ЭЛЕКТРОННАЯ БИБЛИОТЕКА КОАПП
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The Oxford Thesaurus
An N-Z Dictionary of Synonyms


14.0 N
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14.1 nab...
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   nab       v.  catch, capture, arrest, put or place under arrest, seize,
             apprehend, pick up, bring in, take into custody, Colloq pinch,
             collar, run in, nail, Brit nick:  They finally nabbed that cat
             burglar in Hampstead.

   nag°      v.  1 Sometimes, nag at. annoy, irritate, irk, pester,
             criticize, ride, scold, carp (at), upbraid, badger, harass,
             harry, vex, henpeck, torment, hector, pick at, goad, pick on,
             find fault with, berate, nettle, bully, provoke, plague, worry,
             bother, Brit chivvy or chivy or chevy, Colloq needle:  He nags
             her day and night about going on a diet.

             --n.  2 scold, harpy, pest, shrew, virago, termagant, fishwife:
             You certainly can be a terrible nag, can't you?

   nagэ      n.  jade, Rosinante; horse, hack, pony, dobbin, racehorse,
             Thoroughbred, Slang gee-gee, US hayburner, plug, bangtail,
             gee-gee:  That old nag wouldn't be able to clear the fence.

   nagging   adj.  distressing, chronic, continuous, continual, persistent,
             unrelenting, relentless, recurring:  He complains of a nagging
             pain in his shoulder. I have a nagging feeling that I have an
             appointment to be somewhere.

   nail      n.  1 fastener, fastening, spike, pin:  The pieces were held
             together by several nails.  2 fingernail, toenail, claw, talon:
             The detective found some fibres under the victim's nails.  3
             bite one's nails. worry, agonize, fret, lose sleep (over),
             chafe, suffer, Colloq stew (over or about):  Carl is biting his
             nails over the result of his cholesterol test.  4 hard or tough
             as nails.  a tough, vigorous, hardy:  After years of
             mountain-climbing, Ren‚ is as hard as nails.  b cold,
             unsentimental, unsympathetic, unfeeling:  The boss, as hard as
             nails, doesn't care what you sacrifice to get the job done. 5
             hit the nail on the head. be accurate, be correct, be precise,
             be right, put (one's) finger on it:  When you said they were
             fools, you really hit the nail on the head. 6 on the nail.
             immediately, at once, straight or right away, promptly, without
             delay, on the spot, Colloq US on the barrel-head:  He has always
             paid his bills right on the nail.

             --v.  7 attach, secure, join, pin, tack, clinch or clench;
             fasten, fix, focus, rivet, glue:  The door to the mysterious
             room was nailed shut. His eyes were nailed to the pressure
             gauge. 8 See nab, above.  9 hit, strike; punch; shoot:  She
             nailed him with a left hook and he sank like a stone.  10 nail
             down. settle, secure, resolve, complete, conclude, make final;
             finalize:  Let's celebrate: I nailed down the order for 10,000
             air-conditioning units.

   na‹ve     adj.  naive or na‹f, ingenuous, innocent, credulous, childlike,
             born yesterday, unaffected, unsophisticated, inexperienced,
             green, unworldly, unsuspecting, unenlightened, unsuspicious,
             trusting, trustful, gullible, artless, guileless, simple,
             simplistic, simple-minded, unpretentious, unpretending, candid,
             natural:  Is Chatterley na‹ve enough to believe that the
             gamekeeper's meetings with his wife were to discuss fox-hunting?

   na‹vety   n.  naivety, na‹vet‚ or na‹vet‚, ingenuousness, innocence,
             credulity, credulousness, inexperience, (blind) trust,
             gullibility, artlessness, callowness, guilelessness, simplicity,
             unpretentiousness, candour, naturalness, frankness, openness,
             sincerity:  I hope that no one takes advantage of her na‹vety.

   naked     adj.  1 stark naked, unclothed, undraped, bare, exposed,
             stripped, undressed, unclad, uncovered, bared, nude, in the
             nude, Colloq in the altogether, in one's birthday suit, in the
             buff, in the raw, au naturel, in a state of nature, Brit
             starkers, in the nuddy:  The two of them stood there, completely
             naked.  2 unaided, unassisted:  Stars of the seventh magnitude
             or brighter are visible to the naked eye. 3 plain, unadorned,
             unembellished, stark, overt, patent, obvious, conspicuous,
             manifest, sheer, undisguised, unvarnished, unmitigated, evident,
             palpable, unconcealed, in plain sight or view, blatant,
             barefaced, undeniable, glaring, flagrant, unmistakable or
             unmistakeable, unalloyed, unmixed, blunt, unadulterated, pure:
             He told her the naked truth about how he felt.  4 unsheathed,
             unprotected, bare, exposed:  How dare he show a naked sword in
             the presence of the Emperor?!

   name      n.  1 designation, label, appellation, term, tag, style, Colloq
             moniker or monicker, handle:  His name is Chauncy but they call
             him Rusty.  2 reputation; repute, honour, esteem, (high) regard,
             respect, rank, standing, rating, pre-eminence, superiority,
             eminence, notability, prominence, prestige, favour, distinction,
             renown, fame, popularity, celebrity:  She has made a name for
             herself as a clever business executive.  He thinks he has to
             protect his name as a ladies' man. 3 personage, somebody,
             celebrity, star, superstar, hero, VIP, dignitary, luminary,
             Colloq big shot, bigwig, big cheese, big name:  The programme
             included some well-known names in the entertainment world.

             --v.  4 label, tag, style, entitle; call, dub, christen,
             baptize:  They named their book 'The Alien Tongue'. Why would
             people want to name their child 'Quercus'? 5 choose, elect,
             select, delegate, nominate, designate, appoint; identify,
             denominate, pinpoint, specify:  She has been named 'Woman of the
             Year'. I asked her to name our wedding day. She refuses to name
             her attacker. 6 name names. identify, specify, mention, cite:
             In exchange for a lighter sentence, the witness agreed to name
             names.

   nameless  adj.  1 unnamed, innominate, unidentified, anonymous,
             pseudonymous, incognito, unknown, unheard-of, unsung:  How much
             we owe the nameless inventor of the wheel!  2 inexpressible,
             indefinable, unidentifiable, unspecified, unspecifiable:  A
             nameless dread seized him as he entered the cave.  3 ineffable,
             unutterable, unspeakable, unmentionable, abominable, horrible,
             indescribable, repulsive:  Paganism allowed man to sink beneath
             a flood of nameless sensualities.

   namely    adv.  specifically, to wit, that is (to say), id est, i.e.,
             videlicet, viz., scilicet, sc.; for example, for instance,
             exempli gratia, e.g.  or eg or eg.:  We visited three countries,
             namely, France, Italy, and Switzerland.

   nap°      v.  1 doze, nod (off), catnap, Colloq catch forty winks, drop
             off (to sleep), get some shut-eye, snooze, zizz, US catch or log
             a few zees (Z's):  I nap every afternoon.

             --adv.  2 napping. unawares, off guard, unexpectedly, in an
             unguarded moment:  The ball, hit to his backhand, caught him
             napping.

             --n.  3 doze, catnap, siesta, Colloq forty winks, shut-eye,
             snooze, zizz, Brit lie-down:  Take a short nap before dinner.

   napэ      n.  pile, fibre, texture, weave, down, shag:  Choose a carpet
             with a short nap for areas of heavy wear.

   narcotic  adj.  1 soporific, stuporific, hypnotic, sedative, somnolent,
             sleep-inducing, opiate, dulling, numbing, anaesthetic,
             stupefacient, stupefying, stupefactive, tranquillizing, Lethean:
             Most narcotic drugs may be sold only with a doctor's
             prescription.

             --n.  2 drug, soporific, stuporific, hypnotic, sedative, opiate,
             anaesthetic, stupefacient, tranquillizer:  Many doctors are
             reluctant to prescribe narcotics.

   narrate   v.  relate, tell, recount, report, give an account (of), recite,
             rehearse, repeat, review, unfold, chronicle, describe, detail,
             reveal, retail:  She narrated a bone-chilling story of intrigue
             and murder. Please narrate the events leading up to your finding
             the body, Mrs Easton.

   narration n.  1 telling, relating, unfolding, recounting, chronicling,
             recording, describing; report, recital, recitation, rehearsal,
             relation, chronicle, description, portrayal, detailing,
             revelation, story, tale, narrative:  His narration was
             accompanied by nervous gestures. Her narration disagrees with
             her husband's in certain essential respects. 2 reading,
             voice-over:  The narration did not seem to be coordinated with
             the pictures on the screen.

   narrative n.  1 story, tale, chronicle, description, revelation,
             portrayal, account, report, record, history, recital, statement:
             The characterizations were poor, but the narrative was
             fascinating.

             --adj.  2 storytelling, chronicling, anecdotal:  One of her
             long, narrative poems has been published in a collection.

   narrator  n.  reporter, storyteller, raconteur, taleteller, teller of
             tales, anecdotist or anecdotalist, relator, annalist,
             chronicler, describer, author; voice-over:  We sat spellbound
             waiting for the narrator to continue.

   narrow    adj.  1 constricted, slender, slim, thin, restricted,
             straitened, attenuated, narrowed; narrowing, tapering:  We
             squeezed through the narrow passage to freedom.  2 confined,
             confining, limited, cramped, close, meagre, pinched, tight,
             incommodious:  I awoke in a cell so narrow I could scarcely
             move.  3 strict, careful, close, precise, exact, exacting,
             demanding, finicky, finical, sharp, meticulous, scrupulous,
             fussy, rigid, searching, critical:  The suspected forgeries were
             submitted to the narrow scrutiny of several experts. 4
             restricted, limited, circumscribed, proscribed, denotative:  I
             learnt the meaning of charity in its narrowest sense.  5 See
             narrow-minded, below.  6 close, hairbreadth, lucky:  I'd had a
             very narrow escape, for the bullet just grazed my scalp.  7
             stingy, niggardly, parsimonious, miserly, tight, sparing,
             tight-fisted, mean, mercenary Brit mingy, Dialectal near, Colloq
             close:  He was so narrow he barely allowed himself the
             essentials.

             --v.  8 constrict, limit, qualify, reduce, lessen, diminish,
             decrease:  She narrowed her chances of winning by buying only
             one lottery ticket. 9 limit, restrict, focus, confine,
             concentrate, narrow down:  They have narrowed the search for the
             boy to the area near Chester.

