rarely etymology:  single
             consonant goes with following vowel, including consonant + r or
             + l; take over gn (e.g. sei-gneur); doubled consonants may he
             divided. No caps.  for adjectives of nationality, the first
             pers. pronoun, days of week, months, names of cardinal points,
             names indicating rank, as anglais, je, lundi, mars, le nord, le
             duc.  Accents: acute (') used only over e; when two es come
             together the first always has acute accent, as n‚e; grave (')
             used over a, e, u; circumflex (^) used over any vowel.  Cedilla
             c (‡) used only before a, o, u. Diaeresis as in English; the
             digraph oe is not to be separated.  Quotation marks are usu.
             guillemets ® Ї, though rules are more commonly used in
             conversational passages

   french chalk
             (not cap.)

   French groove
             (bind.), extra space between board and spine

   Frenchified, Frenchlike
             (cap.)

   french polish/, -er, french windows
             (two words, not cap.)

   frenetic  delirious, frantic, not ph-

   frenum    use frae- feq., frequent, -ly, -ative

   frЉre     (Fr. m.), brother, friar

   FRES      Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society

   fresco/   water-colour done on damp plaster; pl. -s (not ital.)

   freshman  first-year man at university (one word)

   freshwater
             (adj., one word); fresh water (noun, two words)

   Fresnel (Augustin Jean)
             1788-1827, French physicist

   fret/saw, -work
             (one word)

   Freud/ (Sigmund)
             1856-1939, Austrian neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis;
             adj. -ian

   Freytag (Gustav)
             1816-95, German writer

   FRG       Federal Republic of Germany

   FRGS      Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society

   F.R.Hist.S.
             Fellow of the Royal Historical Society

   Frhr.     (Ger.), Freiherr (a title)

   FRHS      Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society

   Fri.      Friday

   friar's balsam
             tincture of benzoin, not -s'

   FRIBA     Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects (pl. FF-)

   Fribourg  Switzerland, not Frei-; in Ger. Freiburg

   FRIC      Fellow of the Royal Institute of Chemistry, now FRSC

   fricandeau/
             braised and larded fillet of veal; pl. -x (not ital.)

   fricassee/
             a white stew (not ital., no accent), pl. -s

   FRICS     Fellow of the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors

   Friday    abbr. F., Fr., or Fri.

   Friedman (Milton)
             b. 1912, US economist

   frier     one who fries, use fryer

   Friesian  breed of cattle, not Fris-

   frieze    cloth, (archit.) part below cornice, not frei-

   FRIPHH    Fellow of the Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene

   frippery  tawdry finery

   Fris.     Frisia (Friesland, in Netherlands), Frisian. See also Friesian

   fris/ette curls on forehead, not friz-; -eur, hairdresser; -ure, mode of
             hairdressing

   frisson   (Fr. m.), a shudder

   frit/     (Fr. cook.) fem. -e, pl.  -(e)s, fried

   frith     estuary, use firth

   frizz     to roughen, curl, not friz

   Frl.      (Ger.), Fr„ulein (Miss)

   F.R.Med.Soc.
             Fellow of the Royal Medical Society

   F.R.Met.S.
             Fellow of the Royal Meteorological Society

   FRMS      Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society

   FRNS      Fellow of the Royal Numismatic Society

   fro       (no point)

   Froebel (Friedrich)
             1782-1852, German educationalist, founder of kindergarten system

   Frolic/, -ked, -king


   fromage   (Fr. m.), cheese

   Fronde    French rebel party during minority of Louis XIV

   frondeur  member of Fronde, political rebel

   Frontignan
             a muscat grape or wine (not ital.)

   frontispiece
             (typ.), illustration facing title-page (one word)

   frost/-bite, -bitten
             (hyphens)

   Froude (James Anthony)
             1818-94, English historian

   Froufrou  comedy by Meilhac and Hal‚vy

   frou-frou a rustling of dress (not ital.)

   frowsty   musty, stuffy

   frowzy    unkempt, slatternly

   FRPS      Fellow of the Royal Photographic Society

   FRS       Fellow of the Royal Society, in Lat. SRS (Societatis Regiae
             Sodalis)

   frs.      francs

   FRSA      Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts

   FRSC      Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry

   FRSE      Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh

   FRSH      Fellow of the Royal Society of Health

   FRSL      Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature

   FRSM      Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine

   FRST      Fellow of the Royal Society of Teachers

   frumenty  boiled wheat with milk, sugar, etc., not the many variants

   frust/um  (geom.), lower portion of intersected cone or pyramid; pl.  -a;
             not -rum

   FRVA      Fellow of the Rating and Valuation Associatson

   fryer     one who fries, not frier

   FSA       Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries

   FSAA      Fellow of the Society of Incorporated Accountants and Auditors

   FSE       Fellow of the Society of Engineers

   FSIAD     Fellow of the Society of Industrial Artists and Designers

   FSS       Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society

   FSVA      Fellow of the Incorporated Society of Valuers and Auctioneers

   Ft.       fort

   ft.       feint (paper), flat, foot or feet, fortified

   FTCD      Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin

   FTCL      Fellow of Trinity College (of Music), London

   FTI       Fellow of the Textile Institute

   fuchsia   (bot.) (not ital.)

   fuc/us    (Lat.), a seaweed; pl. -i

   Fuehrer   (Ger.), use FЃhrer

   fuelled   not - eled

   fugleman  leader in mil. exercises, not flugel-, flugle-, fugal-, fugel-

   fug/ue    (mus., psych.) (not ital.); adj. -al

   FЃhrer    leader, title assumed by Hitler in Nazi Germany

   Fujiyama  mt., Japan, properly Fujisan, not Fusi-

   -ful      suffix denoting amounts, pl.  -fuls

   Fulahs    Sudanese, not Fell h, Fellani, Feulhs, Foulahs, Fulbe.  See also
             fellah

   fulcr/um  point of purchase for lever; pl. -a (not ital.)

   fulfil/, -led, -ling, -ment


   fulgor    splendour, not -gour

   full-bound
             (bind.), completely cased in the same material (hyphen)

   full/-length
             not shortened, -scale, not reduced (hyphens)

   fullness  not fulness

   full out  (typ.), set to margin of column or page

   full point
             (typ.), the full stop; see punctuation V

   fulmar    a petrel

   fulness   use full-

   fulsome   excessive and cloying, not full-

   fumatory  a place for smoking. See also fumi-

   fumigator not -er

   fumitory  (bot.), a plant. See also fuma-

   function  (math.), abbr. F or f

   fun-fair  (hyphen)

   fung/us   pl. -i; adj. -ous (not ital.)

   funny/-bone, -face
             (hyphens)

   fur.      furlong

   fЃr       (Ger.) for; abbr. f.

   furbelow  a flounce, not -llow

   furfur/   dandruff; adj. -aceous

   furlong   eighth of mile; abbr. f. or fur.

   furmenty  use fru-

   Furness (Christopher, Baron)
             1852-1912, shipping magnate; -- (Horace Howard), 1833-1912, and
             his son, 1865-1930, US Shakespearian scholars

   Furniss (Harry)
             1854-1925, caricaturist

   furniture (typ.), spacing material

   Furnivall (Frederick James)
             1825-1910, English philologist

   furor     (Lat.), rage (ital.)

   furore    (It.), enthusiastic admiration, uproar (not ital.)

   furry     furlike

   furth/er  (adv., adj., and verb), -est (adv. and adj.), now the dominant
             spellings; use in all cases, not far-

   Furtw„ngler (Adolf)
             1853-1907, German archaeologist; -- (Wilhelm), his son,
             1886-1954, German conductor

   fusable   use fusi-

   fusain    porous coal, artists' fine charcoal crayon

   fus/e, -ee, fuselage
             not fuz-

   fusible   not -able

   fusil     musket, not -zil

   fusilier  not -leer

   fusillade not -ilade

   Fusiyama  mt., Japan, use Fujiyama

   fut.      future

   futhorc   runic alphabet, not -ark, -ork

   fuz/e, -ee, -elage, -il
             use fus-

   f.v.      folio verso (on the back of the page)

   FWA       Family Welfare Association

   fylfot    the swastika, not fil-

   fytte     use fit

   Fyzabad   Uttar Pradesh (India), not Faizabad

   fz        (mus.), forzando

   FZS       Fellow of the Zoological Society

7.0 G
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-



7.1 G...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   G         gauss, the seventh in a series, (as prefix) giga-

   G.        Graduate, Grand, Gulf, (naval) gunnery

   g         gram(s) (no point in scientific and technical work), (dyn.)
             local gravitational acceleration

   g.        guinea, -s, (Fr.) gauche (left), gros/, -se (big), (meteor.)
             gale

7.2 GA...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   GA        General Assembly (Sc. Ch.); Georgia, US (off. postal abbr.)

   Ga        gallium (no point)

   Ga.       Gallic; Georgia, US (off.)

   gabardine durable cloth

   gabbey    use gaby

   gabbro/   (geol.), an igneous rock; pl. -s

   gaberdine a loose cloak

   Gabon/    W. Africa, indep. republic 1960; adj. -ese

   Gaborone  Botswana

   gaby      a simpleton, not -ey, gabbey, gawby

   Gadarene swine


   Gaddi     family of Florentine painters, 1259-1396

   Gadhel/   a Gael of the Irish, Highland Scottish, or Manx branch; adj. -ic

   Gaditanian
             of Cadiz, SW Spain

   gadolinium
             symbol Gd

   Gadshill  Kent, site of Gad's Hill Place, Charles Dickens's residence
             1860-70; character in Shakespeare's Henry IV (one word)

   Gaekwar   title of prince of Baroda, India, not Gaik-

   Gaelic/   abbr. Gael.; -- alphabet, same as English, but no j, k, q, v, w,
             x, y, z. See also accents

   Gaeltacht region of Ireland where vernacular language is Irish

   gaga      senile, incapable (one word)

   Gagarin (Yuri Alekseyevich)
             1934-68, Russian cosmonaut, first to orbit earth, 1961

   gage      a, or to, pledge. See also gauge

   gaiety    not gay-

   Gaikwar   (title), use Gaek-

   gaillardia
             (bot.), a plant

   gaily     not gayly

   gairfish  use garfish

   gairfowl  use gare-fowl

   gairish   use garish

   Gair Loch Strathclyde, use Gare-

   Gairloch  Highland, not Gare-

   Gaitskell (Hugh Todd Naylor)
             1906-63, British statesman

   Gaius     Roman praenomen, not Caius; abbr. C.

   gal       unit of acceleration, with numbers Gal (no point)

   Gal.      Galatians

   gal.      gallon, -s

   gala/     festive occasion; pl. -s (not ital.)

   galaena   use -lena

   galangale use gali-

   galantine white meat served cold in jelly, not gall-

   Galantuomo (Il Re)
             King Victor Emmanuel I of Italy

   galanty show
             a shadow pantomime, not -tee, gallantee, -ty

   Galatea (Acis or Pygmalion and)


   Galati    Romania, not -acz, -atch, -atz

   Galatia   Asia Minor

   Galatians abbr. Gal.

   galavant  use galli-

   Galaxy    (astr.), the Milky Way (system) (cap.)

   gale      (meteor.), wind moving at 40-70 miles per hour

   galena    lead ore, not -aena

   galera    (Sp. typ.), a galley

   galЉre    (Fr. f.), galley (ship); qu'allait-il faire dans cette --?  (how
             did he get into this scrape?)