             --n.  10 narrows. strait(s), channel, passage:  The vessel
             approached the narrows at dead slow speed.

   narrowly  adv.  1 barely, (only) just, scarcely, hardly, by a hair's
             breadth; by the skin of one's teeth, Colloq by a whisker:  The
             speeding lorry narrowly missed those children.  2 closely,
             carefully, meticulously, scrupulously, searchingly, critically:
             She regarded him narrowly before speaking.

   narrow-minded
             adj.  bigoted, prejudiced, illiberal, narrow, biased,
             opinionated, one-sided, intolerant, non-objective, conservative,
             reactionary, parochial, ultra-conservative, stiff-necked,
             conventional, hidebound, fundamentalist, literal-minded,
             narrow-spirited, mean-minded, mean-spirited, petty,
             pettifogging, small-minded, puritanical, unprogressive,
             old-fashioned, old-fogyish or old-fogeyish, strait-laced, Colloq
             stuffy, US close-minded, square, screed-bound, red-necked:  The
             vote reflected a reasonable balance between broad-minded and
             narrow-minded factions.

   nasty     adj.  1 foul, filthy, dirty, unclean, offensive, disgusting,
             nauseating, revolting, horrible, loathsome, repugnant,
             repellent, vile, odious, obnoxious, objectionable, nauseous,
             sickening, vomit-provoking, fetid or foetid, noisome, mephitic,
             rank, malodorous, rancid, noxious:  The nasty stench of rotting
             vegetation assailed our nostrils.  2 unpleasant, disagreeable,
             unsavoury, painful, objectionable, annoying, untoward, awkward,
             difficult, bad, serious:  Lord Petherbridge had some very nasty
             experiences in the war.  3 obscene, dirty, pornographic, blue,
             smutty, lewd, vulgar, sordid, indecent, licentious, gross,
             coarse, crude, rude, ribald, bawdy, risqu‚, off colour,
             suggestive, Colloq X-rated, raunchy:  The shops are selling some
             rather nasty videos that I don't want the children to watch. 4
             unpleasant, disagreeable, ugly, bad-tempered, vicious, currish,
             surly, abusive, spiteful, irascible, ill-natured, ill-tempered,
             cruel, inconsiderate, rude, churlish, obnoxious, crotchety,
             curmudgeonly, cantankerous, crabbed, cranky, US and Canadian
             mean:  Why is your father so nasty to everyone who wants to go
             out with you? 5 bad, severe, acute, painful, serious; dangerous,
             critical:  I got a nasty shock when I opened the cupboard door.
             That's a nasty wound you have there.

   nation    n.  country, state, land, political entity, polity, domain,
             realm:  The countries of Europe are unlikely to become one
             nation.

   national  adj.  1 nationwide, country-wide, state, governmental, civil;
             public, popular, US federal:  It took years to enact national
             clean-air laws.  2 nationalistic, nationalist, patriotic,
             jingoistic, chauvinistic:  During the war, national feelings ran
             high.

             --n.  3 citizen, subject, inhabitant, resident; native:
             Stephenson left England years ago and is now an Australian
             national.

   nationalistic
             adj.  nationalist, patriotic, jingoist(ic), chauvinist(ic),
             xenophobic, isolationist:  As communications improved,
             nationalistic feelings were eroded.

   nationality
             n.  1 citizenship:  Some countries allow their citizens dual
             nationality.  2 race, nation, ethnic group, ethnos, clan, tribe;
             strain, stock, pedigree, heritage, roots, extraction, bloodline,
             breed:  The country became a melting-pot of myriad
             nationalities.

   native    adj.  1 innate, natal, inborn, natural, inherent, congenital,
             indwelling, inherited, hereditary, in the blood, intrinsic,
             constitutional:  Early in life, Carla demonstrated a native
             ability for music.  2 domestic, local, home-grown; indigenous,
             autochthonous, aboriginal:  The native oysters in this area are
             superb.  3 basic, first, best, original, exclusive:  Can you
             tell that my native language is Hungarian?  4 national, ethnic,
             clan, tribal:  We visited a Dutch town where the people wear
             traditional native dress. 5 aboriginal, provincial, local:  We
             soon fell in with the native custom of taking a siesta.  6 born;
             by birth:  Are you a native Glaswegian?

             --n.  7 aborigine, indigene, autochthon; national, citizen,
             resident, inhabitant:  It is not difficult to distinguish the
             natives from the tourists in London.

   natural   adj.  1 ordinary, common, commonplace, normal, standard,
             regular, usual, customary, unexceptional, routine, habitual,
             typical, everyday; reasonable, logical, reasonable, sensible,
             accepted:  They say that Count Dracula could not die a natural
             death. The natural thing to do in case of attack is to defend
             oneself. 2 normal, ordinary, regular, expected; spontaneous:
             The natural motion of the waves carried the bottle out to sea.
             3 simple, basic, fundamental, real, unartificial, genuine,
             unembellished, unadorned, unpretentious:  She has great natural
             beauty and needs no cosmetics.  4 unstudied, unconstrained,
             candid, frank, spontaneous, unaffected, easy, honest, straight,
             straightforward, artless, guileless, impulsive, unpremeditated,
             unaffected, ingenuous, unsophisticated, unsophistic(al):  His
             kindness is quite natural.  5 See native, 1, above:  She has a
             natural gift for painting.  6 true, real, genuine, actual,
             authentic, bona fide:  That, believe it or not, is his natural
             hair.  7 lifelike, true to life, realistic:  Note the natural
             colours of the sea in this painting by Whistler.  8
             illegitimate, bastard:  He was the duke's natural son and had no
             claim on the estate.  9 consistent, consonant, consequent,
             logical, reasonable, fitting, appropriate, proper, expected, not
             incongruous, understandable:  In the circumstances, it would
             have been natural for her to despise Jonathan. 10 organic,
             organically grown, non-chemical, health:  They eat only natural
             foods, which they grow themselves.

             --n.  11 genius, artist, talent:  When it comes to chess, Boris
             is a natural.  12 Archaic idiot, imbecile, simpleton, fool,
             halfwit:  One would have to be a natural to give money to that
             crook.

   naturally adv.  1 (as a matter) of course, needless to say, to be sure,
             certainly, surely, not unexpectedly, as expected or anticipated,
             obviously, clearly, logically, consequently, as a consequence or
             result:  He treated her badly, so, naturally, she refuses to see
             him again.  2 normally, by nature, by character, really,
             actually, genuinely; inherently, instinctively, innately,
             congenitally:  My hair is naturally curly. He is not aloof, just
             naturally shy.  3 unaffectedly, unpretentiously, easily,
             candidly, openly, simply, plainly, honestly, straightforwardly,
             uncomplicatedly:  If only politicians expressed themselves
             naturally and not pompously.

   nature    n.  1 quality, properties, features, character, personality,
             make-up, essence, constitution, identity, attributes,
             disposition, temperament, complexion:  Only detailed analysis
             will reveal the nature of this compound.  It is not in his
             nature to be envious. 2 universe, cosmos, world, creation,
             environment:  Science fiction deals with phenomena and
             contrivances that defy the laws of nature. 3 scenery,
             countryside, wildness, primitiveness, simplicity:  I often
             enjoyed sitting by the river, communing with nature.  4 kind,
             variety, description, sort, class, category, type, genre,
             species; stamp, cast, mould, feather, kidney, colour, stripe:
             The duties of the position are largely of a ceremonial nature.
             5 by nature. See naturally, 2, above.

   naught    n.  nought, nothing, nil, zero, aught or ought; ruin,
             destruction, disaster, collapse, failure:  All my efforts had
             come to naught.

   naughty   adj.  1 mischievous, impish, puckish, roguish, scampish,
             devilish; frolicsome, playful:  The children would get naughty
             the minute the teacher turned her back to the class. 2
             disobedient, refractory, insubordinate, bad, perverse, wicked,
             fractious, unruly, wayward, unmanageable, ungovernable,
             undisciplined, defiant, obstreperous:  Naughty pupils in this
             school are birched.  3 improper, offensive, vulgar, indecent,
             immoral, risqu‚, off colour, ribald, bawdy, blue, pornographic,
             smutty, lewd, obscene, dirty, Colloq X-rated, raunchy:  The
             teacher caught Keith reading a naughty book.

   nauseate  v.  sicken, disgust, repel, revolt, offend:  Your hypocrisy
             nauseates me. When you get used to it, eating snails no longer
             seems nauseating.

   nauseated adj.  sickened, disgusted, repelled, revolted, offended, sick
             (to one's stomach), queasy, squeamish; seasick, carsick,
             airsick:  They were nauseated when they saw the cadavers. I
             became nauseated by the rocking of the boat.

   nauseous  adj.  nauseating, loathsome, sickening, disgusting, repellent,
             vomit-provoking, offensive, revolting, repugnant, repulsive,
             abhorrent, nasty, foul, unpleasant, stomach-turning, Technical
             emetic:  A nauseous odour emanated from the crypt.

   nautical  adj.  maritime, marine, seafaring, seagoing; naval; boating,
             yachting, sailing; navigational:  Britain has always been a
             nautical nation. One must observe the nautical rules of the
             road.

   navel     n.  Technical umbilicus, omphalos, Colloq belly button:  The
             dancer wore a ruby in her navel.

   navigable adj.  1 passable, traversable, negotiable, unblocked,
             unobstructed, clear:  The Thames is not navigable above
             Lechlade.  2 manoeuvrable, sailable, controllable, steerable,
             yare:  My boat is navigable when under way at about four knots.

   navigate  v.  1 sail, voyage, cruise, journey; cross, traverse:  After
             navigating the Indian Ocean for a month, we reached the
             Seychelles. 2 manoeuvre, handle, sail, guide, pilot, steer,
             direct, skipper, captain, Nautical con:  It was tricky
             navigating through the shoals. Richard has navigated the company
             through rough waters over the years.

   navigation
             n.  pilotage, helmsmanship, seamanship, steersmanship, steering,
             sailing:  The navigation of a small vessel in such a storm is no
             mean task.

   navigator n.  pilot, helmsman, seaman, tillerman, wheelman, steersman,
             skipper:  The navigator without knowledge of local waterways
             must engage a pilot.

   navy      n.  fleet, flotilla, naval force(s), armada, Literary argosy:
             The entire navy sailed across the Channel to Le Havre.

   naysayer  n.  denier, refuser, disdainer, rejecter or rejector; prophet of
             doom, pessimist, sceptic, dissenter, defeatist:  Don't expect
             any encouragement from a naysayer like Raymond.

14.2 near...
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   near      adv.  1 close (by or at hand), not far (off or away), nearby,
             nigh, in or into the vicinity or neighbourhood, within (easy)
             reach:  Draw near and listen to my tale.  2 close to, next to:
             Don't go near the edge!  3 nearly, almost, just about, wellnigh,
             close to being; not quite, virtually:  She was damn near killed
             in the car crash.