   Galilean  of Galilee, or of Galileo

   Galileo [Galilei]
             1564-1642, Italian astronomer and mathematician; in Fr. Galil‚e,
             It.  Galilei

   galingale a sedge with medicinal root, not gala-

   galiot    a vessel, use gall-

   galipot   a resin. See also gall-

   galivant  use galli-

   gall.     gallon, -s

   gallantine
             use galantine

   gallanty show
             use gala-

   gallaway  see gallo-

   gall-bladder
             (hyphen)

   Galle     town, Sri Lanka, formerly Point de Galle

   gallery   in Fr. f. galerie

   Galles    (Fr. f. sing.), Wales; adj.  gallois/, fem. -e

   galley/   (typ.), a flat oblong tray for holding composed type; -- proofs,
             those supplied in "slips" about 18 in. long (i.e. impressions
             taken from type on galleys). See also proof

   Gallic    of Gaul, French; abbr. Ga.

   gallice   in French

   Gallic/ism
             French idiom; -ize, to make Gallic or French, not -ise

   Galli-Curci (Amelita)
             1889-1963, Italian soprano

   galligaskins
             pl., breeches, not -in

   gallimaufry
             a medley

   galliot   Dutch cargo-boat

   Gallipoli S. Italy, Turkey

   gallipot  a small jar. See also gali-

   gallium   symbol Ga

   gallivant to gad about, not gala-, gali-

   gallon/, -s
             abbr. gal. or gall.

   galloon   a dress trimming

   galloot   use galoot

   gallop/   a horse's movement; -ed, -er, -ing. See also galop

   gallopade Hungarian dance, not galop-, gallopp-

   Gallovidian
             of Galloway

   Galloway  SW Scotland

   galloway  a horse, also breed of cattle, not galla-

   gallows   treated as sing.

   gallstone (one word)

   Gallup/ (Dr George Horace)
             1901-84, founded American Institute of Public Opinion, 1936; --
             poll, measure of public opinion (two words, one cap.)

   galoot    an awkward fellow, not gall-, geel-

   galop     a dance. See also gallop

   galore    in abundance

   galosh/   an overshoe, not gol-, -oshe; -ed

   galumph   to gallop triumphantly

   galv.     galvan/ic, -ism

   Galvani (Luigi)
             1737-98, discoverer of galvanism

   galvanize not -ise

   Galway    W. Ireland

   Galwegian of Galloway

   Gama (Vasco da)
             1467-1524, Portuguese navigator, first round Africa to India

   Gambia (The)
             W. Africa, indep. 1965

   Gambier   Ohio, US

   gambier   a gum, not -beer, -bir

   gamboge   yellow pigment, not -booze

   gambol/   to frisk; -led, -ling

   game/bird, -keeper
             (one word)

   gamin/    a street urchin, fem. -e (not ital.)

   gamma/    unit of magnetic flux density; in SI units 1nT; -- globulin, a
             protein; -- ray (two words)

   gammon    a cured ham, not gamon

   gamy      having the flavour or scent of game left till high, not -ey

   Gand      Fr. for Ghent, Belgium

   Gandhi/ (Mohandas Karamchand)
             (Mahatma Gandhi), 1869-1948, Indian nationalist leader; -- (Mrs
             Indira), 1917-84, Prime Minister of India 1966-77, 1980-4, dau.
             of Pandit Nehru, not related to preceding; -- (Rajiv), b. 1944,
             Prime Minister of India 1984-, her son

   gangli/on knot on nerve; pl. -a

   gangue    rock or earth in which ore is found

   gangway   (one word)

   ganister  a hard stone, not gann-

   gantlet   use gaun-

   gantry    platform to carry travelling crane, etc., not gau-

   Ganymede  (Gr. myth.), cup-bearer to the gods

   gaol/     -er, not jai-. See also goal

   gaol/bird, -break
             (one word)

   Garamond  a typeface

   Garamont (Claude)
             c.1500-61, French type-designer, -cutter, and -founder

   Garcilaso de la Vega
             1503-36, Spanish poet; -- -- -- -- ('the Inca'), 1540-1616,
             Spanish historian

   gar‡on    (Fr. m.), bachelor, boy, waiter (ital.)

   Garde nationale
             (Fr.), national guard (one cap.)

   gardenia  (bot.), an ornamental shrub (not ital.)

   Gardens   abbr. Gdns.

   gare      (Fr. f.), railway station

   garefish  use garfish

   gare-fowl the great auk, not gair-, gar- (hyphen)

   Gare Loch Strathclyde, not Gair

   Gareloch  Highland, use Gair-

   garfish   similar to pike, not gair-, gare-

   gargantuan
             enormous (not cap.)

   gargoyle  (archit.), grotesque spout, not -ile, -oil

   Garhwal   Uttar Pradesh, India

   gari      use gharry

   garish    gaudy, not gair-

   garlic    but garlicky

   Garmisch-Partenkirchen
             W. Germany

   garnet    red precious stone

   garn/i    (Fr.), fem. -ie, furnished

   garrott/e to throttle, not -ote, garotte; -er

   Garter King-of-Arms
             herald, not -at-

   gas       (US colloq.), gasoline

   gaseous

   Gaskell (Mrs Elizabeth Cleghorn)
             1810-65, English novelist

   gasoline  volatile liquid from petroleum, esp. (chiefly US and techn.)
             petrol, not -ene

   Gasp‚     peninsula, cape, and town (Quebec prov., Canada)

   gas poisoning
             (two words)

   Gast/haus (Ger. n.), an inn; pl.  -h„user (cap.)

   Gast/hof  (Ger. m.), a hotel; pl.  -h”fe (cap.)

   gastronom/e
             a judge of good eating; -ic, -y

   gastropod any member of the Gastropoda, mollusc class (not ital.); not
             -ster-

   gѓt/‚     (Fr.), fem. -‚e, spoiled

   gѓteau/   (Fr. m.), cake, pl. -s

   gatecrash/, -er
             (one word)

   gate/fold folded oversize page (one word)

   gate/keeper, -post, -way
             (one word)

   gather    (bind.), to assemble the printed and folded sections in sequence

   GATT      General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

   gauch/e   awkward; -erie, awkwardness (not ital.)

   gauche    (Fr.), left; abbr. g.

   gaucho/   a mounted herdsman, native of the pampas, not gua-; pl. -s

   gaud/y    annual entertainment, esp.  college dinner; (adj.) showy; -ily,
             -iness

   gaug/e    a measure; -ing, not guage.  See also gage

   Gauguin (EugЉne Henri Paul)
             1848-1903, French painter

   Gaul      anc. France; adj. Gallic, (Fr.) gaulois/, fem. -e

   Gaullist  follower of de Gaulle

   Gauloise  propr. term for French cigarettes

   gauntlet/ a long glove, not gant-; -ed

   gauntr/ee, -y
             use gantry

   gaur      Indian ox, not gour

   Gauss     (Karl Friedrich), 1777-1855, German mathematician and physicist

   gauss     unit of magnetic induction, abbr. G; pl. same

   Gautama Buddha
             founder of Buddhism; see Buddha

   Gauthier-Villars
             publishers, Paris

   Gautier (Th‚ophile)
             1811-72, French writer

   gauzy     not -ey

   gavel     a president's hammer

   gavial    Asian crocodile, not ghar-

   gavotte   a dance, music for it

   gawby     use gaby

   gay/ety, -ly
             use gai-

   Gay-Lussac (Joseph Louis)
             1778-1850, French chemist and physicist

   gaz.      gazett/e, -ed, -eer

   gazebo/   summer-house, belvedere; pl. -s

   gazett/e, -ed, -eer
             abbr. gaz.

   gazpacho  cold vegetable soup

   gazump    to raise price to would-be buyer after agreement but before
             completion

7.3 GB...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   GB        Great Britain

   GBE       Knight or Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire

   GBH       grievous bodily harm

   G.B.S.    (George Bernard Shaw, 1856-1950), Irish-born British dramatist
             and critic

7.4 GC...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   GC        George Cross; Golf Club

   GCA       Ground Controlled Approach (radar)

   GCB       Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath

   GCE       General Certificate of Education

   GCF       or g.c.f. (math.), greatest common factor

   GCHQ      Government Communications Headquarters

   GCI       Ground Controlled Interception (radar)

   GCIE      Kmght Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire

   GCLH      Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour

   GCM       general court martial

   GCM       or g.c.m. (math.), greatest common measure

   GCMG      Knight or Dame Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St
             George

   GCSI      Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India

   GCVO      Knight or Dame Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order

7.5 GD...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   GD        Grand/Duchess -- Duchy, -- Duke

   Gd        gadolinium (no point)

   Gdns.     Gardens

   GDP       gross domestic product

   GDR       German Democratic Republic

   Gdsm.     Guardsman

7.6 Ge...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   Ge        germanium (no point)

   g.e.      (binding) gilt edges

   gearbox   (one word)

   gear-lever
             (hyphen)

   gearwheel (one word)

   geb.      (Ger.), geboren (born), gebunden (bound)

   GEC       General Electric Company

   gecko/    a house-lizard; pl. -s

   gee/-ho, ---up
             call to horses, not jee-

   geeloot   use gal-

   geezer    (slang), an old man. See also geyser

   gefuffle  use ker-

   Geiger counter
             (in full, Geiger-MЃller counter), instrument for detecting
             radioactivity

   Geisenheimer
             a white Rhine wine

   geisha/   Japanese dancing girl; pl.  -s

   Geissler (Heinrich)
             1814-79, German physicist, inventor of -- vacuum tube

   gel       (phys.), (form) semi-solid colloidal solution

   gelatin/e, -ize
             not -ise, -ous

   Geld      (Ger. a.), money (cap.)

   Gelderland
             E. Netherlands, not Guel-

   gelder rose
             use gue-

   gel‚e     (Fr. f.), frost, jelly

   Gel‚e (Claude)
             see Lorrain

   Gelert    faithful dog of Welsh legend

   Gellert (Christian FЃrchtegott)
             1715-69, German poet

   Gelsemium (bot.), not -inum

   gem       (typ.), name for a former size of type, about 4 pt.

   gemel     finger-ring, hinge, etc., not gemew, gimbal, gimmal, gimmer

   gemm/a    a bud; pl. -ae

   gemЃtlich (Ger.), leisurely, agreeab/le, comfortab/le, -ly

   Gen.      General, Genesis

   gen.      gender, genera, general, -ly, genitive, genus

   Gendarme/ (Fr. m.), pl. -s (not ital.)

   gendarmerie
             (Fr. f.), body of soldiers used as police

   gender    abbr. gen.

   g€n/e     (Fr. f), constraint; -‚, fem.  -‚e, constrained

   gene/     the carrying unit of a cell, the unit of heredity; pl. -s

   genealog/y
             family's pedigree; adj.  -ical, not -olog-

   genera    see genus

   General   abbr. Gen.

   General Assembly
             (Sc. Ch.), abbr. GA

   general election
             (not caps.)

   generalia (Lat. pl.), general principles

   generalissimo/
             supreme commander, pl. -s

   generalize
             not -ise

   generator not -er

   Genesis   abbr. Gen.

   genes/is  pl. -es

   genet     kind of civet-cat. See also jennet

   Geneva    Switzerland, in Fr. GenЉve, Ger. Genf, It. Ginevra; adj.
             Genevan; Genevese (sing. and pl.), native(s) of --, in Fr.
             genevois/, fem. -e(s)

   GeneviЉve (Sainte)
             patron of Paris

   Genghis Khan
             1162-1227, Mongol conqueror of N. China and Iran, not Jenghiz --

   gen/ie    a spirit in Muslim myth., pl. -ii. See also jinnee

   genit     use jennet

   genitive  abbr. gen. or genit.

   genius/   (person of) consummate intellectual power; pl. -es (genii is pl.
             of genie)

   geni/us loci
             (Lat.), the pervading spirit of a place; pl. -i loci

   Gennesaret (Sea of)
             not -eth

   gennet    use jennet

   Genoa     Italy; in Fr. G€nes, It.  Genova; adj. Genoese, not -ovese

   genocide  deliberate extermination of a race

   genre     (art), a painting of the ordinary scenes of life (not ital.)

   gens      a clan; pl. gentes

   Gens de Lettres (Soci‚t‚ des)
             French society of authors

   Gensfleisch
             see Gutenberg

   Gent      Fl. and Ger. for Ghent, Belgium

   gent.     gentle/man, -men

   genteel/  fashionable, snobbishly refined, adv. -ly

   Gentele's green
             a colour

   gentil/   (Fr.), fem. -le, gentle, kind

   gentile   anyone not a Jew. See also goy

   gentilhomme
             (Fr. m.), nobleman, gentleman; pl. gentilshommes

   gentleman-at-arms
             (hyphens)

   Gentleman's Magazine
             (not -men's)

   Gents (the)
             men's lavatory (cap., no point)

   genuflexion
             a bending of the knee, not -ction


   genus     pl. genera, abbr. gen. See also botany, zoology

   Geo.      George

   geod.     geode/sy (large-scale earth measurement), -tic

   Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (ђtienne)
             1772-1844, French zoologist, not -frey (one hyphen only)

   Geoffrey-Lloyd (Baron)


   geog.     geograph/er, -ical, -y

   geographical qualifiers
             forming everyday terms, usually have lower-case initials, as
             chinese white, indian ink, roman type. But Brussels sprouts,
             London pride. See capitalization and Hart's Rules, pp. 12-13

   geol.     geolog/ical, -ist, -y

   geologize not -ise

   geology   names of formations to have caps., as Old Red Sandstone

   geom.     geome/ter, -trical, -try

   Geordie   native of Tyneside

   Georg     Ger. for George

   George    abbr. Geo.

   George-Brown (Baron)


   Georgetown
             Guyana

   George Town
             Cayman Is., Malaysia (two words)

   Georgia   US; off. abbr. Ga. or (postal) GA

   Georgia   a Soviet Socialist Republic. See also USSR

   Georgian  of Georgia or the Georges

   Georgium sidus
             (astr.), old name for Uranus

   Ger.      German, Germany

   ger.      gerund, -ial

   geranium/ (bot.), pl. -s (not ital.)

   Gerard (John)
             1545-1612, English botanist, not -arde

   gerbil    desert rodent, not jer-

   gerfalcon use gyrfalcon

   G‚ricault (Jean Louis Andr‚ Th‚odore)
             1791-- 1824, French painter

   gerkin    use ghe-

   German    abbr. Ger. (typ.), now usually set in roman (Antiqua) type; see
             accents. The Fraktur alphabet (listed in Hart's Rules, p. 104)
             has no small caps. or italic, emphasis being shown by
             letter-spacing. For details of German printing-practice (note
             esp.  the rules on capitalization, word-division, and ligatures)
             see Hart's Rules, pp. 103-11

   german    (cousin)

   germane to
             relevant

   germanium symbol Ge

   Germanize not -ise

   Germany   abbr. Ger.

   G‚r“me (Jean L‚on)
             1824-1904, French painter

   gerrymander
             to manipulate unfairly, not je-

   gerund/, -ial
             abbr. ger.

   Ges.      (Ger.), Gesellschaft (a company or society) (cap.)

   gesammelte Werke
             (Ger. pl.), collected works (one cap.)

   Gesellschaft
             (Ger. f.), a company or society (cap.), abbr. Ges.

   gesso/    gypsum used in art, pl. -es

   gest.     (Ger.), gestorben, deceased

   Gestalt/  a shape, the whole as more than the sum of its parts; also used
             as adj. to describe philosophy or psychology based on this

   Gestapo   German secret police (under Hitler)

   Gesta Romanorum
             (Lat. pl.), medieval collection of anecdotes

   gesticulator
             one who moves his bands and arms in talking, not -er

   gestorben (Ger.), deceased; abbr.  gest.,

   gesundheit!
             (Ger.), your health (said also to one who sneezes)

   get-at-able
             accessible (hyphens)

   gettable  (two ts)

   Gettysburg
             Pennsylvania, scene of Battle and of Lincoln's address, 1863

   Geulinex (Arnold)
             1625-69, Dutch philosopher

   GeV       giga-electron-volt

   Gewandhaus
             (Ger. n.), Clothworkers' Hall, concert-hall in Leipzig

   gewgaw    gaudy plaything (one word)

   geyser    hot spring, water-heater (not ital.). See also geezer

7.7 GFS...
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   GFS       Girls' Friendly Society

7.8 GG...
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   GG        Girl Guides, Governor-General, Grenadier Guards

   Gg        gigagram

   g.gr.     a great gross, or 144 dozen

   GGSM      Graduate of Guildhall School of Music

7.9 Ghadames...
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   Ghadames  Libya

   Ghana     formerIy Gold Coast Colony, indep. 1957, republic 1960; adj.
             and noun Ghanaian

   Ghandi    use Gandhi

   gharial   use gavial

   gharry    a vehicle used in India, not gari

   ghat      (Anglo-Ind.), mountain pass, steps to a river, not ghѓt, gh t,
             ghaut

   Ghazi     Muslim fighter against non-Muslims

   ghee      Ind. butter, not ghi

   Gheel     Belgian commune long celebrated for its treatment of mentally
             ill

   Ghent     Belgium, in Fr. Gand, Fl. and Ger. Gent

   gherao    Ind. & Pak. lock-in of employers

   gherkin   a small cucumber, not ge-, gi, gu-

   ghetto/   (hist.) Jews' quarter, slum area; pl. -s (not ital.)

   ghi       use ghee

   ghiaour   use gi-

   Ghibelline
             one of the Emperor's faction in medieval Italian states, opp. to
             Guelph; not -in, Gib-, Guib-

   Ghiberti (Lorenzo)
             1378-1455, Italian sculptor, painter, goldsmith

   Ghirlandaio (Domenico)
             1449-94, Italian painter

   Ghizeh    use Giza

   Ghonds    use Gonds

   Ghoorkas  use Gurkhas

   ghoul     an evil spirit, not -ool, -oule, -owl

   GHQ       General Headquarters

   Ghurkas   use Gurkhas

7.10 GI...
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   GI        (US), Government Issue, (colloq.)  serviceman

   Giacometti (Alberto)
             1901-66, Swiss sculptor, painter, poet

   giallo antico
             (It.), a rich-yellow marble

   Giant's Causeway
             Co. Antrim, not -ts'

   giaour    Turk. name for non-Muslim, not ghiaour, giaur

   Giaour (The)
             poem by Byron, 1813

   Gib.      Gibraltar

   gibber    to chatter, not j-

   gibbet/, -ed, -ing


   Gibbon (Edward)
             1737-94, English historian

   Gibbons (Grinling)
             1648-1720, English carver; -- (Orlando), 1583-1625, English
             composer

   gibbo/us  hump-backed, doubly convex like the moon between half and full;
             -sity

   gib/e     to sneer; -er, -ing. See also gybe

   Gibeline  use Ghibelline

   Gibraltar/
             abbr. Gib.; adj. -ian

   gibus     opera-hat (not ital.)

   Gide (Andr‚ Paul Guillaume)
             1869-1951, French writer

   Gideon    member of body distributing bibles

   Gielgud (Sir Arthur John)
             b. 1904, English actor and producer

   Giessen   university city, W. Germany

   giga-     prefix meaning one thousand million, abbr. G

   gigolo/   pl. -s (not ital.)

   gigot/    (cook.) leg of mutton; -- sleeve (two words); not j-

   gigue     a lively dance

   Gilbert (Sir William Schwenck)
             1836-1911, English librettist

   Gil Blas  picaresque satire by Le Sage, 1715

   gild      an association, use guild

   Gilead    mountainous district east of R. Jordan

   Gill (Arthur Eric Rowton)
             1882-1940, artist, sculptor, type-designer and typographer;
             designed Perpetua and Gill Sans founts

   Gillette (King Camp)
             1855-1932, US inventor of safety razor; -- (William), 1857-1937,
             US actor and writer

   Gillray (James)
             1757-1815, English caricaturist

   gillyflower
             clove-scented flower, not jilli-

   gilt      abbr. gt.

   gimbal    use gemel

   gimcrack  trumpery, not jim-

   gimlet    a tool, not gimb-

   gimm/al, -er
             use gemel

   gimmick   a contrivance, device

   gimp      a trimming, a fishing-line, not gui-, gy-

   Ginevra   It. for Geneva

   ginger/-ale, -beer
             (hyphens)

   ginglym/us
             (anat.), a hingelike joint such as the elbow, pl. -i; adj. -oid

   ginkgo    oriental tree, not gingko

   ginn      see jinnee

   Gioconda (La)
             see Mona Lisa; opera by Ponchielli, 1876; play by d'Annunzio,
             1898

   Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco)
               1475-1510, Italian painter

   Giotto di Bondone
             1266-1337, Italian painter and architect; adj.  Giottesque

   gipsy     use gyp-

   girandole a firework (not ital.)

   girasol   a fire-opal, not -ole

   Giraudoux (Jean)
             1881-1944, French novelist and playwright

   girkin    use ghe-

   Girl Guide
             now Guide

   giro      a Post Office system of money transfer, not Gy-

   Girond/e  d‚p. SW France; -ist, French moderate republican, 1791-3

   Giscard d'Estaing (Val‚ry)
             b. 1926, Pres. of France 1974-81

   gitan/o   (Sp.), fem. -a, gypsy

   gite      a stopping-place; in Fr. m.  gЊte

   Giulia, Giulio, Giuseppe
             It. names, not Gui-

   Giulini (Carlo Maria)
             b. 1914, Italian conductor

   Giulio Romano
             c.1499-1546, Italian architect

   giuoco piano
             (It.), quiet play (a chess opening)

   giveable  not givable

   Giza      site of pyramids, Egypt, not El-Ghiz-, -eh

7.11 Gk.
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   Gk.       Greek

7.12 glace...
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   glace     (Fr. cook. f.), ice

   glac‚     glazed

   gladiol/us
             (bot.), pl. -i (not ital.)

   Gladstone/ bag, -- cap
             (two words)

   Gladstonian
             not -ean

   Glagolitic
             pertaining to former Slavonic alphabet

   Glam.     Glamorgan

   glamorize not -ise

   glam/our  but -orous

   Glas.     Glasgow

   glaserian fissure
             (anat.), not glass-

   Glasse (Mrs Hannah)
             wrote The Art of Cookery in 1747

   glassful  pl. glassfuls

   glasshouse
             greenhouse, (slang) mil.  prison

   Glaswegian
             of Glasgow

   Glauber/ (Johann Rudolf)
             1604-68, German chemist; --'s salt, a cathartic (apos.)

   glaucoma  an eye-disease

   glaucous  greenish; (bot.) covered with a bloom

   Glazunov (Alexander Konstantinovich)
             1805-1930, Russian composer

   GLC       Greater London Council

   Gleichschaltung
             (Ger. f.), standardization of institutions

   Glen      written separately when referring not to a settlement but to the
             glen itself, as Glen Almond, Glen Coe

   Glenalmond
             Tayside

   Glencoe   Highland

   Glendower (Owen)
             Welsh chieftain d.  1416; in Welsh Owain Glyndwr

   Glenealy  Co. Wicklow

   Gleneely  Co. Donegal

   glengarry a Scotch cap

   Glenlivet a whisky, not -at, -it (one word)

   Glenrothes
             Fife, "new town", 1948

   glissade  a slide down a steep slope (not ital.)

   glissando (mus.), slurred, in a gliding manner

   gliss‚    sliding step in dance

   glockenspiel/
             orchestral percussion instrument, pl. -s

   Gloria/   (liturgy), pl. -s

   Gloria/ in Excelsis, -- Patri
             hymns

   Gloria Tibi
             glory to Thee (cap. T)

   Glos.     Gloucestershire

   gloss     a superficial lustre, a marginal note

   gloss.    glossary, a collection of glosses

   Gloucestershire
             abbr. Glos.

   Gloucestr:
             sig. of Bp. of Gloucester (colon)

   glove/ box, -- compartment, -- puppet
             (two words)

   glower    to gaze angrily, not glour

   glow-worm (hyphen)

   gloxinia/ (bot.); pl. -s (not ital.)