             --adj.  4 close, imminent, immediate, impending, looming,
             coming, approaching, forthcoming; in the offing, at hand:  We
             hope to settle the pollution problem in the near future. The
             time is near for me to go. 5 nearby, close, adjacent, next-door,
             close-by, adjoining, abutting, neighbouring, contiguous:  My
             nearest neighbours live a mile away.  6 stingy, mean, niggardly,
             miserly, parsimonious, penurious, cheap, penny-pinching,
             cheese-paring, selfish, close, tight-fisted, close-fisted:  He
             is so near he begrudged me even a cup of tea.  7 close,
             intimate, connected, related, attached:  In case of emergency,
             list the name and address of a near relative.  8 close, narrow,
             hairbreadth:  Although I escaped, it was a near thing.

             --prep.  9 close to, in the vicinity or neighbourhood of, next
             to, adjacent to, within reach of, within a mile of; a stone's
             throw from, not far (away) from:  She wouldn't allow the doctor
             to come near her. I live near the railway.

             --v.  10 approach, draw near or nigh, come close or closer,
             verge on, approximate on, lean towards:  As summer nears, I
             think of going on holiday. The ship neared port. His estimate is
             beginning to near mine.

   nearby    adv.  1 close by, close at hand, not far-off or -away, in the
             vicinity or neighbourhood, within (easy) reach, about, around:
             Hyenas loitered nearby waiting for the lions to leave the kill.

             --adj.  2 close, within reach, handy, accessible, at or to hand,
             adjacent:  Nearby villagers helped put out the fire. We always
             kept a gun nearby because of pirates.

   nearly    adv.  1 almost, not quite, about, approximately, all but, just
             about, virtually, wellnigh, practically, as good as, more or
             less; around, approaching, nearing, barely, hardly, scarcely,
             close to:  We were nearly there but couldn't make it. She was
             nearly ninety when her first book was published. 2 closely,
             identically, exactly, precisely:  Her opinions agree most nearly
             with his. His painting most nearly resembles Picasso's.

   near-sighted
             adj.  1 myopic, short-sighted:  Being near-sighted, I must wear
             spectacles for driving.  2 Chiefly US short-sighted,
             narrow-minded, blinkered, narrow, close-minded, illiberal,
             unthinking, heedless, insular, partial, one-sided, parochial,
             unsophisticated, unimaginative, biased, unobjective,
             opinionated, dogmatic, prejudiced, intolerant, bigoted:  They
             maintain a near-sighted attitude towards associating with anyone
             outside their immediate clique.

   neat      adj.  1 tidy, orderly, clean, uncluttered, trim, spruce, natty,
             fastidious, spick and span, shipshape (and Bristol fashion),
             organized, well-organized, well-ordered, systematic, Brit
             dialect trig, Colloq neat as a pin, Brit dinky:  His room was
             always neat - very odd for a teenager.  2 straight,
             unadulterated, unmixed, undiluted, uncut, unblended, pure; on
             the rocks:  He drinks his whisky neat.  3 unembellished,
             unadorned, unornamented, simple, elegant, graceful, smart,
             uncomplicated, regular, precise, copperplate; calligraphic:  An
             invitation in her neat handwriting awaited my return from
             abroad.  4 deft, adroit, clever, efficient, ingenious, expert,
             practised, skilful, dexterous:  He contrived a neat plan to
             avoid paying taxes.  5 fine, wonderful, marvellous, great,
             splendid, excellent, exceptional, capital, grand, first-class,
             Colloq cool, smashing, keen, nifty, top-notch, A1 or A-1 or
             A-one, Brit top-hole, Chiefly US A-OK or A-okay, Slang swell,
             far-out, boss, Brit topping, US and Canadian spiffy:  She found
             a really neat way to get boys to ask her out. Gordon has a neat
             new car.

   neaten    v.  Often, neaten up. tidy (up), straighten (up or out), clean
             (up), spruce up, (put in) order, Brit dialect trig:  If you
             don't neaten up your room, Mandy, you may not borrow the car.

   nebulous  adj.  vague, hazy, clouded, unclear, obscure, indistinct, fuzzy,
             muddy, ill-defined, shapeless, amorphous, blurred,
             indeterminate, murky, opaque, turbid, dim, foggy, faint, pale:
             He has only the most nebulous idea of what the lecture was
             about.

   necessarily
             adv.  inevitably, unavoidably, inescapably, axiomatically,
             inexorably, ineluctably, irresistibly, incontrovertibly,
             automatically, naturally, (as a matter) of course, as a result,
             certainly, surely, to be sure, like it or not, willy-nilly,
             perforce, of necessity, by definition:  If you accept his
             premise, then you must, necessarily, accept his conclusion. You
             don't necessarily need to be rich to be happy.

   necessary adj.  1 indispensable, essential, required, needed, compulsory,
             requisite, vital, demanded, imperative, obligatory, needful, of
             the essence, important, of the utmost importance, top-priority,
             high-priority, urgent, exigent, compelling, life-and-death or
             life-or-death:  A good diet is necessary for good health. It is
             necessary that you come at once. Take the necessary steps to get
             the job done. 2 inevitable, unavoidable, inescapable,
             ineluctable:  In the circumstances, we find it necessary to ask
             for your resignation.  3 sure, certain, predetermined,
             predestined, fated, inexorable; resulting, resultant:  The
             necessary outcome of the affair was that the child was returned
             to her natural parents.

             --n.  4 See necessity, 1, below.

   necessity n.  1 requirement, essential, necessary, requisite, need,
             prerequisite, basic, fundamental, sine qua non, desideratum,
             constraint:  I was marooned for a year with only the bare
             necessities of life.  We regard honesty as a necessity in a bank
             manager. 2 indispensability, unavoidability, needfulness,
             inexorability:  The necessity for exercise is often met by
             private health clubs.  3 poverty, want, indigence, need,
             destitution, penury, straits, difficulty, difficulties,
             pauperism, neediness:  The extreme necessity of the unemployed
             demands that the government act quickly. 4 urgency, emergency,
             crisis, misfortune, exigency, pinch, extreme, matter of life and
             death:  She has made a virtue of necessity. Electric power is no
             longer a matter of choice but of necessity.

   need      v.  1 require, demand, want, be in want of, call for, have need
             of or for; lack, miss, have occasion for:  This room needs a
             coat of paint. Although she may want more money, she doesn't
             need it. Do you need anything to make you more comfortable?

             --n.  2 necessity, requirement; call, demand, constraint:
             There's no need to shout - I can hear you. There is a need to
             keep this matter confidential. This facility will meet our
             electricity needs for decades. 3 essential, necessary,
             requisite, prerequisite, necessity, basic, fundamental, sine qua
             non, necessary, desideratum:  I am perfectly capable of taking
             care of my family's needs.  4 distress, difficulty, trouble,
             (dire or desperate) straits, stress, emergency, exigency,
             extremity, neediness, needfulness; poverty, penury,
             impecuniousness, destitution, privation, deprivation, indigence,
             beggary:  She was very supportive in his hour of need. The need
             of the people in that district is heart-rending. 5 want, lack,
             dearth, shortage, paucity, scarcity, insufficiency, desideratum:
             The need for medical supplies was most sharply felt in areas
             that were already ravaged by famine.

   needless  adj.  1 unnecessary, non-essential, unessential, unneeded,
             unwanted, useless, uncalled-for, gratuitous, superfluous,
             redundant, excess, excessive, tautological, dispensable,
             expendable, supererogatory, de trop, pleonastic:  He went to a
             lot of needless trouble to change the tyre. It is needless to
             raise further questions. 2 needless to say. naturally, (as a
             matter) of course, obviously, it goes without saying:  Needless
             to say, he will have to resign when this comes to light.

   needy     adj.  poor, indigent, poverty-stricken, destitute, impoverished,
             penniless, impecunious, necessitous, underprivileged, deprived,
             disadvantaged, below the poverty level, in dire straits, in or
             on the way to the poorhouse, in reduced circumstances,
             down-and-out, insolvent, Colloq on one's uppers, dead or flat or
             stony-broke, hard up, strapped, pinched, on the breadline, up
             against it, Brit on the dole, US dead broke, on welfare, on
             relief:  It is not enough to look after needy families only at
             Christmas time.

   negative  adj.  1 contradictory, anti, contrary, dissenting, dissentious,
             disputing, disputatious, argumentative, adversarial,
             adversative, antagonistic, antipathetic, adverse, US adversary:
             He has adopted a very negative attitude towards his job. Few
             negative voices were heard on the issue. 2 pessimistic,
             unenthusiastic, cool, cold, uninterested, unresponsive:  The
             reaction to our offer has been largely negative.  3 nullifying,
             annulling, neutralizing, voiding, cancelling:  The laws are
             mainly negative, listing only things one must not do. 4
             negating, refusing, denying, gainsaying, opposing:  The judge
             came to a negative decision regarding bail.  5 in the negative.
             negatively, 'No':  Asked if she wanted to go, she replied in the
             negative.

   neglect   v.  1 disregard, ignore, slight, pay no attention to, be
             inattentive to, overlook, pass by, spurn, rebuff, scorn,
             disdain, contemn, Colloq cold-shoulder:  Scholars neglected his
             work for years.  2 fail (in), omit; disregard, let slide or
             pass, be remiss (about or in or regarding), abandon, lose sight
             of, forget, shirk:  Have I neglected telling you how much I love
             you? Sybil has neglected her obligations.