   Gluck (Christoph Willibald von)
             1714-87 German composer, not Gl–-

   glu/e, -ed, -ey, -ing


   glue-pot  (hyphen)

   glut/en   nitrogenous part of wheat-flour, not -in; but -inize, -inous

   glycerine not -in

   Glyndwr   see Glendower

7.13 GM...
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   GM        George Medal, Grand Master

   gm.       gram, use g

   G-man     (US colloq.), special (police) agent of the FBI

   G.m.b.H., GmbH
             (Ger.), Gesellschaft mit beschr„nkter Haftung (limited liability
             company)

   GMC       General Medical Council

   GMT       Greenwich Mean Time

   GMWU      General and Municipal Workers' Union

7.14 gn....
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   gn.       guinea

   GNC       General Nursing Council

   gneiss    (geol.), a laminated rock (not ital.)

   gnocchi   (It. pl.), small dumplings

   gnos/is   knowledge of spiritual mysteries; pl. -es; -tic, having
             spiritual knowledge; Gnosticism, an eclectic philosophy of the
             redemption of the spirit from matter through knowledge

   GNP       gross national product

   Gnr.      (mil.), gunner

   gns.      guineas

   gnu/      antelope; pl. -s

7.15 GO...
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   GO        general order, great (or grand) organ

   go/       (noun), pl. -es

   goal      the objective at games, etc.  See also gaol

   goalkeeper
             (one word)

   goatee    chin-tuft like a goat's beard

   goat/herd, -skin, -sucker
             (bird) (one word)

   goats-beard
             plant or fungus (hyphen)

   goaty     goatlike

   gobbledegook
             pompous jargon, not -dyg-

   Gobbo (Launcelot)
             in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice; -- (Old), his father

   Gobelin tapestry
             not -ins

   gobemouche/
             credulous person, pl.  -s; in Fr. m. sing. and pl. gobe -mouches

   Gobi      desert in Mongolia and E.  Turkistan

   goby      a fish (not ital.)

   GOC       General Officer Commanding

   go-cart   miniature racing-car, use -kart

   God-awful (hyphen, cap.)

   godchild  (one word)

   god-daughter
             (hyphen)

   godfather (one word)

   God-fearing
             (hyphen, cap.)

   godhead   divine nature, but the Godhead (cap.)

   godless   (one word)

   Godley (Arthur)
             see Kilbracken

   godlike   (one word)

   god/mother, -parent
             (one word)

   God's acre
             a burial ground (apos., one cap.)

   god/send, -sent
             (one word)

   godson    (one word)

   Godspeed  (one word, cap.)

   Godthaab  Greenland

   godwit    a marsh bird

   Goebbels (Joseph Paul)
             1897-1945, German minister of propaganda, 1933-45, not Go-

   Goehr (Alexander)
             b. 1932, German-born composer; -- (Walter), 1903-60, his father,
             German conductor

   Goering (Hermann)
             1893-1946, German field marshal, not Go-

   Goeth/e (Johann Wolfgang von)
             1749-1832, German poet and playwright, not Go-, Got,-; adj. -ian

   goffer    to crimp, iron used, not gauffer; animal, wood, use gopher

   Goffs Oak Herts. (no apos.)

   goi       (Heh.), a Gentile, use goy

   Goidel    a member of Gadhelic peoples, a Gael

   go-kart   miniature racing-car, not -cart (hyphen)

   Golconda  a rich source of wealth (from a ruined city near Hyderabad)

   gold      symbol Au

   gold blocking
             (bind.), see blocking

   gold-dust (hyphen)

   Golders Green
             NW London (no apos.)

   gold-field
             (hyphen)

   golf ball (two words), but golf-ball typewriter (comp.), used in strike-on
             (q.v.) composition (hyphen)

   golf-club the implement (hyphen)

   golf club the premises or association (two words)

   Goliath   Philistine giant, type of crane, not -iah

   Gollancz (Sir Israel)
             1864-1930, English writer; -- (Sir Victor), 1893-1967, British
             publisher and writer

   golliwog  not golly-

   golosh    use galosh

   GOM       Grand Old Man (esp. W. E.  Gladstone)

   Gomorr/ah (OT); -ha (NT), but -ah in NEB

   Goncharov (Ivan Alexandrovich)
             1812-91, Russian novelist

   Goncourt (Edmond Louis Antoine)
             1822-96, and his brother -- (Jules Alfred Huot), 1830-70, French
             novelists; Prix -- (named after Edmond)

   gondola/  pl. -s (not ital.)

   Gonds     a tribe of cent. India, not Gh-

   Gongo     tributary of the Za‹re

   Gўngora y Argote (Luis de)
             1561-1627, Spanish poet

   gongorism Spanish form of euphuism

   gonorrhoea
             not -oea

   Gonville  see Caius

   good-afternoon
             (salutation) (hyphen)

   goodbye   (one word)

   good/-day, -evening
             (salutations) (hyphens)

   Good Friday
             (caps., two words)

   good humour
             (two words); good -humoured (hyphen)

   good-morning
             (salutation) (hyphen)

   good nature
             (two words); good -natured (hyphen)

   good-night
             (salutation) (hyphen)

   Good/ Samaritan, -- Templar
             (caps.)

   goodwill  of a business, etc. (one word)

   Goorkhas  use Gur-

   gooroo    use guru

   goose     pl. geese, (in tailoring) gooses

   goose/-flesh, -skin
             (hyphens)

   goose step
             (two words)

   goosey    dim. of goose, not -sie, -sy

   Goossens  19th-20th c. Anglo-Belgian family of musicians

   GOP       Grand Old Party (Republican party in US)

   gopher    a kind of wood, burrowing animal. See also goffer

   Gorbachov (Mikhail)
             b. 1931, Gen.  Sec. of Communist Party of USSR 1985-, President
             of USSR 1988-

   Gordian knot
             tied by Gordius, cut by Alexander the Great

   Gordonstoun School
             Elgin, Grampian

   Gordonstown
             Grampian

   Gorgio/   non-gypsy; pl. -s

   Gorgonzola
             a cheese

   Gorky/ (Maxim)
             1868-1936, pseud. of A. M. Peshkov, Russian writer; --, USSR,
             formerly Nijni Novgorod

   gormand   use gour-

   gormandize
             to eat greedily, not gour-, -se

   gors/e    furze; adj. -y

   Gorsedd   meeting of Welsh bards and druids

   Goschen (Viscount)


   Goshen    a land of plenty

   go-slow   (noun, hyphen)

   Gospodin  (Russ.), Lord, Mr; fem.  Gospoja. (In modern Russian tovarishch
             (comrade) is off. use)

   Goss      (Sir John), 1800-80, English organist and composer

   Gosse (Sir Edmund William)
             1849-1928, English writer; -- (Philip Henry), 1810-88, his
             father, English naturalist

   gossip/, -ed, -er, -ing, -y
             (one p)

   G”teborg  Sweden, in Ger. Gothenburg

   Gotham (wise men of)
             i.e. fools; -- (US colloq.), New York City

   Gothic    architecture, etc. (cap.); abbr. Goth.

   Gothic    (typ.), loose name for (esp.  bold) sanserif faces; former name
             for Old English faces

   G”tterdammerung
             (Twilight of the Gods), last part of Wagner's Ring des
             Nibelungen, 1876

   G”ttingen University
             W. Germany

   gouache   a method of water-colour painting

   Gouda     a Dutch cheese

   gouge     a concave chisel

   goujon    (Fr. m.), gudgeon fish

   gouk      use gowk

   gour      Indian ox, use gaur

   gourmand/ a glutton; -ise, indulgence in gluttony. See also gormandize

   gourmet   an epicure

   go–t      (Fr. m.), taste

   Goutte d'or
             a white burgundy wine

   gov.      govern/or, -ment

   Government
             meaning the State (cap.); abbr. Govt.

   Governor-General
             abbr. Gov.-Gen. or GG

   Gowers (Sir Ernest)
             1880-1966, English civil servant, author of Plain Words, reviser
             of Fowler's Modern English Usage

   gowk      a fool, not gouk

   goy/      Jewish name for Gentile; pl.  -im

   Goya y Lucientes (Francisco Jos‚ de)
             1746-1828, Spanish painter

7.16 GP...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   GP        general practitioner, Graduate in Pharmacy, Grand Prix, Gloria
             Patri (glory be to the Father)

   Gp.       Group

   g.p.      great primer

   Gp/Capt   (RAF), Group Captain (no points)

   GPDST     Girls' Public Day School Trust

   GPO       General Post Office

7.17 GR...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   GR        Georgius, or Gulielmus, Rex (King George, or William)

   Gr.       Grand, Greater, Grecian, Greece, Greek

   gr.       grain, -s; for gram use g.

   Graafian follicle
             in ovary

   Graal     use Grail

   Gracchus (Gaius Sempronius)
             153-121 BC, and his brother -- (Tiberius Sempronius), 163-133
             BC, the Gracchi, Roman reformers

   grace-note
             (mus.) (hyphen)

   Graci n (Baltasar)
             1601-58, Spanish moralist

   gradatim  (Lat.), step by step

   gradus ad Parnassum
             (Lat.), step(s) to Parnassus; Lat. or Gr. poetical dictionary;
             any series of graded exercises; in short gradus (not ital.)

   Graeae    (Gr. myth.), three sisters who guarded the abode of the Gorgons

   Graec/ism a Greek characteristic; -ize, -ophile

   Graf      (Ger.), a count; fem. Gr„fin (cap.)

   graffit/o scribbling, usu. on wall; pl. -i. See also sgraffito

   Grahame (Kenneth)
             1859-1932, English author

   Graian Alps
             France and Italy

   Grail (the Holy)
             in medieval legend, the platter used by Christ at the Last
             Supper, and by Joseph of Arimathea to catch Christ's blood, not
             Graal, Graile

   grain     apothecaries', avoirdupois, or troy weight, all the same, being
             0.0648 gram; abbr. gr.

   Grainger (Percy Aldridge)
             1882-1961, Australian-born US composer

   gram      unit of mass; abbr. g. (but no point in scientific and technical
             work);in SI units 0.001 kg

   gram.     gramm/ar, -arian, -atical

   gramaphone
             use gramo-

   graminivorous
             feeding on grass, not gramen-

   gramm/ar, -arian, -atical
             abbr.  gram.

   grammar school
             (two words)

   gramme    use gram

   Grammont  E. Flanders, Belgium

   Gramont (Philibert, comte de)
             1621-1707, French courtier, adventurer, and soldier, not Gramm-

   gramophone
             not grama-, grammo-

   Gram's stain
             (bacteriol.) (cap.)

   Granada   Spain

   granadilla
             one of the passion-flowers, not gren- (not ital.)

   Gran Chaco (El)
             region in Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina, S. America

   Grand     abbr. G. or Gr.

   grandad   not grand-dad

   grandam   grandmother, old woman, not -dame

   grand-aunt
             (hyphen)

   Grand Canyon
             Arizona, US

   grandchild
             (one word)

   Grand Coulee Dam
             Washington, US

   grand-dad use grandad

   granddaughter
             (one word)

   Grand/ Duchess, -- Duchy, -- Duke
             (two words, both caps. if used as title); abbr. GD

   grande/ dame
             (Fr.), dignified lady; -- passion, violent love-affair; --
             tenue, or -- toilette, full dress

   grandeur naturelle
             (Fr. f.), life-size

   grandfather
             (one word)

   Grand Guignol
             horrific drama (not ital.)

   grand jury
             (not caps.)

   grand mal (Fr. m.), serious form of epilepsy (ital.)

   grandmaster
             chess-player of highest class

   Grand Master
             (caps.), abbr. GM

   grand' messe
             (Fr. f.), high mass

   Grand Monarque (le)
             Louis XIV

   grand monde (le)
             (Fr.), the Court and nobility

   grandmother
             (one word)

   grand/-nephew, -niece
             (hyphen)

   Grand Old Party
             (US), the Republican party; abbr. GOP

   grandparent
             (one word)

   Grand Prix
             (Fr.), international motor-racing event; pl. Grands -- (not
             ital.); abbr. GP

   Grand Rapids
             town, Michigan, US

   grand signior
             one of high rank; (caps.) the Sultan of Turkey; in Fr. grand
             seigneur; It. gran signore; Sp. gran se¤or

   grandson  (one word), abbr. g.s.

   granduncle
             (one word)

   grangerize
             to illustrate a book with cuttings etc. from other sources, to
             produce a book with blank leaves for these; not -ise (not cap.)

   granny    not -ie

   Grant Duff (Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone)
             1829-1906, Scottish politician (no hyphen)

   granter   one who grants

   Granth    the Sikh scriptures, not Grunth

   grantor   (law), one who makes a grant

   gran turismo
             (It.), touring-car

   Granville-Barker (Harley)
             1877-1946, English playwright, producer, and actor

   grapefruit
             pl. same

   graphology
             study of character from handwriting, not graphio-

   gras      (Fr.), fem. grasse, fat. See also gros

   Grasmere  Cumbria

   grass/    (typ.), casual work; -- hand, one casually employed

   Grass (GЃnter Wilhelm)
             b. 1927, German novelist

   Grasse    d‚p. Alpes-Maritimes, France

   grass/hopper, -land
             (one word)

   gratia Dei
             (Lat.), by the grace of God

   gratin    see au gratin

   gratis    for nothing, free (not ital.)

   Grattan (Henry)
             1746-1820, Irish statesman and orator

   Gratz     Austria, use Graz

   Gr„tz     Czechoslovakia, use Hradec

   Gr„tz     Poland, use Grodzisk

   GraubЃnden
             Ger. for Grisons

   grauwacke use grey-

   gravamen/ chief ground of complaint; pl. -s

   grave     (mus.), slow, solemn

   grave accent


   gravel/   cover with gravel, puzzle; -led, -ling

   Graves    a Bordeaux white wine

   Graves' disease
             exophthalmic goitre (apos.)

   grave/stone, -yard
             (one word)

   gravitas  (Lat.), solemn demeanour

   gravure   (typ.), intaglio printing process (from photogravure)

   gray      colour, use grey

   gray      unit of absorbed radiation dose; abbr. Gy (no point); in SI
             units 1 J/kg

   Gray (Asa)
             1850-88, US botanist; -- (Louis Harold), 1905-65, English
             radiobiologist; -- (Thomas), 1716-71, English poet. See also
             Grey

   grayling  a fish, not grey-

   Gray's Inn
             London

   graywacke use grey-

   Graz      cap. of Styria, Austria, not Gratz

   grazier   one who pastures cattle, not -zer

   GRCM      Graduate of the Royal College of Music

   greasy    not -ey

   Great Britain
             abbr. GB

   Greater Manchester
             metropolitan county

   great gross
             144 dozen; abbr. g.gr.

   Great Power
             (caps. with hist.  reference)

   great primer
             (typ.), name for a former size of type, about 18 pt.; pron.
             primmer; abbr. g.p.

   Greats    Oxford BA final examination for honours in Lit. Hum.

   Grecian   almost entirely superseded by Greek except as adj. with ref.  to
             archit. and facial outline, and as noun for a boy in the top
             form at Christ's Hospital, or a Greek-speaking Jew of the
             Dispersion; also -- bend, -- knot, -- slippers; abbr. Gr.

   Grec/ism, -ize, -ophil
             use Grae-

   Greco (El)
             1541-1614, Spanish painter, born in Crete, real name Domenico
             Theotocopuli or Kyriakos Theotokopoulos

   Greece    abbr. Gr.

   greegree  Afr. fetish, not gri-gri

   Greek     (typ.) for details of alphabet, word-division, accentuation,
             numerals, etc. see Hart's Rules, pp. 111-16. See also accents.
             With a few exceptions for early texts, the same sorts are used
             in classical and modern work, but modern initial rho does not
             take a breathing. In England a sloping fount (esp. Porson, q.v.)
             is preferred for classical work; in Greece and the continent
             generally, upright founts predominate in all setting, and in
             some (not scholarly) work accents and breathings are replaced by
             superscript dots. Abbr. Gr. or Gk.

   Greek calends (at the)
             never; in Lat. ad kalendas Graecas

   Greeley (Horace)
             1811-72, US journalist and politician

   Greely (Adolphus Washington)
             1844-1935, US general and Arctic explorer

   Green     (John Richard), 1837-83, English historian

   Greene    (Sir Conyngham), 1854-1934, British diplomatist; -- (Graham), b.
             1904, English novelist; -- (Plunket), 1865-1936, English singer;
             -- (Robert), 1560-92, English dramatist and pamphleteer

   green/gage, -grocer, -house
             (one word)

   Greenland/, -er, -ic


   green-room
             room off-stage for actors (hyphen)

   greensand a sandstone; Lower and Upper Greensand, two strata of the
             Cretaceous system

   Greenwich Mean Time
             (caps.), abbr.  GMT

   greetings card
             not greeting (two words)

   gregale   the Mediterranean NE wind, not -cale, grigale (not cap.)

   grЉge     colour between beige and grey, not grei-

   gregory-powder
             an aperient

   Greifswald
             E. German university town

   Grenada   W. Indies, indep. 1974

   grenadilla
             use gran-

   grenadine a thin silk fabric; (cook.) dish of veal or poultry fillets; a
             syrup made from currants or pomegranates, in Fr. m. grenadin

   Grenadines
             chain of islands between Grenada and St Vincent, W. Indies

   Gresham/'s Law
             "bad money drives out good", from Sir Thomas --, 1519-79,
             English financier

   Gr‚try (Andr‚ Erneste Modeste)
             1741-1813, French composer

   Greuze (Jean Baptiste)
             1725-1805, French painter

   Gr‚vy (Fran‡ois Paul Jules)
             1807-91, French President, 1879-87

   grey      colour, not gray

   Grey      (Lady Jane), 1537-54, proclaimed Queen of Eng., 1553, deposed,
             beheaded. See also Fallodon; Gray

   greybeard old man, large jug, clematis (one word)

   Greyfriars College
             Oxford

   grey-hen  fem. of blackcock (hyphen)

   greyhound (one word)

   greyling  use gra-

   grey matter
             (two words)

   greywacke (geol.), a sedimentary rock, not grau-, gray- (not ital.)

   Grieg (Edvard Hagerup)
             not Edward, 1843-1907, Norwegian composer

   Grieve    see MacDiarmid

   griffin   a fabulous creature, not -on, gryphon

   griffon   vulture, breed of dog

   grigale   use gre-

   gri-gri   use greegree

   grill     to cook under grill, etc.

   grille    a grating (not ital.)

   grill/‚   fem. -‚e (Fr. cook.), broiled

   grimalkin a cat, spiteful old woman

   Grimm (Jakob)
             1785-1863, and his brother -- (Wilhelm), 1786-1859, German
             philologists, collectors of fairy-tales; Grimm's Law, deals with
             consonantal changes in Germanic languages

   Grimond (Joseph)
             b. 1913, British Liberal politician

   Grimsetter Airport
             Orkney

   grimy     begrimed, not -ey

   Grindelwald
             Switz., not Grindle-

   grindstone
             (one word)

   gringo/   (Sp. Amer.), a foreigner, esp. English-speaking (derog.); pl.
             -s (not ital.)

   grippe    influenza

   Griqua/   half-breed of Cape Dutch and Hottentot parents; -land, S.
             Africa

   grisaille a method of decorative painting (not ital.)

   grisette  a working girl

   grisly    terrible, not grizz-

   Gris-Nez  (Cap), d‚p. Pas-de-Calais, France (hyphen)

   Grisons   Swiss canton, in Ger.  Graubunden

   grissini  (It. pl.), long sticks of crispbread

   gristly   having or like gristle, not -ey

   Grizel    a proverbial meek wife

   grizzly/  grey-haired; -- bear (two words)

   gro.      gross

   Grodzisk  Poland, not Gratz

   groin     the fold between belly and thigh; (archit.) line of intersection
             of two vaults. See also groyne

   gros/     (Fr.), fem. -se, big. See also gras

   grosbeak  the hawfinch

   groschen  (m.), Austrian and old German small coin; pl. same

   grosgrain corded silk fabric

   gros point
             (Fr. m.), cross-stitch embroidery on canvas

   gross     (144) is sing. and pl.; abbr.  gro.

   Grosseteste (Robert)
             1175-1253, Bp.  of Lincoln

   grosso modo
             (It.), approximately

   Grote (George)
             1794-1871, English historian

   grotesque (typ.), nineteenth-century sanserif typeface; abbr. grot.

   grotesquerie
             not -ery (not ital.)

   Grotius (Hugo)
             1583-1645, Dutch jurist and statesman (Latinized form of De
             Groot)

   grotto/   pl. -es

   ground/floor, -- level
             (two words, hyphen as adj.)

   ground/-plan, -rent
             (hyphens)

   ground/sheet, -work
             (one word)

   grovel/, -led, -ler, -ling


   Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians
             now The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians

   groyn/e   a breakwater; -ing. See also groin

   GRSM      Graduate of the Royal Schools of Music (the Royal Academy and
             the Royal College)

   GRT       gross registered tonnage

   Grub Street
             London, former haunt of literary hacks, later Milton Street, now
             demolished

   grummet   (naut.), a rope ring, not gro-

   Grundy (Mrs)
             in Thos. Morton's Speed the Plough, 1798, type of conventional
             propriety

   Grunth    the Sikh scriptures, use Granth

   GruyЉre   (Fr. m.), a French Swiss cheese

   GruyЉres  Switzerland

   Gryphius (S‚bastien)
             1491-1556, German-born French printer, not Gryptinus

   gryphon   use griffin

   grysbok   (Afrik.), an antelope, not -buck

7.18 GS...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   GS        General/Secretary, -- Service (mil.), -- Staff; Grammar School

   g.s.      grandson

   GSM       Guildhall School of Music

   g.s.m.    grams per square metre

   GSO       General Staff Officer

   GSP       (naval), Good Service Pension

   G/-string, -suit
             (hyphens)

7.19 GT...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   GT        Good Templar; Gran Turismo

   gt.       gilt, great, gutta

   g.t.      (bind.), gilt top

   gtt.      guttae

7.20 gu....
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   gu.       gules

   guacho    use gaucho

   Guadalupe/
             Spain; -- Hidalgo, Mexico; -- Mts., Texas and New Mexico

   Guadeloupe
             W. Indies

   guage     use gauge

   guaiacum  (bot.), trop. American tree; resin obtained from it

   Guaira (La)
             Venezuela, not Guayra

   Guam      Marianas Islands, not Guaham, Guajam

   guana     a lizard, shortened from iguana

   guano     fertilizer from sea-birds' excrement

   guarant/ee
             use in all senses of noun and verb, not -y; -or, one who gives a
             guarantee

   guaranty  undertaking of liability, use guarantee

   guards    (bind.), strips of paper or linen to which the inner margins of
             odd leaves of plates etc. are pasted before sewing

   guard-ship
             (hyphen)

   Guareschi (Giovanni)
             1908-68, Italian novelist

   Guarneri  violin makers, not -nieri, -nerius

   Guatemala Cent. America

   Guayaquil Ecuador

   Guayra    use La Guaira

   guazzo    (It.), same as gouache

   Guedalla (Philip)
             1889-1944, British writer

   Guelderland
             use Geld-

   guelder rose
             not ge-

   Guelph    one of the Pope's faction in medieval Italian states, opp. to
             Ghibelline, not Guelf

   Guenevere (Defence of)
             by W.  Morris, 1858. See also Guinevere

   Guernica  Spain; subject of painting by Picasso, 1937

   Guernsey  a Channel Island, in Fr.  Guernesey

   guernsey  a heavy knitted woollen jersey

   guerre    (Fr. f.), war

   guerrilla/
             a person or body engaged in -- warfare, irregular fighting by
             small bodies, not -eri-

   guesswork (one word)

   Gueux     league of Dutch nobles, 1565-6

   Guevara de la Serna (Ernesto "Che")
             1928-69, Cuban revolutionary leader

   Guglielmo It. for William

   Gui (Vittorio)
             1885-1975, Italian conductor and composer

   Guiana (British)
             now Guyana; -- (Dutch), now Surinam

   Guibelline
             use Ghi-

   guichet   ticket-office window

   Guide     member of girls' organization, formerly Girl Guide (cap.)

   guidebook (one word)

   Guido     It. for Guy

   Guilbert (Yvette)
             1869-1944, French diseuse

   guild     an association, not gild

   guilder   Anglicized form of gulden

   Guildford Surrey, not Guilf-

   Guildford:
             sig. of Bp. of Guildford (colon)

   guild-hall
             not gi- (hyphen); but Guildhall, London

   Guilford (Earl of)


   Guili/a, -o
             It. names, use Giu-

   guillemets
             (typ.), Fr. etc.  quotation marks ® and Ї; see Hart's Rules

   guillemot a sea-bird

   guilloche archit. ornament (not ital.)

   guillotine
             a beheading apparatus, a paper-cutting machine, a device for
             terminating parliamentary debates

   guimp     use gimp

   Guinea/   formerly part of Fr. W.  Africa, indep. 1958, adj. -n; --
             Bissau, formerly Portuguese Guinea, indep. 1974; -- (New), E.
             Indies

   guinea/   21/-, 1.05 pounds stg., pl.  -s; abbr. g., gn., gns.

   guinea-pig
             a small S. American rodent; the subject of an experiment
             (hyphen)

   Guinevere wife of King Arthur. See also Guenevere

   Guiranwala
             Pakistan

   Guisborough
             Cleveland

   Guiscard (Robert)
             11th c., Norman leader

   Guiseppe  It. name, use Giu-

   Gujarat   area in India, not Guze-

   Gujrat    town in Pakistan

   gulden    Dutch silver florin; also med. German coin and Austrian unit of
             account

   gules     (her.), red, abbr. gu.