             --n.  3 disregard, disrespect, inattention, indifference,
             slighting, unconcern, oversight, heedlessness, neglectfulness,
             carelessness, inadvertence:  We lost business to our competitor
             through simple neglect.  4 negligence, laxity, laxness,
             slackness, neglectfulness, passivity, passiveness, inactivity,
             inaction, dereliction, default, failure, failing, remissness:
             She has been accused of neglect in looking after her children
             properly.

   negligence
             n.  inattention, inattentiveness, indifference, carelessness,
             unconcern, dereliction, failure, failing, heedlessness, laxity,
             laxness, disregard, oversight, omission, inadvertence, neglect,
             remissness, forgetfulness, oscitancy or oscitance:  The car
             crash was attributed to the lorry driver's negligence.

   negligible
             adj.  insignificant, minor, unimportant, trifling, trivial,
             inconsequential, piddling, inappreciable, small, slight, paltry,
             nugatory, worthless, petty, niggling, not worth mentioning or
             talking about:  The differences between the two plans are
             negligible.

   negotiate v.  1 deal, bargain, dicker, haggle, chaffer, palter; discuss,
             debate, mediate, consult, parley, speak, talk, transact, come to
             terms:  A conglomerate is negotiating to buy our company. The
             company asked me to negotiate on our behalf. 2 arrange (for),
             organize, orchestrate, conduct, handle, manoeuvre, manage,
             engineer, work out, settle, get, obtain, bring off or about,
             carry off, accomplish, do, execute, effect, complete, conclude,
             Colloq pull off:  Will you be able to negotiate a loan for the
             car?  3 manoeuvre, clear, get through or past or round or over,
             pass, cross, Colloq make (it (through or past or round or
             over)):  Will you be able to negotiate the barbed-wire fence?

   negotiation
             n.  1 discussion, mediation, arbitration, bargaining, parley,
             parleying, talk, coming to terms:  The disarmament negotiations
             have dragged on for years.  2 deal, bargain, transaction,
             agreement, arrangement, understanding, determination, decision,
             settlement; contract, pact, compact, covenant, concordat,
             treaty:  All parties seem pleased with the final negotiation.

   negotiator
             n.  arbitrator, arbiter, mediator, moderator, diplomat,
             ambassador, go-between, middleman, intercessor, interceder,
             intervener, agent, broker:  An independent negotiator was
             invited to the bargaining table with the union and management
             representatives.

   neighbourhood
             n.  1 locality, area, region, vicinity, vicinage, environs,
             quarter, district, precinct(s), purlieus, locale; surroundings,
             confines:  Houses in the neighbourhood of the blast were
             levelled.  2 in the neighbourhood of. approximately, about,
             around, nearly, practically, close to, almost, more or less,
             Colloq in the ballpark of, in the region of, Brit getting on
             for, not far off, US within an eyelash of, Slang as near as
             dammit to:  The playground will cost in the neighbourhood of
             њ5,000.

   neighbouring
             adj.  nearby, near, around, adjacent (to), surrounding,
             adjoining, contiguous (to), touching, bordering (on), next (to),
             nearest:  Owners of properties neighbouring the nuclear power
             plant worry about radiation. The neighbouring villages will
             participate in the f€te at Long Norton.

   neighbourly
             adj.  friendly, cordial, warm, amiable, agreeable, affable,
             companionable, well-disposed, kindly, kind, well-wishing,
             genial, sociable, social, harmonious, considerate, thoughtful,
             helpful, gracious, courteous, civil:  It was quite neighbourly
             of the Constables to look after our cat.

   neologism n.  neoterism, coinage, neology, nonce-word; blend, portmanteau
             word:  Lexicographers must decide the neologisms to be added to
             their dictionaries.

   nerve     n.  1 courage, coolness, boldness, bravery, intrepidity,
             determination, valour, daring, fearlessness, dauntlessness,
             pluck, mettle, spirit, fortitude, will, tenacity, steadfastness,
             staunchness, firmness, doughtiness, resoluteness, Colloq guts,
             grit, gumption, spunk, US sand, Brit bottle, US moxie , Taboo
             slang balls:  It took a lot of nerve to go back into that
             burning building.  2 effrontery, brazenness, gall, impertinence,
             brass, impudence, insolence, audacity, brashness, presumption,
             presumptuousness, temerity, Colloq cheek, sauce, chutzpah, Slang
             crust:  You have a lot of nerve, talking to your mother that
             way!  3 get on someone's nerves. annoy, irritate, upset:  That
             loud rock music gets on my nerves.  4 nerves. tension,
             nervousness, hysteria, anxiety, fretfulness, stress, worry,
             apprehension, fright, Colloq the jitters, Slang the willies, the
             heebie-jeebies, US the whim-whams:  I had a bad case of nerves
             before learning the doctor's diagnosis.

   nerve-racking
             adj.  nerve-wracking, harrowing, agonizing, distressing, trying,
             vexing, vexatious, troublesome, worrisome, irksome, irritating:
             Waiting for the names of the survivors was the most
             nerve-racking experience of my life.

   nervous   adj.  1 highly-strung, excitable, sensitive, tense, agitated,
             wrought up, worked up, upset, flustered, ruffled, disturbed,
             perturbed, distressed, worried, anxious, troubled, concerned,
             disquieted, edgy, on edge, on tenterhooks, fidgety, fretful,
             uneasy, apprehensive, frightened, fearful, shaky, scared,
             skittish, US on a tightrope, Colloq jumpy, jittery, flappable,
             in a stew, in a dither, in a sweat, in a tizzy, in a flap,
             uptight, Brit nervy, US on pins and needles, Slang strung out:
             Thomas is nervous because he has to give a speech.  2 difficult,
             tense, critical:  There were a few nervous moments before we
             knew if the rope would hold.

   nest      n.  1 roost, perch, eyrie or US also aerie, den, lair:  The
             birds, which mate for life, return to the same nest each year.
             2 snuggery, retreat, refuge, haunt, hideaway, hide-out; resort:
             We have a little nest in the country which we escape to at
             weekends.

   nestle    v.  cuddle (up), snuggle (up), huddle, curl up, nuzzle (up):
             They nestled close together to keep warm.

   net°      n.  1 network, netting, mesh, mesh-work, web, webbing, openwork,
             lattice, lattice-work, trellis, trellis-work, lace-work,
             reticulum, reticle, rete, plexus, grid, grid-work, grille,
             grate, grating, fretwork; sieve, screen, strainer, sifter:  They
             watched the fishermen mending their nets.

             --v.  2 catch, capture, trap, entrap, snare, ensnare, bag:  As I
             bring the fish close to the boat, you net it with this.

   netэ      n.  1 nett, (net) profit, gain, earnings, return(s), Colloq US
             take:  The net for the first quarter was 15 per cent higher than
             last year's.

             --adj.  2 clear, after deductions, after taxes, take-home,
             final, bottom-line:  The tax increase was greater than my salary
             increase, so my net income was lower this year. 3 final, end,
             closing, concluding, conclusive, effective, ultimate:  The net
             result of the advertising campaign was a sales increase of 18
             per cent.

             --v.  4 make, realize, clear, take home, bring in, earn, pocket,
             take in, get:  How much did you net last year - after taxes,
             that is.

   network   n.  1 See net°, 1, above.  2 system, arrangement, structure,
             organization, complex, grid, criss-cross, web, plexus; maze,
             labyrinth, jungle, tangle:  She has developed a worldwide
             network of contacts for her business.  Before transistors, the
             back of a radio was a network of multicoloured wires.

   neurotic  adj.  psychoneurotic, unstable, disturbed, confused, irrational,
             disordered, maladjusted, distraught, overwrought, anxious,
             nervous, obsessive, deviant, abnormal:  Many people are neurotic
             about something.

   neuter    adj.  1 asexual, sexless, epicene:  Worker bees are neuter,
             neither male nor female.

             --v.  2 desex or desexualize, doctor; castrate, emasculate,
             geld, capon or caponize, eunuchize; spay, ovariectomize,
             oophorectomize; Colloq fix, cut, US alter:  We had our cat
             neutered after her first litter.

   neutral   adj.  1 non-belligerent, non-combatant, unaligned, non-aligned,
             unaffiliated, uninvolved, unallied, non-allied, non-partisan,
             impartial, disinterested, indifferent, dispassionate, unbiased,
             uncommitted, noncommittal, aloof, withdrawn, detached, remote,
             removed:  Switzerland has remained neutral during both world
             wars.  2 dull, drab, colourless, achromatic, toneless,
             indeterminate, washed out, pale, indefinite, indistinct,
             indistinguishable, indeterminate, vague, drab, beige, ecru:  A
             neutral wallpaper colour won't clash with the paintings.

   neutralize
             v.  void, annul, cancel (out), nullify, invalidate, negate,
             delete, undo, make or render ineffective, counterbalance,
             counteract, offset, equalize, even, square, compensate for, make
             up for:  The forces on both sides of the sail, being equal,
             neutralize each other.

   never     adv.  1 at no time, not ever, not at any time, on no occasion,
             under no circumstances or condition(s), on no account, not at
             all, Colloq not in a million years, not till hell freezes over:
             You are never to use such language again!  2 in no way, not in
             any way, not in the least, not in any degree, not under any
             condition, not:  Never fear, for I am near.

   nevertheless
             adv.  still, notwithstanding, yet, in spite of that, despite
             that, nonetheless, regardless, be that as it may, for all that,
             even so, but, however, just or all the same, everything
             considered, at any rate, anyway, in any case, in any event, at
             all events, Literary withal:  He said he dislikes sweets;
             nevertheless, he ate a whole bar of chocolate.

   new       adj.  1 novel, original, unique, unusual, different, fresh,
             creative, imaginative, brand-new:  Ruth has a new idea for the
             sales campaign.  2 latest, late, modern, contemporary, modish,
             stylish, fashionable, chic, recent, advanced, up to date,
             brand-new, late-model, Colloq trendy, Slang mod, hip:  MacGregor
             buys a new car every year: it has to be equipped with the newest
             gadgets. 3 fresh, further, additional, supplemental,
             supplementary:  Has the new issue of Verbatim come out yet?  4
             unfamiliar, unknown, strange, different; unique, unheard of:  I
             hear there's a new girl in your office. I want to introduce my
             new friend, Dan Hammond. Every year they discover a new virus. 5
             revitalized, reborn, renewed, rejuvenated, changed, altered,
             redone, restored, redesigned, remodelled:  I saw before me a new
             Marie. They published a new version of the Bible. 6
             inexperienced, green, fresh, callow, unfledged, budding,
             immature, unripe, untrained:  Let us look over the new recruits,
             Sergeant.  7 late, young, recent:  We found newer fossils at
             higher levels.  8 uncharted, unexplored, untrodden, unknown,
             experimental:  Astronomers are breaking new ground in the
             analysis of pulsars.

   newcomer  n.  1 alien, immigrant, foreigner, outlander, stranger, settler,
             colonist, outsider:  The newcomers quickly established
             themselves and became self-sufficient.  2 beginner, amateur,
             novice, proselyte, neophyte, tiro or tyro, initiate, trainee,
             learner, fledgling or Brit also fledgeling, US freshman, Colloq
             greenhorn:  Though experienced in book publishing, he was a
             newcomer to magazine publishing.

   news      n.  1 tidings, word, information, advice, intelligence; rumour,
             talk, gossip, hearsay, dirt, scandal, expos‚, Colloq info,
             low-down, scoop, US scuttlebutt, Slang dope:  What's the latest
             news about the situation in the Middle East?  2 dispatch or
             despatch, report, account, story, communication, bulletin,
             communiqu‚, announcement, information, message, word, statement,
             (press) release, (news)flash:  The news from our correspondent
             contains no mention of finding a cache of arms. 3 newscast, news
             broadcast or telecast, news programme; newsflash:  Please be
             quiet so that I can listen to the news.  4 (good) copy,
             front-page news, (hot) item:  The royal family is always news.