   Gulf/     cap. when with name, as Gulf of Corinth, Persian Gulf; abbr. G.;
             -- Stream (no hyphen)

   Gulielmus Lat. for William

   gullible  easily cheated, not -able

   Gulliver's Travels
             by Swift, 1726

   gully     a channel, not -ey

   gum arabic
             (two words)

   gumbo/    kind of soup, pl. -s

   gum/boil, -boot
             (one word)

   gum-shield
             (hyphen)

   gum-tree  (hyphen)

   gun.      gunnery

   gun/boat, -fire
             (one word)

   gun dog   (two words)

   Gungl (Josef)
             1810-89, Hungarian composer

   gun-lock  (hyphen)

   gunman    armed person (one word)

   gunnel    use gunwale

   gunnery   (naval), abbr. G. or gun.

   gunny     sacking

   gun/point, -powder, -ship, -shot, -smith
             (one word)

   Gunter's chain
             a surveyor's, 66 ft.  long

   Gunther   character in the Nibelungenlied (no umlaut)

   gunwale   upper edge of ship's side, not gunnel

   Gurkhas   Nepalese soldiers in Indian or British service, not Ghoor-,
             Ghur-, Goor-

   gurkin    use gher-

   gurnard   a fish, not -net

   guru      religious teacher, esp. Sikh, not gooroo

   Gutenberg or Gensfleisch (Johann)
             c.1399-1468, German inventor (so generally assumed) of movable
             metal types

   gutt/a    a drop, abbr. gt.; pl. -ae, abbr. gtt.

   gutta-percha
             hard rubber-like substance (hyphen, not ital.)

   gutter    (typ.), space between imposed pages of type allowing for two
             foredge margins; in a book, the inner space between two columns
             or pages

   guttural  connected with the throat

   Guyan/a   NE South America, formerly Brit. Guiana, indep. 1966; adj.  -ese

   Guyot (Yves)
             1843-1928, French economist

   Guy's Hospital
             London (apos.)

   Guzerat   India, use Gujarat

7.21 Gwalior...
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   Gwalior   India

   Gwent     Welsh county

   GWR       Great Western Railway (prior to nationalization)

   Gwyn (Nell)
             1650-87, English actress, mistress of Charles II, not -nne

   Gwynedd   Welsh county

   Gwynn (Stephen)
             1864-1950, English writer

7.22 Gy...
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   Gy        gray (no point)

   gybe      (naut.), change course. See also gibe

   gym/      colloq. for gymnasium (no point); ---slip (hyphen)

   gymkhana  an athletic display, a pony-club competition, not -kana (not
             ital.)

   gymnasium/
             pl. -s (not ital.); colloq. gym

   gymnot/us the electric eel; pl. -i (not ital.)

   gymp      use gimp

   gynaeceum (Gk. and Rom.), women's apartments in a house

   gynaecology
             study of women's diseases; abbr. gyn.

   gynoeci/um
             (bot.), female organ of flower, pl. -a

   gypsum    hydrated calcium sulphate

   gypsy     not gipsy

   gyrfalcon not ger-, jer-

   Gyro      use Gi-

   gyro/     pl. -s

8.0 H
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8.1 H...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   H         henry (unit of inductance), hydrogen, (pencils) hard (see also
             HH, HHH), (former film-censorship classification) horrific,
             (mus.) B natural in German system, the eighth in a series

   H.        harbour, hydrant

   h         hour, -s (in scientific and technical work), (as prefix) hecto-

   h.        hardness, height, husband, (meteor.) hail

   H.        (Ger.), Heft (number, part)

   h         Planck's constant, q.v.

8.2 HA...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   HA        Historical Association, Horse Artillery

   Ha        hahnium (no point)

   ha        hectare (no point in scientific and technical work)

   h.a.      hoc anno (in this year), hujus anni (this year's)

   Haag (den)
             Dutch for The Hague (informal, cf. 's-Gravenhage)

   Haakon    name of seven Norwegian kings

   haar      a raw sea-mist (E. coast of England and Scotland)

   Haarlem   Netherlands. See also Harlem

   hab.      habitat

   Habakkuk  (OT), abbr. Hab.  Habana, Sp. for Havana

   habanera  a Cuban dance

   habeas corpus
             writ to produce a person before court; abbr. hab.  corp.

   Habeas Corpus Act


   habendum  (law), part of deed defining estate or interest granted

   Haberdashers' Aske's School
             Elstree

   habet     (Lat.), he is hit. See also hoc habet

   habile    skilful, able, not -ille (not ital.)

   habitat   normal abode of animal or plant (not ital.); abbr. hab.

   habitu/‚  (Fr.), fem. -‚e, a frequenter (ital.)

   Habsburg (House of)
             Austrian Imperial family, not Hap-

   HAC       Honourable Artillery Company

   Hachette et Cie
             publishers

   hachis    (Fr. cook. m.), minced meat, hash

   hachisch  use hashish

   hachure   line used in map hill-shading (usu. in pl.)

   hacienda  (Sp.), large estate with mansion

   hackberry the bird-cherry, not hag-

   Hackluyt  use Hak-

   hackney/  to make trite; -ed

   hack-saw  (hyphen)

   hac lege  (Lat.), with this proviso

   Hades     (Gr. myth.), abode or god of the dead (cap.)

   hadji     a Muslim who has made the pilgrimage (hadj) to Mecca (not
             ital.); hajji is strictly correct, but not in common use

   hadn't    to be printed close up

   Hadramaut S. Arabia, not Hadhra-

   hadst     (no apostrophe)

   haecceity (philos.), individual quality

   Haeckel (Ernst Heinrich)
             1834-1919, German philosopher, not H„-

   haema-, haemo-
             prefix meaning blood

   haemorrh/age, -oids


   Haffner   serenade and symphony by Mozart

   hafiz     a Muslim who knows the Koran by heart

   hafnium   symbol Hf

   Hag.      Haggai

   hagberry  use hackberry

   Haggadah  legendary part of the Talmud, or part of Jewish Passover ritual,
             not Agadah, Hagada, -ah

   Haggai    (OT), abbr. Hag.

   haggard   wild-looking, an untamed hawk

   haggis    Sc. dish, not -ess, -ies

   Hague (Cap de La)
             NW France

   Hague (The)
             seat of government of Netherlands; in Dutch 's-Gravenhage or den
             Haag, in Fr. La Haye (caps.)

   ha ha     laughter (two words)

   ha-ha     a sunk fence, not aha, haw-haw (not ital.)

   hahnium   symbol Ha

   Haidarabad
             use Hyder-

   haik      an Arab garment, not -ek

   haiku     Jap. verse-form; pl. same

   hail      see hale

   Haile Selassie
             1892-1975, Emperor of Ethiopia 1930-74

   Haileybury College
             Herts.

   hail-fellow-well-met
             (adj.), friendly (three hyphens)

   hail/stone, -storm
             (one word)

   Hainault  London

   Hainaut   province, Belgium

   hair/bell, ---brain
             use hare-

   hair/breadth, -brush, -cut
             (one word)

   hair-do/  coiffure (hyphen), pl. -s

   hairdress/er, -ing
             (one word)

   hair-line (hyphen)

   hairlip   use hare-

   hairpin   (one word)

   hair's breadth
             (two words)

   hair shirt
             (two words)

   hair-space
             (typ.), very thin space formerly used for letter-spacing
             (hyphen)

   hair/-style, -stylist, -trigger
             (hyphens)

   Haiti     W. Indies, not Hayti; formerly the island of Hispaniola, now its
             western part

   hajji     see hadji

   hakenkreuz
             (Ger. n.), the swastika

   hakim     oriental medical man, oriental ruler, not -keem

   Hakluyt (Richard)
             c.1553-1616, English historian and geographer; -- Society; not
             Hack-

   halal     meat prepared according to Muslim law

   halberd/  combined spear and battleaxe, not -ert; -ier

   Halcyone  use Alcyone

   hale      to drag, not hail

   Halevi (Judah)
             c.1085-1140, Spanish-Jewish philosopher and poet

   Hal‚vy (ђlie)
             1870-1937, French historian; -- (Jacques Fran‡ois Fromental
             ђlie), 1799-1862, his great-uncle, French composer; -- (Joseph),
             1827-1917, French traveller; -- (Ludovic), 1834-1908, father of
             ђlie, French playwright and novelist

   half      see fractions

   half/ a crown, -- a dozen, -- an hour
             etc. (no hyphens), but half/ -crown, -dozen, -hour (etc.)

   half-and-half
             (hyphens)

   half/-binding
             (bind.), when the spine and corners are bound in a different
             material from the sides (hyphen); ---bound (hyphen)

   half/-breed, -caste, -hearted
             (hyphens)

   half/ holiday, -- moon, -- pay
             (two words)

   half/-mast, -past
             (hyphens)

   halfpenny (one word)

   halfpennyworth
             (one word), colloq.  ha'p'orth

   half/-price, -term, -time
             (hyphens)

   half-title
             (typ.), the short title printed on the leaf before the full
             title. Also called bastard title

   halftone  (typ.), technique whereby the various tones are represented by
             varying sizes of minute dots (one word)

   half/-way, -wit(ted), -year(ly)
             (hyphens)

   Haliburton (Thomas Chandler)
             1796-1865, Canadian-born British writer; pseud. Sam Slick

   halibut   a fish, not hol-

   halieutic of fishing

   hallabaloo
             use hulla-

   Hall‚/ (Sir Charles)
             1819-95, German-born Mancunian pianist and conductor, founded --
             Orchestra 1857

   Halle an der Saale
             E. Germany; abbr. Halle a/S.

   hallelujah
             see alleluia; "Hallelujah Chorus", in Handel's Messiah

   Halles (Les)
             Paris, the central market until 1968

   Halley (Edmond
             not -und), 1656-1742, English astronomer

   halliard  use halyard

   Halliwell-Phillipps (James Orchard)
             1820-89, English Shakespearian scholar

   hallmark  mark used at Goldsmiths' Hall and by Govt. assay officials for
             marking standard of gold and silver

   hallo     not he-, hu-

   Hallow/e'en
             31 Oct.; -mas (one word), 1 Nov., All Saints' Day

   hall/ux   the great toe; pl. -uces

   halm      stalk or stem, use haulm

   halo/     ring of light round moon, head, etc.; pl. -es

   Hals (Frans)
             1580 (or 84)-1666, Dutch painter

   halva     sweetmeat of sesame flour and honey, not -ah

   halyard   (naut.), a rope for raising sail, not halli-, hauly-

   hamadryad/
             a wood-nymph, a serpent, a baboon; pl. -s

   Hambleden Bucks.; -- (Viscount)

   Hambledon Hants, Surrey

   Hambleton Lancs., Leics., N. Yorks.

   Hambros Bank, Ltd.
             (no apos.)