14.3 nice...
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   nice      adj.  1 pleasant, agreeable, amiable, amicable, friendly,
             cordial, warm, gracious, warm-hearted, kind, kindly, outgoing,
             charming, genial, delightful, courteous, polite, refined,
             gentlemanly, ladylike, winsome, likeable, attractive:  They are
             one of the nicest couples I have ever met.  2 good,
             satisfactory, commendable, worthy, worthwhile:  The manager said
             that I had done a nice job in preparing the specifications.  3
             good, fine, superb, superior, attentive, sharp, acute, keen,
             careful, exact, exacting, rigorous; precise, accurate, unerring,
             scrupulous, meticulous, punctilious, discriminating,
             discriminative, perceptive, delicate, fastidious, flawless,
             faultless, subtle, strict, close, small, slight, minute,
             complex, complicated, intricate:  A diamond cutter must have a
             nice eye for detail. It is difficult to maintain nice
             distinctions of meaning among certain words, given that people
             are so careless with their speech these days. 4 delicate,
             subtle, sensitive, exquisite, hair-splitting, over-nice, fine,
             critical, ticklish, dangerous, precarious, perilous, Colloq
             hairy:  The matter of Hong Kong requires some nice political
             negotiations.  5 trim, well turned out, tidy, neat, fine:  Don't
             you want to look nice for your birthday party?  6 nice and -
             pleasantly, delightfully, pleasingly, agreeably, enjoyably,
             gratifyingly, satisfyingly, comfortably:  It's nice and warm by
             the fire.

   niche     n.  1 recess, hollow, alcove, nook:  A small statue of Buddha
             stood in a niche in the wall.  2 place, position, Colloq slot,
             pigeon-hole:  Humphrey has finally found a niche for himself
             working as a tax inspector.

   nick      n.  1 cut, notch, chip, gouge, gash, scratch, dent, indentation,
             flaw, mark, blemish, defect:  Be careful of that nick in the rim
             of the glass.  2 jail or Brit also gaol; police station:  The
             police took him to the nick to help them with their inquiries.

             --v.  3 steal, purloin, take, appropriate, make off with, Colloq
             pinch:  Who nicked my biro?  4 arrest, nab, take in, Colloq
             collar:  Alan was nicked for possession of marijuana.  5 nick
             off. depart, go or run off or away, take off, take to one's
             heels, show a clean pair of heels, beat a (hasty) retreat,
             Colloq scarper, make tracks, beat it:  The cops were coming so I
             nicked off.

   nickname  n.  1 pet name, sobriquet, epithet, agnomen, Colloq moniker or
             monicker, handle:  Her real name is Josephine, but her nickname
             is Dusty.  2 diminutive:  A common nickname for Terence is
             Terry.

   nifty     adj.  1 smart, stylish, modish, chic, spruce:  I borrowed a
             nifty outfit from Grandma for the flapper's costume ball. 2
             healthy, in good form, spry, energetic, agile, quick:  I'm not
             as nifty as I was in 1950.  3 excellent, neat, great, splendid,
             fine, clever, skilful, apt, suitable:  Having a picnic was a
             nifty idea. That was as nifty a bit of bargaining as I 've ever
             seen. 4 satisfactory, satisfying, good, profitable, substantial,
             considerable:  He made a nifty profit on the sale of his house
             in Chelsea.

   niggle    v.  find fault, nag, carp, fuss, cavil, criticize; complain,
             Colloq grouse, Slang bitch, US kvetch:  I do wish she would stop
             niggling when we cannot do anything about the situation.

   niggling  adj.  1 irritating, worrying, worrisome, irksome, vexing,
             vexatious, annoying, troublesome:  There are a few niggling
             matters that I must see my accountant about. 2 petty, nugatory,
             trifling, trivial, fussy, insignificant, unimportant,
             inconsequential, frivolous, Colloq piddling, nit-picking, US and
             Canadian picayune:  Bill always ignores the core of a problem
             and occupies himself with the niggling details.

   night     n.  1 (Stygian or Cimmerian) dark or darkness or blackness or
             gloom; night-time, shades of night, Formal tenebrosity or
             tenebrousness or tenebriousness:  The strange creature slunk off
             into the night.  2 nightfall, gloaming, twilight, dusk,
             eventide, evening, evensong, edge of night, sunset, sundown, end
             of day, vespers:  When night comes, one can hear the frogs
             calling from the pond.  3 night and day. all the time,
             continually, incessantly, unceasingly, continuously, unendingly,
             endlessly, round-the-clock, ceaselessly, non-stop:  Those
             animals keep up their caterwauling night and day.

   nightly   adj.  1 every night, each night, each and every night, night
             after night:  The watchman does his nightly rounds.  2
             night-time, nocturnal, bedtime:  A nightly glass of warm milk
             promotes sound sleep.

             --adv.  3 every night, each night, nights, after dark, after
             sunset; nocturnally:  The bird sings nightly outside my window.

   nightmarish
             adj.  frightening, terrifying, alarming, horrific, horrible,
             dreadful, awful, ghastly, dismaying, agonizing, worrisome,
             exasperating, frustrating, Kafkaesque, Colloq creepy, scary:
             Dealing with officialdom can be a nightmarish experience when
             abroad.

   nil       n.  nothing, zero, nought or naught, aught or ought, Tennis,
             table tennis, etc. love, Cricket duck, US goose-egg, Slang US
             zip:  Oxford United: 4; Queens Park Rangers: Nil.

   nimble    adj.  1 agile, lively, active, light, lithe, limber, spry,
             sprightly, brisk, smart, energetic, rapid, quick, swift, adroit,
             deft, dexterous; nimble-fingered; nimble-footed:  She's as
             nimble as a cat on a hot tin roof.  2 agile, alert, acute,
             nimble-witted, quick-witted, ready-witted, intelligent, keen,
             sharp; smart, brilliant, sparkling, scintillating, coruscating:
             Despite his inability to make decisions, Desmond has quite a
             nimble mind.

   nip°      v.  1 bite, nibble; pinch, snip, clip, cut, snap, tweak, twitch,
             trim, lop, crop, shear; grip, squeeze:  The dog nipped the
             postman's ankle. Nip off the suckers to promote healthy growth
             of the tomatoes. 2 nip in the bud. stop, arrest, check, thwart,
             frustrate, stymie, forestall; quash, squelch, suppress,
             extinguish, put down:  The revolt of the army officers was
             nipped in the bud.

             --n.  3 bite, nibble, morsel, pinch, snip:  The deer had taken
             nips off the tips of the shrubbery.  4 chill, coldness, iciness,
             sharpness, tang, bite:  There's a definite wintry nip in the air
             tonight.

   nipэ      n.  taste, drop, sip, soup‡on, portion, swallow, gulp, mouthful,
             finger, Brit peg, tot, draught, Scots dram, US draft, Colloq
             snort, shot:  I had a few nips of brandy to ward off the cold.

14.4 nobility...
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   nobility  n.  1 nobleness, dignity, grandeur, illustriousness, greatness,
             glory, influence, authority, leadership, distinction, probity,
             integrity, excellence, goodness, character, rectitude,
             righteousness, ethics, honesty, honourableness, decency,
             justness, high-mindedness, magnanimity, prestige, loftiness,
             primacy, significance:  The man's nobility was evident from his
             mien and bearing.  2 rank, position, class, birth, blue blood:
             Their nobility is recognized only at court and in fashionable
             society. 3 the nobility. the gentry, the ‚lite, the aristocracy,
             Colloq the upper crust, the ruling class(es), the Establishment,
             US the Four Hundred:  With a name like Hohenzollern, her family
             must be from the European nobility.

   noble     n.  1 nobleman, noblewoman, aristocrat, patrician, lord, lady,
             peer; gentleman, gentlewoman, Colloq blue blood:  The nobles
             united and forced King John to sign the Magna Carta.

             --adj.  2 high-born, high-class, upper-class, aristocratic,
             titled, high-ranking, lordly, patrician, Colloq blue-blood(ed):
             She came from a noble Austrian family.  3 dignified, eminent,
             distinguished, august, grand, lofty, elevated, illustrious,
             prestigious, pre-eminent, noted, honoured, esteemed, celebrated,
             renowned, acclaimed, respected, venerated:  The noble Knights of
             the Round Table have become legend throughout the world. 4
             upright, righteous, honourable, honest, virtuous, incorruptible,
             chivalrous, staunch, steadfast, true, loyal, faithful,
             trustworthy, true, principled, moral, good, decent,
             self-sacrificing, magnanimous, generous:  The qualities that
             make a noble friend make a formidable enemy.  5 splendid,
             magnificent, imposing, impressive, stately, exquisite, sublime,
             grand, striking, stunning, superb, admirable, elegant, rich,
             sumptuous, luxurious:  The Taj Mahal is probably one of the
             noblest works of man.

   nobody    pron.  1 no one, not anyone, no person:  We had to wait because
             nobody was in the shop when we entered.

             --n.  2 nonentity, unknown, zero, cipher, Colloq nothing:
             Overnight, Tony went from being a celebrity to being a nobody.

   nod       v.  1 greet, acknowledge, recognize:  The maЊtre d'h“tel nodded
             to me as I entered the restaurant.  2 say yes; consent, assent,
             agree, concur, acquiesce:  Asked if she had seen Nick, the
             barmaid nodded. I asked permission to leave the room and the
             teacher nodded. 3 doze (off), nap, drowse, drop off, fall
             asleep:  Exhausted travellers nodded in their chairs waiting for
             their flights to be announced. 4 slip (up), err, make a mistake,
             be mistaken or wrong; be careless or negligent or lax or
             inattentive:  Sometimes, even Homer nods.

             --n.  5 signal, sign, cue, indication, gesture:  I saw him give
             a nod to the barber, who suddenly held a cutthroat razor to my
             throat. 6 approval; consent, acquiescence, concurrence, assent,
             agreement, Colloq OK or okay:  The company has given me the nod
             to open an office in Acapulco.

   nodding   adj.  casual, slight, superficial, distant; incomplete:  I know
             Graham slightly - he's a nodding acquaintance. It was clear that
             the violinist had only a nodding acquaintance with Mozart's
             concerto.

   noise     n.  1 sound, clamour, crash, clap, clash, clangour, din,
             thunder, thundering, rumble, rumbling, outcry, hubbub, uproar,
             hullabaloo, racket, charivari or US and Canadian also shivaree,
             rattle, caterwauling, rumpus, blare, blast, blasting, bawling,
             babel; commotion, bedlam, fracas, tumult, pandemonium, turmoil;
             discordance, dissonance, cacophony; Archaic alarms or alarums
             and excursions, Colloq ruckus, ruction, ballyhoo:  I couldn't
             sleep because of the unbearable noise from the party next door.
             You may call acid rock music, but she calls it noise. 2 sound,
             disturbance:  Did you just hear that strange noise? It's only
             the noise of the crickets.

             --v.  3 Often, noise about or around. circulate, spread, rumour,
             bruit (about):  It is being noised about that John and Marsha
             are getting a divorce.

   noiseless adj.  muted, quiet, soft, hushed, muffled, deadened, dampened,
             damped; silent, mute, still, inaudible, soundless:  We watched
             the noiseless boats gliding past.

   noisy     adj.  loud, deafening, ear-splitting, jarring, grating, harsh,
             piercing, shrill, discordant, unmusical, dissonant, cacophonous
             or cacophonic, resounding, clarion, clamorous, clangorous,
             thunderous, uproarious, blaring, blasting, obstreperous,
             vociferous, boisterous, tumultuous, riotous:  I could hear
             nothing over the noisy aeroplane engines. When she arose to
             speak, the noisy crowd fell silent.

   nominal   adj.  1 titular, in name only, formal, pretended, so-called,
             self-styled, soi-disant, professed, purported, supposed,
             would-be, representational, represented, supposititious;
             proposed, propositional; puppet:  Elliot is the nominal
             chairman, but Foster actually runs the company.  2
             insignificant, trivial, trifling, minor, minuscule, tiny, small,
             insubstantial, minimal, inconsiderable, token:  We charge a
             nominal fee for the analysis if you refuse our recommendation.

   nominate  v.  choose, select, name, appoint, designate, suggest, offer,
             submit, recommend, propose, present, put up or forward; forward;
             Formal put forth:  Baker has been nominated for the presidency.

   nominee   n.  candidate, office-seeker, designee, selectee, appointee,
             assignee:  We must choose a nominee to run in the next election.

   non-aligned
             adj.  uncommitted, non-allied, non-affiliated, unaligned,
             unaffiliated, unallied; neutral, impartial:  There are several
             non-aligned nations that remain independent of the influence of
             the superpowers.

   non-believer
             n.  unbeliever, disbeliever, cynic, doubting Thomas, doubter,
             sceptic, freethinker, agnostic, atheist, nullifidian; infidel,
             heathen, pagan:  During his reign, thousands of non-believers
             were put to the sword.

   nonchalant
             adj.  cool, unexcited, unexcitable, unperturbed, imperturbable,
             undisturbed, untroubled, unflappable, unruffled, dispassionate,
             unemotional, detached, distant, unconcerned, indifferent,
             pococurante, insouciant, uninterested, aloof, blas‚, offhand,
             calm, collected, composed, easygoing, free and easy,
             happy-go-lucky, casual, relaxed, at ease; unenthusiastic,
             apathetic; Colloq laid-back, together:  How can you be so
             nonchalant about important issues that affect all our lives?!

   noncommittal
             adj.  wary, cautious, careful, gingerly, guarded, (playing it)
             safe, circumspect, watchful, prudent, canny, tentative, on
             guard, reserved, cool; precautionary or precautional,
             precautious; Colloq playing it cool, playing it safe, playing it
             or one's cards close to the chest:  The company is still
             noncommittal about the take-over of the American company.

   non-completion
             n.  non-fulfilment, unfulfilment, non-performance,
             incompleteness, deficiency:  We regret the non-completion of the
             work on your house and will refund in full the amount already
             paid.

   non-compliance
             n.  disobedience, nonconformity, non-observance, disregard,
             disregarding, failure, non-cooperation, uncooperativeness,
             unresponsiveness, rejection, refusal, denial:  If you fail to
             provide the records requested by the tax inspector, you can be
             charged with non-compliance.

   nonconformist
             n.  1 nonconformer, renegade, maverick, rebel, radical,
             individualist, heretic, dissenter, dissident, iconoclast, loner,
             exception, anomaly:  In the 1960s, Alastair counted himself
             among the nonconformists who wore unconventional clothes and
             flouted conventional behaviour.

             --adj.  2 nonconforming, renegade, maverick, rebellious,
             radical, individualist(ic), heretical, dissentient, dissident,
             iconoclastic:  Suffragists were ridiculed for their
             nonconformist ideas.

   nondescript
             adj.  indescribable, unclassifiable, unclassified, ordinary,
             common-or-garden variety, common, commonplace, unremarkable,
             colourless, drab, everyday, bland, uninteresting, insipid,
             characterless, undistinctive, unexceptional:  He was wearing
             nondescript clothing and blended into the crowd.

   none      pron.  no one, not anyone, nobody, no person; not one; not any;
             nil:  Of all the people I met, none impressed me more than
             Kathy. I'd give you a sweet if I had one, but I have none. I'd
             even give you money, but I have none.

   non-essential
             adj.  1 non-vital, unessential, unneeded, unnecessary, needless,
             inconsequential, insignificant, unimportant, superfluous,
             dispensable, expendable, gratuitous, uncalled-for, extraneous,
             peripheral, extra, de trop, adventitious, additional,
             supplemental, adscititious, redundant, accessory, subordinate,
             secondary, subsidiary:  The non-essential industries were
             converted to the war effort during the 1940s.

             --n.  2 unessential, inessential, nonentity, cipher, zero,
             nobody; extra, supernumerary, spear-carrier, Colloq nothing,
             Slang US nebbish:  She used him as a lackey, a non-essential
             whom she could dispose of at will.

   nonetheless
             adv.  See nevertheless, above.

   non-event n.  anticlimax, Colloq non-starter, lead balloon, dud, Brit damp
             squib:  Jeremy's party turned out to be the non-event of the
             year.

   non-existent
             adj.  unreal, imaginary, imagined, fictional, fictive, fanciful,
             fancied, mythical, fabulous, fabled, illusory, chimerical,
             delusive:  Although the entire Graeco-Roman pantheon became
             non-existent overnight, its gods and goddesses continue to
             pervade our culture.

   non-flammable
             adj.  non-combustible, incombustible, non-inflammable,
             unburnable; fire-retardant:  The government recently passed
             regulations requiring that non-flammable materials be used in
             upholstered furniture.

   no-nonsense
             adj.  serious, unfrivolous, businesslike, practical,
             non-trivial, untrivial:  Customs officials take a no-nonsense
             approach to drug trafficking.

   nonpareil n.  paragon, model, standard, ne plus ultra, exemplar, ideal,
             Literary nonsuch or nonesuch, Colloq oner, one in a million,
             Brit one-off:  Annabelle was a nonpareil among the artists of
             her day.

   non-partisan
             adj.  1 non-partizan, non-aligned, unaligned, unaffiliated,
             independent, non-committed, uncommitted, neutral, uninvolved,
             free, (sitting) on the fence:  Choose between non-partisan and
             coalition candidates.  2 impartial, even-handed, fair, just,
             objective, unbiased, unprejudiced, equitable, dispassionate,
             disinterested:  One could not find a more non-partisan judge
             than Sir Ronald.

             --n.  3 independent, neutral, mugwump:  I am a non-partisan on
             the subject of privatization of public utilities.

   nonplus   v.  confound, perplex, puzzle, confuse, dismay, baffle, stop,
             check, stun, shock, dumbfound or dumfound, take aback, astonish,
             astound, US faze, Colloq bring up short, flummox, stump:  She
             was nonplussed to learn that Simpson had been arrested.

   non-productive
             adj.  1 unproductive, barren, sterile, infertile, unfertile,
             unfruitful, infecund:  Non-productive land was left
             uncultivated.  2 ineffectual, bootless, ineffective,
             impractical, unavailing, pointless, useless, worthless,
             wasteful, time-consuming, time-wasting:  Executives should spend
             more time working and less in non-productive meetings discussing
             the work to be done.

   nonsense  n.  1 rubbish, drivel, gibberish, gobbledegook or gobbledygook,
             twaddle, trash, babble, balderdash, moonshine, bombast, fustian,
             rodomontade, puffery, flummery, blather or blether, bunkum,
             poppycock, stuff and nonsense, double-talk, jargon, mumbo-jumbo,
             jabberwocky, cackle, gas, palaver, Colloq bunk, piffle, rot,
             bosh, eyewash, hogwash, malarkey, bilge (water), boloney or
             baloney, claptrap, hot air, Brit tosh, Old-fashioned Brit
             gammon, waffle, US apple-sauce, horse feathers, garbage, bushwa;
             Slang crap, tripe, bull, hooey, double Dutch, Taboo slang
             bullshit, horseshit, Brit (a load of old) cobblers:  Watson's
             speech on the benefits of tobacco was unmitigated nonsense.  2
             mischief, clowning, antics, capering, horseplay, pranks, tricks,
             jokes, silliness, foolishness, inanity, frivolity, tomfoolery,
             joking, jesting, waggishness, buffoonery, shenanigans, Colloq
             monkey business, Brit monkey tricks, US monkeyshines:  Keep up
             this nonsense and you'll get into a lot of trouble!

   nonsensical
             adj.  senseless, meaningless, absurd, ridiculous, ludicrous,
             laughable, preposterous, irrational, warped, askew, crazy, mad,
             silly, foolish, hare-brained, asinine, idiotic, moronic,
             imbecilic, stupid, dumb, Colloq nutty, screwy, cock-eyed, fool,
             screwball, Slang loony:  What is your nonsensical excuse for
             being late this time?

   non-stop  adj.  1 uninterrupted, continuous, unbroken, direct:  Is this a
             non-stop flight to New York?  2 unending, endless, interminable,
             unceasing, ceaseless, continual, continuous, uninterrupted,
             unbroken, persistent, relentless, constant, unremitting, steady,
             round-the-clock, ongoing, continuing, unhesitating, unfaltering,
             tireless,; regular, habitual:  I told my neighbour that his
             non-stop rock 'n' roll music was driving me mad.

             --adv.  3 unendingly, endlessly, interminably, unceasingly,
             ceaselessly, continually, continuously, uninterruptedly,
             persistently, relentlessly, constantly, unremittingly, steadily,
             round-the-clock, day in and day out, tirelessly; regularly,
             habitually:  He continues to play his hi-fi non-stop.

   nook      n.  1 cranny, recess, niche, alcove, corner, cavity, crevice,
             crack, opening:  Flowers grew from the nooks in the wall.  2
             retreat, hide-out, hideaway, nest; inglenook:  I curled up with
             a book in my nook next to the fireplace.

   noon      n.  twelve o'clock (noon), midday, 1200 hours, noontime, high
             noon, Archaic noontide; noonday:  We sit down to lunch promptly
             at noon. The noon sun is terribly hot in the tropics.

   norm      n.  1 usual, average, mean, normal:  The norm for the day is 12
             degrees Celsius.  2 model, standard, type, pattern, criterion,
             rule, measure, gauge, yardstick, benchmark:  That style of
             window became the norm for many years.

   normal    adj.  1 standard, regular, average, conventional, usual,
             run-of-the-mill, ordinary, routine, universal, general, common,
             customary, natural, typical, conformist, orthodox; healthy:  If
             living in this mess seems normal to you, we clearly have
             different standards. His temperature and pulse are normal. 2
             sane, stable, rational, reasonable, well-adjusted:  After he had
             set fire to his school, Julian's parents began to wonder if he
             was quite normal.

   normalize v.  regularize, standardize, regulate, control; conform:  The
             program is directed at normalizing the codes used in keyboarding
             text.

   nosy      adj.  nosey, curious, inquisitive, prying, meddlesome, spying,
             peeping, eavesdropping, Colloq snooping, snoopy:  Mind your own
             business and don't be so nosy.

   notable   adj.  1 noteworthy, noted, famous, famed, well-known, renowned,
             illustrious, important, prominent, eminent, outstanding, great,
             distinguished, celebrated, acclaimed:  Many notable people
             attended my college.  2 remarkable, different, distinctive,
             singular, unusual, uncommon, pre-eminent, peerless, matchless,
             unmatched, unequalled, unparalleled, extraordinary, conspicuous,
             outstanding, memorable, unforgettable, striking:  She enjoyed a
             notable reputation as a cellist. Last night's notable
             performance was enjoyed by a capacity audience.