   Hamburg/  city in W. Germany, a fowl, a grape; -er (not cap.), cake of
             chopped steak usu. in a roll

   "Hamelin (Pied Piper of)"
             by R.  Browning, 1842

   Hamitic   group of Afr. languages

   hammam    Turkish bath, not hummum, -aum

   Hammarskj”ld (Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl)
             1905-61, Sec.-Gen. of UN 1953-61

   Hammergafferstein (Hans)
             pseud. of Henry W. Longfellow

   Hammerklavier
             (Ger.), former name of pianoforte (opp. harpsichord); (quot.
             marks, not ital.) name given to a piano sonata by Beethoven

   Hampden (John)
             1594-1643, English patriot and statesman

   Hampshire abbr. Hants

   Hampton Court
             London

   hamster   household pet

   ham/string
             past and partic.  correctly -stringed, but -strung favoured by
             usage

   Hamtramck Mich., US

   hand/bag, -bell, -bill, -book, -brake
             (one word)

   Hand/buch (Ger. n.), manual (cap.), pl. -bЃcher

   h. & c.   hot and cold (water)

   handcuffs (one word)

   Handel (George Frideric)
             1685-1759, German composer resident in England; in Ger. H„ndel.
             See also Handl

   Handels/blatt
             (Ger. n.), trade journal (cap.), pl. -blatter

   handful/  not -ll; pl. -s

   handicap/, -per, -ping


   handiwork not handy-

   H. & J.   (comp.), hyphenation and justification

   handkerchief/
             pl. -s, abbr. hdkf.

   Handl (Jacob)
             1550-91, Austrian composer, not Ha-. See also Handel

   hand/list, -made, -maid(en)
             (one word)

   hand-out  (noun, hyphen)

   hand-picked
             (hyphen)

   handrail  (one word)

   Handschrift
             (Ger. f.), MS; abbr. Hs.  (cap.)

   handsel/  earnest-money; -ling, not hans-

   handset   combined mouthpiece and ear-piece (one word)

   hand-setting
             (typ.), manual composition from previously-cast metal sorts
             assembled in a fount-case (hyphen)

   hand/shake, -writing
             (one word)

   handyman  (one word)

   handywork use handi-

   hangar/   a shed; -age

   hangdog   shamefaced (one word)

   hanged    past tense or partic., used of capital punishment; other senses
             use hung

   hanger    one who, or that which, hangs; also a sword, a wood

   hanging/ paragraph
             or -- indent (typ.), short paragraph or listed items (as in
             bibliographies) set with second and following lines indented
             under first line (as here)

   hangover  after-effects of drinking (one word)

   Hanover   in Ger. Hannover

   Hans/     (Du., Ger.), Jack; -- Niemand, "Mr Nobody"

   Hanse/    medieval German league; adj.  -atic

   hansel    use hand-

   hansom    a two-wheeled cab

   Hants     Hampshire (no point)

   hapax legomen/on
             (Gr.), a word found once only; pl. -a

   haphazard (one word)

   ha'p'orth (colloq.), a halfpennyworth

   happi     loose Japanese coat

   happy-go-lucky
             (hyphens)

   happy hunting-ground
             (one hyphen)

   Hapsburg  use Hab-

   hara-kiri (Jap.), suicide

   haram     use -em

   harangu/e to address like an orator; -ed

   Harare    Zimbabwe

   harass    not harr-

   harbour   (US -or), abbr. H.

   hard      (pencils), abbr. H

   hard/-a-lee, -a-port, -a-starboard, -a-weather
             (two hyphens each)

   hard/back (book), -board (one word)

   hard-boiled egg
             (one hyphen)

   hard copy (comp.), printed or typed record of keyboard input (two words).
             See also soft copy

   Hardecanute
             accepted variant of Harthacnut, 1019-42, king of Denmark and
             England

   hard hit  severely affected (two words)

   Hardie (James Keir)
             1856-1915, British socialist

   hardi/hood, -ness
             not hardy-

   Harding (Baron, of Petherton)


   Hardinge (Viscount); -- (Baron, of Penshurst)


   hardline  (adj.), unyielding (one word)

   hardness  (mineral.), abbr. h.

   hards     coarse flax, not hur-

   hard shoulder
             on motorway (two words)

   Hardt Mountains
             Bavarian Palatinate. See also Harz --

   Hardwicke (Earl of)


   hardwood  (one word), but hard-wooded

   hard-working
             (hyphen)

   harebell  (bot.), not hair- (one word)

   hare/-brain, -brained
             not hair- (hyphens)

   Harefoot  sobriquet of Harold I

   harelip   not hair- (one word)

   harem     (Arab.), the women's part of a house, its occupants, not -am,
             -eem, -im (not ital.)

   harem-scarem
             use harum-scarum

   Hargreaves (James)
             1720-78, English weaver, inventor of the spinning-jenny

   haricot   a ragout usu. of mutton and beans; haricot de mouton, Irish
             stew; -s blancs, kidney beans; -s d'Espagne, scarlet runners; -s
             verts, French beans

   haridan   use harridan

   harier    use harrier

   harijan   Indian Untouchable

   hari-kari use hara-kiri

   harim     use harem

   Haringey  Greater London borough, 1965, not -ay. See also Harringay

   Harington (Sir John)
             1561-1612, English poet and pamphleteer. See also Harri-

   hark      listen, but (arch.) hearken

   harl      a fibre, not -le

   Harlech   Gwynedd, not -ck

   Harleian  of Harley

   Harlem    New York. See also Haarlem

   Harlesden London

   Harleston Devon, Norfolk, Suffolk

   Harlestone
             Northants

   Harlow (Jean)
             1911-37, US film-actress

   Harlow    Essex, "new town", 1947

   Harlowe (Clarissa)
             by Richardson, 1748

   harmattan W. African land-wind

   Harmen    see Arminius

   harmonize not -ise

   Harper's Bazaar
             US magazine of fashion, founded 1867; also the British version,
             founded 1929, now Harpers & Queen

   Harpers Ferry
             West Virginia, US (no apos.)

   Harper's Magazine
             US monthly magazine, founded 1850

   harquebus a portable gun, not -ss, arquebus; -ier

   Harraden (Beatrice)
             1864-1936, English writer

   harrass   use harass

   harridan  a haggard old woman, not hari-

   harrier   one who harries, a hound for hunting hares, a hawk, a
             cross-country runner, not harier

   Harringay N. London. See also Haringey

   Harrington (Earl of).
             See also Hari-

   Harrogate N. Yorks., not Harrow-

   Harrovian member of Harrow School

   Hart (Horace)
             Printer to the University of Oxford 1883-1915

   hartal    closing of Indian shops as protest or gesture

   Harte (Francis Bret),
             1836-1902, US novelist and story-writer

   hartebeest
             S. Afr. antelope, not hartb-, -bees

   Hartford  Conn., US

   Harthacnut
             more correct form of Hardecanute

   Hartlepool
             Cleveland

   hartshorn ammonia (one word)

   Hart's Rules for Compositors and Readers
             39th edition, completely revised, 1983

   Hartz Mountains
             use Harz --. See also Hardt

   harum-scarum
             reckless (hyphen), not harem-scarem

   Harun-al-Rashid
             763-809, a caliph of Baghdad, hero of the Arabian Nights, not
             -oun, -ar-, -sch- (two hyphens)

   Harvard system of references
             see authorities

   Harvard University
             abbr. Harv. or HU, at Cambridge, Mass., US

   Harv/ey (William)
             1578-1657, English physician, discovered blood circulation;
             -eian, not -eyan

   Harz Mountains
             cent. Germany, not Hartz --. See also Hardt

   has-been/ person or thing that is no longer of use, pl. -s (hyphen)

   Hasek (Jaroslav)
             1884-1923, Czech satirist

   Hashemites
             Arab princely family

   hashish   hemp smoked or chewed as drug, not hach-, hasch-, -eesh, -isch

   Hasid/    member of mystical Jewish sect; adj. -ic, not Hass-, Ch-

   Haslemere Surrey. See also Haz-

   hasn't    to be printed close up

   Hasse (Johann Adolph)
             1699-1783, German composer

   Hassler (Hans Leo)
             1564-1612, German composer

   hatable   not -eable

   hatband   (one word)

   hatch/back
             (car with door at rear), -way (one word)

   hatha yoga
             system of exercises in yoga

   hat-pin   (hyphen)

   Hatshepsut
             Queen of Egypt, c.1500 BC

   hatti/    short form of ---humayun or ---sherif, Turkish edict made
             irrevocable by Sultan's mark

   hat trick (two words)

   hauler    one who or that which hauls

   haulier   a man employed in hauling something, esp. coal in a mine; a firm
             or person engaged in road transport

   haulm     (bot.), a stalk or stem, not halm

   haulyard  use hal-

   Hauptmann (Gerhart)
             1862-1946, German poet and dramatist; -- (Moritz), 1792-1868,
             German composer

   Hausa     of Cent. Sudan, not -ssa, Housa

   hausfrau  Germanic housewife (ital., not cap.)

   Haussmann (Georges EugЉne, baron)
             1809-91, Paris architect

   haussmannize
             to open out and rebuild

   haut/bois, -boy
             (mus.), use oboe

   haute/ bourgeoisie
             (Fr. f.), upper middle class; -- couture, elegance inspired by
             the high-fashion houses; -- cuisine, high-class cooking; --
             ‚cole, advanced horsemanship

   Haute/-Garonne
             d‚p. SW France; -Loire, d‚p. cent. France; -Marne, -Saone, d‚ps.
             E. France; -Savoie, d‚p. SE France (hyphens)

   Hautes-Alpes
             d‚p. SE France (hyphen)

   Hautes-Pyrenees
             d‚p. SW France (hyphen)

   hauteur   haughty demeanour (not ital.)

   Haute-Vienne
             d‚p. cent. France (hyphen). See also Vienne

   haute vol‚e
             (Fr. f.), the upper ten

   haut-go–t (Fr. m.), high flavour

   haut monde
             (Fr. m.), fashionable society

   Haut-Rhin d‚p. E. France (hyphen)

   Hauts-de-Seine
             d‚p. Paris region, France (two hyphens)

   Havana    Cuba, not -ah, -annah; in Sp. Habana

   Havas     a French news agency

   haven't   to be printed close up

   haver     (Sc.), to talk nonsense (not to vacillate)

   Haverfordwest
             Dyfed

   Havergal (Frances Ridley)
             1836-79, English hymn-writer

   haversack bag for carrying food, not -sac

   havoc/    (noun); as verb, -ked, -king

   Havre     France, use Le Havre

   Hawai/i   one of the Hawaiian Islands, formerly Sandwich Islands; these
             islands as a group; state of US comprising most of them, off.
             abbr. (postal) HI; adj. -ian

   haw-haw   a sunk fence, use ha-ha

   Haw-Haw (Lord)
             nickname of William Joyce, American-born German propagandist in
             Second World War, executed 1946

   hawk's-bill
             a turtle

   hawk-eyed (hyphen)

   hawse     (naut.), part of ship's bows

   hawthorn  (one word)

   Hawthorne (Julian)
             1846-1934, US writer; -- (Nathaniel), 1804-64, his father, US
             novelist

   hay       a country dance, not hey (but Shepherd's Hey, by P. A. Grainger)

   Haydn (Johann Michael)
             1737-1806, and his brother -- (Franz Joseph), 1732-1809,
             Austrian composers; -- (Joseph), d. 1856, compiled Dictionary of
             Dates

   Haydon (Benjamin Robert)
             1786-1846, English painter

   hay fever (two words)

   hay/field, -maker, -rick, -stack
             -wire (one word)

   Hayti     use Haiti

   hazel/-hen, -nut
             (hyphens)

   Hazlemere Bucks. See also Has-

   Hazlitt (William)
             1778-1830, English essayist; -- (William Carew), 1834-1913,
             English bibliographer

   hazy      indistinct, not -ey

8.3 HB...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   HB        (pencils), hard and black

   Hb        haemoglobin (no point)

   HBM       Her, or His, Britannic Majesty('s)

   H-bomb    hydrogen bomb (no point, hyphen)

8.4 HC...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   HC        habitual criminal, Heralds' College, High Church, Holy
             Communion, Home Counties, (Fr.)  hors concours (not competing),
             House of Commons, House of Correction

   h.c.      honoris causa

   HCF       or h.c.f. (math.), highest common factor; HCF, Honorary Chaplain
             to the Forces

8.5 hd....
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   hd.       head

   hdkf.     handkerchief

   hdqrs.    headquarters

   Hdt.      Herodotus

8.6 HE...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   HE        His Eminence, His or Her Excellency; high explosive