             --n.  3 dignitary, personage, worthy, VIP; celebrity, luminary,
             Colloq (big) name, big shot:  Many notables attended the charity
             ball.

   notably   adv.  1 particularly, especially, markedly, noticeably,
             signally, distinctly, remarkably, unusually, uncommonly,
             outstandingly, conspicuously, clearly, obviously, evidently,
             manifestly, specifically, distinctly, curiously, oddly,
             uniquely, strangely, strikingly, shockingly, surprisingly,
             stunningly:  In the temperate zones, the seasons vary notably in
             length.  2 meaningfully, significantly, importantly,
             prominently:  The viruses changed in notably different ways.

   notation  n.  1 note, memorandum, jotting, record, reminder, minute(s),
             abstract, Colloq memo:  I shall make a notation of that in my
             diary.  2 symbols, signs, code, characters, symbolism:  In
             musical notation, a minim represents two beats.

   notch     n.  1 nick, cut, dent, indentation, groove, cleft, score, mark,
             gouge, gash:  For every man he killed, the gunfighter cut a
             notch in the barrel of his gun. 2 step, grade, level, rung, peg,
             degree, stage, gradation:  Gillian's promotion moves her up
             another notch towards the chairmanship.

             --v.  3 nick, cut, dent, indent, groove, score, mark, gash,
             gouge:  You notch the end of the arrow to admit the bowstring.
             4 notch up. gain, win, accomplish, achieve, score, register,
             mark (up):  The All-India cricket team has notched up another
             win.

   notched   adj.  serrate(d), sawtooth(ed), crenellate(d), crenate,
             serriform, pinked, scalloped, zigzag, toothed, dentate,
             denticulate(d), dentiform:  The flower has notched yellow
             petals. The vase was decorated with a notched pattern.

   note      n.  1 See notation, 1, above.  2 message, letter, communication,
             (piece of) correspondence, memorandum, epistle, postcard or
             (postal) card, fan letter, love-letter, billet doux,
             bread-and-butter letter, word, line, thank-you note, Colloq
             memo, US old-fashioned mash note:  She sent Rob a note only last
             week asking him to attend the meeting.  3 comment, commentary,
             remark, observation, explanation, annotation, footnote,
             side-note, marginalia (pl.), gloss, critique, criticism,
             Literary scholium, exegesis, eisegesis, Technical shoulder-note:
             Her notes on insect behaviour are of great interest.  4
             banknote, money, bill, currency, treasury note; promissory note,
             demand note, bill of exchange, letter of credit, (bank) draft,
             note of hand; Colloq folding money:  I found a packet of notes
             dropped by the bank robbers. The bank is holding my note for
             њ10,000. 5 theme, characteristic, motif, element, quality, mood,
             tone, tenor:  There is a note of angry frustration that runs
             through her writing.  6 signal, cue, intimation, hint, inkling,
             suspicion, clue, suggestion, idea, tip, Slang tip-off:  Her
             greeting, though warm, contained a note of suspicion. On that
             note, I decided to leave. 7 heed, attention, notice, regard,
             respect, thought, Colloq US mind:  Note of the prosecutor's
             objection to that line of questioning has been taken. 8 mark,
             consequence, substance, importance, moment, weight, distinction,
             merit, prestige, (high) rank or standing, eminence, prominence,
             repute, reputation, renown:  People of note have been
             entertained at our table.  9 tone, sound; key:  He knows the
             music but gets the notes wrong.  10 notes. jottings,
             impressions, record(s), report, (thumbnail) sketch, (rough)
             draft, outline, synopsis:  The entire account is based on the
             notes she made during the trial.

             --v.  11 notice, observe, perceive, see, mark, think about, give
             thought to, consider, contemplate, study, pay attention to,
             attend to; look into, investigate, check out:  Have you ever
             noted how people try to avoid you because of your bad temper?
             Note how quickly the days seem to grow shorter towards the end
             of summer. A detective has been assigned to note every move the
             suspect makes. 12 record, register, write down, put or set down,
             put on record, jot down, put in writing, chronicle:  The traffic
             warden noted down the number-plate of the car.  13 call
             attention to, remark on or about, mention, report, touch on,
             comment on or about:  The report failed to note the
             disappearance of the murder weapon.

   noted     adj.  respected, eminent, distinguished, illustrious, esteemed,
             acclaimed; well-known, famous, famed, prominent, celebrated,
             notable, popular; notorious:  We are pleased to welcome the
             noted violinist, David Popov. Was it his aunt or his mother who
             ran the noted house of ill repute near Brighton?

   noteworthy
             adj.  notable, exceptional, extraordinary, out of the ordinary,
             unusual, rare, uncommon, singular, unique, different:  Miss
             Byrne has made many a noteworthy contribution to our knowledge
             of local Roman sites.

   nothing   n.  1 naught or nought, nothing at all or whatsoever, no thing,
             not anything, Taboo slang Brit bugger-all, (sweet) Fanny Adams
             or F.A., SFA:  Nothing that you tell me can be held against you
             in court. You may think it important, but I tell you it is
             nothing. 2 cipher, zero, nobody, nonentity:  If it weren't for
             her, he would be nothing.  3 trifle, bagatelle, Colloq peanuts:
             A million is nothing to him.

   notice    v.  1 note, take or make note (of), take notice (of), pay or
             give attention to, attend (to), heed, take heed (of), give heed
             to, mark, remark, mind, observe, perceive, see:  Notice how
             quickly he retracted his remarks when challenged. I waved to
             them, but they didn't notice me. 2 mind, observe, perceive,
             discern, see, detect, make out, identify, recognize, Colloq
             spot:  I noticed signs of illness when I visited her.

             --n.  3 attention, awareness, consciousness, perception,
             observation, cognizance:  Let me bring to your notice the second
             paragraph on page six.  4 regard, consideration, respect,
             observation, attention, note, heed:  They have published many
             books worthy of notice. He considers matters of money beneath
             his notice. 5 notification, announcement, information, advice;
             warning, intimation:  A notice showing the currency exchange
             rates is posted in the bank. The company let Corbett go without
             notice. 6 criticism, critique, review, comment, commentary:  The
             play has enjoyed excellent notices in the London newspapers.  7
             give notice. warn, admonish, notify, announce, advise, inform:
             British Rail gave notice of a curtailment of service to this
             station.  Barry gave notice today of his resignation.

   noticeable
             adj.  1 discernible, perceivable, observable, perceptible,
             recognizable, distinguishable, visible, palpable, manifest,
             distinct, evident, clear, clear-cut, conspicuous, obvious;
             patent, unmistakable or unmistakeable, undisguised, unconcealed:
             Is the scratch noticeable? Wrinkles around the eyes are one of
             the first noticeable signs of ageing. 2 noteworthy, notable,
             significant, signal, remarkable, important, singular,
             exceptional, pronounced, distinct, especial, considerable,
             major:  After the reprimand, there was a noticeable improvement
             in his work.

   notify    v.  1 inform, tell, advise, alert, apprise, warn:  She notified
             us that she might come in late today. They wrote to notify
             shareholders of the new share offer. 2 announce, publish,
             declare, proclaim, give notice of; intimate, hint:  The arrival
             of the first salmon notified to us the change of season.

   notion    n.  1 idea, thought, concept, conception, image, impression,
             general idea, (mental) picture, inkling:  She has a pretty good
             notion of who did it. I haven't the slightest notion of what you
             are talking about. 2 fancy, whim, crotchet, whimsy, caprice,
             impulse, inclination, vagary, conceit, quirk, kink:  She
             suddenly took a notion to fly to New York and left.

   notoriety n.  notoriousness, disrepute, dishonour, disgrace, infamy,
             shame, discredit, scandal, stain, blot, obloquy, ignominy,
             opprobrium:  The notoriety attending his latest escapades
             displeased the prime minister.

   notorious adj.  1 disreputable, dishonourable, disgraceful, infamous,
             shameful, shaming, embarrassing, discreditable, scandalous,
             naughty, flagrant, ignominious, opprobrious:  Charles was yet
             again seen in public with a notorious arms dealer.  2
             celebrated, renowned, famous, well-known, fabled, legendary,
             memorable:  Annie was notorious for riding her horse to victory
             in every event.

   notwithstanding
             adv.  1 nevertheless, nonetheless, despite that, in spite of
             that, yet, anyway:  He was refused permission to go but he left
             notwithstanding.

             --prep.  2 despite, in spite of, regardless of, in the face of,
             against:  Notwithstanding his mother's objections, George
             married Marsha.

             --conj.  3 although, though, even though, despite the fact that:
             The product was almost totally unknown, notwithstanding it had
             been on the market for years.

   nourish   v.  1 feed, sustain, support, maintain, keep, provide for, care
             for, take care of, look after, nurture, nurse:  The child seems
             to be thriving and well nourished.  2 foster, cherish, nurse,
             maintain, harbour, keep, nurture, sustain:  Iago nourished a
             terrible hatred for Othello.  3 strengthen, fortify, encourage,
             promote, stimulate, cultivate, help, advance, aid:  These
             malcontents continue to nourish trouble in the party ranks.

   nourishment
             n.  food, sustenance, nutriment, nutrition, victuals:  You must
             take nourishment to maintain your strength.

   novel     adj.  1 new, unusual, unfamiliar, unconventional, fresh,
             different, original, creative; untested, untried:  I have a
             novel idea for the design of an ultralight aircraft.