   He        helium (no point)

   head      (typ.), the blank space at the top of a page. See also margins

   headache  (one word)

   headachy  not -ey

   head/band band worn round head, (bind.), strengthening band of
             multicoloured silk etc. sewn or stuck to head (and sometimes
             tail) of back of book; -board (one word)

   head-dress
             (hyphen)

   headgear  (one word)

   headings  (typ.), should be graded to show relative importance, and used
             consistently throughout

   head/lamp, -land
             (one word)

   Headless Cross
             Hereford & Worc.

   headlight (one word)

   headlines or running titles (typ.), at head of pages; various combinations
             can be adopted, including book, part, section, or chapter title,
             subhead, or summary of page content, shortened if necessary to
             keep it to a single line; in bookwork chapter title generally
             most suitable on both recto and verso, dividing long titles
             across opening; pagination, q.v., may be included in outer
             corners

   headman   a chief (one word)

   head/master, -mistress
             as general term (one word)

   Head/ Master, -- Mistress
             official title at certain schools (two words); abbr. HM

   head-note summary at head of chapter or page, (mus.) a tone produced in
             the head register (hyphen)

   head-on   (hyphen)

   head/phone(s), -piece
             (one word)

   headquarters
             used as sing. of the place, pl. of the occupants (one word);
             abbr. HQ or hdqrs.

   head-rest support for the head (hyphen)

   headroom  (one word)

   head-sail one before the foremast (hyphen)

   headscarf (one word)

   head sea  waves from forward direction (two words)

   headship  position of chief (one word)

   headsman  executioner (one word)

   headstock bearings in machine (one word)

   head/stone, -strong, -way
             (one word)

   head wind (two words)

   headword  (typ.), emphasized word opening a paragraph or entry, etc.  (as
             here) (one word)

   head-work (hyphen)

   heal      see hele

   health/ centre, -- certificate, --
             food (two words)

   healthful not -ull

   health/officer, -visitor
             (two words)

   Heap      see Heep

   hear, hear!
             exclamation of agreement, not here, here

   hearken   see hark

   Hearn (Lafcadio)
             1850-1904, US author

   heart/ache, -beat
             (one word)

   heart-break/, -er, -ing, heart-broken
             (hyphens)

   heartburn pyrosis (one word)

   heart-burn
             jealousy (hyphen)

   heart-disease
             (hyphen)

   heart failure
             (two words)

   heartfelt (one word)

   hearth/rug, -stone
             (one word)

   heart/-rending, -searching
             (hyphens)

   heart's-ease
             a pansy (apos., hyphen)

   heart/sick, -sore
             (one word)

   heart/-strings, -throb, -whole
             (hyphens)

   heathenize
             not -ise

   heather mixture
             fabric of mixed hues (two words)

   heat-resistant
             (hyphen)

   heave ho! (two words)

   Heaven    cap. when equivalent to the Deity; l.c. when a place, as "heaven
             is our home"

   heaven/-born, -sent
             (hyphens)

   Heaviside layer
             layer of the atmosphere that reflects radio waves, not Heavy-

   heavy/-duty, -handed
             (hyphens)

   heavy water
             (two words)

   heavyweight
             (one word)

   Heb.      Hebrew(s), Epistle to the Hebrews (NT)

   hebdomad/ a group of seven, a week, not -ade; adj. -al

   Hebraize  to make Hebrew, not -ise, -aicize

   Hebrew    (typ.), 22 letters (all consonants) and many strokes and points
             (representing vowel sounds), etc. It is read from right to left:
             hence if any passage is divided, the right-hand words must go in
             the first line, and the left-hand in the second. Abbr. Heb.

   Hebrews   abbr. Heb.

   Hebridean not -ian

   Hecat/e   a Greek goddess; adj. -aean

   hecatomb  sacrifice of many (literally 100) oxen

   heckelphone
             (mus.), baritone oboe

   Heckmondwike
             W. Yorks.

   Hecla     mt., Western Isles, not Hek-.  See also Hekla

   hectare   10,000 sq. metres; abbr. ha (no point in scientific and
             technical work)

   hecto-    prefix maning 100; abbr. h; hectogram (hg), 100 grams;
             hectolitre (hl), 100 litres; hectometre (hm), 100 metres (abbrs.
             no point in scientific and technical work)

   Hedda Gabler
             play by Ibsen, 1890

   hedgehog/ adj. -gy

   hedgerow  (one word)

   hedgrah   use hegira

   hee-haw   a, or to, bray, not he-

   heel      see hele

   Heep (Uriah)
             in Dickens's David Copperfield, not Heap

   Heer      (Ger. n.), army (cap.)

   Heft      (Ger. n.), number, part, abbr. H.

   Hegel/ (Georg, not -e, Wilhelm Friedrich)
             1770-1831, German philosopher; adj. -ian

   hegemon/y leadership, esp.  political; adj. -ic

   hegira    the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, 16 July AD 622,
             from which the Muslim era is reckoned (Arab. hijrah); not
             hedgrah, heijira (not ital.). The calendar follows a 355-day
             lunar cycle, and it is difficult to to equate AD and AH dates

   Heidegger (Martin)
             1889-1976, German philosopher

   Heidelberg
             W. German university town

   Heidsieck a champagne

   Heifetz (Jascha)
             1901-87, Russian-born US violinist

   heighday  use hey-

   heigh-ho  an audible sigh, not hey-

   height to paper
             (typ.), overall height of type, usu. 2.33 cm.

   heijira   use hegira

   heil      (Ger.), hail!

   Heiland (der)
             (Ger.), the Saviour (cap.)

   heilig    (Ger.), holy; abbr. hl.

   Heilige Schrift
             (Ger. f.), Holy Scripture (caps.); abbr. Hl.S.

   Heimskringla
             "the round world", a history of Norse kings by Snorri Sturluson,
             1178-1241

   Heimweh   (Ger. n.), homesickness

   Heine/ (Heinrich
             but signed Henri), 1797-1856, German poet; adj. -sque

   Heinemann (William), Ltd.
             publishers

   Heinrich  Ger. for Henry

   Heinz     Ger. for Harry

   heir apparent
             legal heir, whoever may subsequently be born (two words); abbr.
             heir app.

   heirloom  (one word)

   heir presumptive
             legal heir if no nearer relative should be born (two words);
             abbr. heir pres.

   Heisenberg (Werner Karl)
             1901-76, German physicist, associated with principle of
             uncertainty

   Hejaz     "the boundary", not Hi-. See also Saudi Arabia

   hejira    use hegira

   Hekla     volcano, Iceland, not Hec-.  See also Hecla

   Hel       (Norse myth.), originally, the abode of the dead; later, the
             abode of the damned, opp. Valhalla; later still, the goddess the
             dead (also Hela)

   HeLa      strain of human cells (one word, two caps.)

   Heldentenor
             (Ger. m.), "hero-tenor", with robust operatic voice

   hele      to set (plants) in the ground, not heal, heel

   Helensburgh
             Strathclyde, not -borough

   Helicon   (Gr. myth.), mountain range in Boeotia, home of the Muses, site
             of fountains Aganippe and Hippocrene

   Heliogabalus
             use Elag-

   heliogravure
             a gravure process (not ital.)

   heliport  landing-place for helicopters (one word)

   helium    symbol He

   hel/ix    a spiral curve like the thread of a screw; pl. -ices

   hell      (not cap.)

   hell      (Ger.), clear, bright

   hell-bent (hypben)

   Helle     (Gr. myth.), sister of Phrixus, fell from the golden ram into
             strait afterwards named Hellespont (the Dardanelles)

   Hellen    (Gr. myth.), son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, progenitor of the
             Greek people

   Hellen/e  a Greek; pl. -es; adj. -ic (cap.)

   Hellenist one skilled in Greek; one who has adopted Greek ways, esp. a Jew
             of the Dispersion

   Hellenistic
             denoting the Greek language and culture of the period after
             Alexander the Great

   Hellenize to make Greek, not -ise

   hell/-fire, -hole
             (hyphens)

   hello     use hallo

   helmet/, -ed
             (one t)

   Helmholtz (Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von)
             1821-94, German scientist

   helmsman  one who steers (one word)

   H‚lo‹se   1101-64, and Ab‚lard, not El-, -sa

   helpline  (one word)

   helpmate  not -meet (one word)

   Helsingor Danish for Elsinore

   Helsinki  Finland, in Swed.  Helsingfors

   helter-skelter
             (hyphen)

   Helvellyn mountain, Cumbria

   Hely-Hutchinson
             Irish name, fam.  name of Earl of Donoughmore (hyphen);
             Hely-Hutchinson (Victor), 1901-47, British composer

   hema-     prefix, use haema-

   Hemel Hempstead
             Herts. (two words)

   Hemingway (Ernest Miller)
             1899-1961, US novelist

   hemistich (prosody), half a line

   hemo-     prefix, use haemo-

   hem-stitch
             (hyphen)

   hence/forth, -forward
             (one word)

   hendiadys one idea expressed by two words joined by a conjunction, as "try
             and come"

   henna/    oriental shrub, leaves used for dyeing nails and hair; -ed

   henpeck/, -ed
             (one word)

   Henri     Fr. for Henry

   henr/y    international unit of inductance, pl. -ies; abbr. H

   Henry     abbr. Hy

   Henry (O.)
             pseud. of William Sydney Porter (1862-1910), US author

   Henschel (Sir George)
             1850-1934, German-born English musician

   Henslow (John Stevens)
             1796-1861, English botanist and geologist

   Henslowe (Philip)
             d. 1616, English theatrical manager, wrote "Diary"

   Hephaestus
             not Hephaistos, except in Gr. contexts

   Hepplewhite
             eighteenth-century style of furniture, from George --, d. 1786,
             not Heppel-

   her.      heraldry

   her.      heres (heir)

   Herakles  see Hercules; not -cles

   heraldry  abbr. her.

   Heralds' College
             abbr. HC (apos.), College of Arms

   H‚rault   d‚p. France

   Herausgeber
             (Ger. m.), editor

   herbaceous
             not -ious

   herbari/um
             a collection of dried plants; pl. -a (not ital.)

   Herbart (Johann Friedrich)
             1776-1841, German philosopher and educationist

   Hercegovina
             Yugoslavia, not Herz-

   Herculaneum
             Roman town overwhelmed by Vesuvius, AD 79, not -ium

   Herculean strong, difficult

   Hercules  not Herakles, except in Gr. contexts

   herd-book (hyphen)

   here/about(s), -after, -by, -in, -of, -on, -out
             (one word)

   Hereford: sig. of Bp. of Hereford (colon)

   Hereford & Worcester
             county of England

   here, here!
             use hear, hear!

   here/s    (Lat.), heir; pl. -des, abbr.  her.

   here/to, -tofore, -under, -upon, -with
             (one word)

   Hergesheimer (Joseph)
             1880-1954, US novelist

   Heriot-Watt University
             Edinburgh, 1966

   heritrix  an heiress, not -tress, here-

   Her Majesty('s)
             (caps.), abbr. HM

   hermeneutics
             the science of interpretation, treated as sing.

   hernia/   a rupture; pl. -s

   hero/     (a, not an) pl. -es; adj. -ic

   Herodotus c.484-c.420 BC, Greek historian, abbr. Hdt. or Herod.

   heroin    a drug, not -ine

   heroine   heroic woman, chief female character in story, etc.

   heroize   to make a hero of, not -ise

   herpes    a skin disease; herpes zoster, shingles

   herpetolog/y
             study of reptiles; -ist, not er-

   Herr/     (Ger. m.), Mr, Sir, pl. -en

   Herr (der)
             (Ger.), the Lord (cap.)

   herr      (Dan., Norw., Swed.), Mr, abbr.  hr.

   Herrenvolk
             (Ger. n.), master race, (in Nazi ideology) the German people

   Herrgott  (Ger.), Lord God

   herring-bone
             a stitch (hyphen)

   Herrnhuter
             one of the sect of the Moravians (not ital.)

   Her Royal Highness
             (caps.), abbr.  HRH

   hers      (no apostrophe)

   Herschel (Caroline Lucretia)
             1750-1848, German-born English astronomer; -- (Sir John
             Frederick William), 1792-1871, English astronomer, son of --
             (Sir William, orig. Friedrich Wilhelm), 1738-1822, German-born
             English astronomer

   Herschell (Baron)


   Herstmonceux
             E. Sussex, site of Royal Obser