             --n.  2 story, tale, narrative, romance; novella, novelette,
             best-seller, Colloq blockbuster:  The members of our company
             board behave like characters out of a novel.

   novelty   n.  1 originality, newness, uniqueness, freshness,
             innovativeness:  We are enthusiastic about the novelty of the
             new sales campaign.  2 gimmick, gimcrack, trifle, gewgaw,
             bauble, knick-knack, toy, trinket, ornament, plaything,
             Brummagem, kickshaw:  New subscribers receive as a premium some
             novelty, like a ball-point pen or a cheap clock.

   novice    n.  beginner, neophyte, newcomer, proselyte, tiro or tyro,
             noviciate or novitiate, learner, amateur, initiate, apprentice,
             trainee, probationer, fledgling or Brit also fledgeling, US
             freshman, Colloq greenhorn, rookie:  She is a mere novice at
             parachuting.

   now       adv.  1 at present, just now, right now, at the present time or
             moment, at this (very) moment or minute or second or instant:
             He's in the shower and cannot come to the phone now.  2 these
             days, nowadays, today, in these times, at the moment, in this
             day and age, under or in the present circumstances or
             conditions, in the present climate, things being what they are,
             contemporarily, any more, any longer; for the time being, for
             the nonce:  What makes you say that the minimum wage is enough
             to live on now? Selling now might bring the highest price. 3 at
             once, immediately, right away, without delay, instantly,
             promptly, Chiefly law instanter, Chiefly Brit straight away:  I
             want you here now - not in five minutes, but now!  4 now and
             then or again. occasionally, from time to time, at times, on
             occasion, sometimes, sporadically, once in a while, every now
             and then or again, randomly, intermittently; infrequently,
             seldom, rarely, once in a blue moon:  There was a power cut now
             and then. He visits his mother only now and then.

             --adj.  5 contemporary, up to date, modern, stylish,
             fashionable, trendy, Colloq in, with it:  Advertisers must
             appeal to the yuppies of the now generation.

   nowadays  adv.  See now, 2, above.

14.5 nub...
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   nub       n.  1 projection, protuberance, knob, boss, lump, bump, knop,
             protrusion, bulge, node, knot; excrescence, swelling,
             tumescence:  Press the small nub on the side to open the door.
             2 essence, core, heart, nucleus, crux, point, gist, pith,
             kernel, nucleus, meat, (sum and) substance, main issue,
             gravamen:  Let's get to the nub of the argument.

   nuclear   adj.  atomic:  He joined the protest march against nuclear
             weapons.

   nucleus   n.  core, heart, centre, kernel, pith, focus, nub:  We already
             have the nucleus of a very good team. The market square was the
             nucleus around which many towns were built.

   nude      adj.  unclothed, undressed, uncovered, au naturel, bare, naked,
             in the nude, stark naked, undraped, without a stitch (on),
             Colloq in the buff, in the altogether, in one's birthday suit,
             Brit starkers, Brit and Australian in the nuddy:  A nude man
             streaked across the football pitch.

   nudge     v.  1 jog, poke, elbow, jab, dig, bump, prompt, shove; prod,
             push, US encourage:  I had to nudge him to stay awake for the
             film's thrilling climax.

             --n.  2 jog, poke, elbow, jab, dig, bump, shove; prod, push,
             encouragement:  Nigel just needs a nudge in the right direction.

   nuisance  n.  1 annoyance, inconvenience, trial, ordeal, burden,
             irritation, irritant, thorn in the flesh or side, difficulty,
             bother, US bur under the saddle, Colloq pain (in the neck or
             rear), headache, hassle, Slang US and Canadian pain in the butt,
             Taboo slang pain in the Brit arse, or US ass:  Having to paint
             the room again was a terrible nuisance.  2 bore, pest, nag,
             tease, tormentor or tormenter:  James has made a nuisance of
             himself by telephoning every fifteen minutes.

   numb      adj.  1 numbed, benumbed, insensible, insensate, dead, deadened,
             without feeling, sensationless, senseless; asleep:  My feet are
             numb from the cold.

             --v.  2 benumb, anaesthetize, drug, deaden, dull, freeze,
             paralyse, immobilize, stun:  The doctor numbed my hand before
             removing the wart. Fear numbed her, and she felt nothing as the
             monster approached.

   number    n.  1 numeral, integer, figure, digit:  The columns of numbers
             were entered in a neat hand.  2 few, handful, crowd, slew, gang,
             bunch, party, bevy, covey, troop, company, platoon, swarm,
             horde, multitude, mob, host, army, mass, hundred, thousand,
             million, billion; several, many, numbers, legions, US and
             Canadian slew(s) or slue(s), Colloq loads, tons:  A number of
             people attended the meeting. An enormous number of viruses could
             fit on the head of a pin. 3 issue; edition, copy:  The fourth
             number of the quarterly is published at the end of the year.

             --v.  4 count, enumerate, compute, calculate, tally, figure
             (up), add (up), include, total, tot (up), reckon, sum (up):  Who
             can number the stars?

   numberless
             adj.  uncountable, uncounted, countless, innumerable,
             incalculable, immeasurable, numerous, untold, myriad, infinite:
             Although seemingly numberless, the number of grains of sand in
             the universe is calculable.

   nuptial   adj.  bridal, matrimonial, wedding, spousal, wedded, marital;
             connubial, conjugal, Literary hymeneal:  The nuptial
             arrangements have been made.

   nurse     n.  1 angel of mercy, Florence Nightingale, Brit sister:  I
             awoke to see two nurses bending over me.

             --v.  2 care for, look after, tend, attend, minister to, treat;
             nurture, foster, coddle, baby, pamper, cherish, preserve, keep
             alive, cultivate, develop:  During his illness, she nursed him
             night and day. We nursed the company along through the first
             year. 3 wet-nurse, suckle, breast-feed, nourish:  Nursing
             mothers must be careful about what they eat.  4 preserve,
             harbour, keep alive, nurture, foster:  She has nursed a grudge
             against him for ten years.

   nutritious
             adj.  healthful, healthy, nutritive, wholesome, life-giving,
             beneficial, salutary, nourishing, alimentary, nutrimental:  Be
             sure you eat a nutritious breakfast every day.

15.0 O
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15.1 oar...
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   oar       n.  1 paddle, scull:  The ancient galleys sometimes had six men
             on each oar.  2 oarsman, oarswoman, bencher, sculler, rower,
             paddler:  With Hanson out because of his back, we'll need a new
             oar for tomorrow's race.

   oasis     n.  1 fertile patch, watering-hole:  In the desert, you cannot
             always be sure whether you are looking at an oasis or a mirage.
             2 haven, refuge, (safe) harbour, sanctuary, retreat, asylum,
             resort, sanctum:  We escaped to the cottage, a tiny oasis away
             from the city's frenetic activity.

   oath      n.  1 vow, avowal, pledge, promise, word (of honour), promise,
             plight, guarantee or guaranty, warrant or warranty, (sworn)
             statement, Archaic troth:  She has taken an oath to tell the
             whole truth.  2 curse, profanity, blasphemous language or
             expression or word, imprecation, malediction, swear-word,
             expletive, four-letter word, obscenity, dirty word:  The door
             slammed on his finger and he muttered a foul oath.

15.2 obedience...
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   obedience n.  compliance, dutifulness, observance, respect,
             respectfulness, tractability, conformity or conformance,
             yielding, conformability, adaptability, agreement, agreeability,
             agreeableness, acquiescence, submissiveness, submission,
             subservience, docility, passiveness, passivity:  The abbot
             demanded unquestioning obedience with regard to every rule of
             the monastic order.

   obedient  adj.  compliant, dutiful, duteous, observant, respectful,
             tractable, yielding, conformable, adaptable, agreeable,
             amenable, acquiescent, submissive, subservient, docile, passive,
             timid, biddable, pliant:  Prunella was always an obedient child.
             All matter and energy is obedient to the laws of physics.

   obeisance n.  deference, respect, respectfulness, homage, submission,
             reverence, honour:  As she entered the chamber, she made
             obeisance to the king.

   obese     adj.  fat, overweight, stout, fleshy, gross, corpulent, heavy,
             plump, portly, tubby, pudgy, chubby, paunchy, rotund,
             pot-bellied, Rare abdominous:  I sat down next to an obese
             person who occupied nearly two chairs.

   obesity   n.  corpulence, plumpness, tubbiness, chubbiness, grossness,
             embonpoint, rotundity, portliness, paunchiness, size, bulk,
             weight, avoirdupois:  Risk factors with respect to heart disease
             include smoking, bad diet, obesity, and family history of heart
             disease.

   obey      v.  1 comply (with), agree (to), consent (to), submit (to),
             abide (by), observe, respect, adhere to, follow, conform (to or
             with), acquiesce (to or in), mind, accept, heed, defer to, yield
             (to), knuckle under (to), give way (to), surrender (to), succumb
             (to), give in (to), truckle to, bow to, bend to, take or accept
             orders from:  Unfortunately, Ogilvy has obeyed his baser
             instincts in making the punishment fit the crime. Everything
             must obey the laws of nature.  Harold obeys Millie's slightest
             whim. 2 discharge, execute, effect, carry out, fulfil, meet,
             satisfy, do, perform; serve, act:  We obeyed the colonel's
             orders to the letter. It is your function to command, mine to
             obey.

   obituary  n.  necrology, death notice, eulogy, necrologue, Colloq obit:
             Mark Twain is one of the few people ever to have read his own
             obituary.

   object    n.  1 thing, tangible, item; reality, entity, fact, phenomenon:
             A number of objects lay on the table. Thoughts may be considered
             as objects of the imagination. 2 focus, target, butt, aim,
             destination, quarry, goal:  The object of my affection has
             married someone else.  3 purpose, end, intention, objective,
             reason, intent, idea, goal:  The object of our visit is to ask
             you a few questions.

             --v.  4 protest (to or against), interfere (with), raise
             objections (to), argue (against), oppose, be against, take
             exception (to), disapprove (of), draw the line (at), complain
             (about), remonstrate (over or about), take a stand (against),
             refuse:  I won't object if you want to bring the wine. Would you
             object to rereading that passage? If they ask me, I cannot
             object.

   objection n.  protest, opposition, exception, argument, challenge,
             interference, demur or demurral or demurrer, question, doubt,
             disapproval, interference, complaint, remonstration,
             remonstrance, stand, refusal, dislike, antipathy:  The meeting
             proceeded without further objection from the audience.  If you
             have no objection, I'd like to leave now. The secretary has
             raised an objection to the method of procedure.

   objective adj.  1 fair, impartial, just, judicious, equitable, neutral,
             disinterested, dispassionate, open-handed, open-minded,
             detached, unbiased, unprejudiced, unbigoted, even-handed,
             uncoloured, unjaundiced:  How can you be objective about the
             guilt or innocence of your own child?

             --n.  2 target, goal, object, aim, purpose, end (in view),
             intent, intention, design, aspiration, ambition, hope:  If we
             capture the flag, we shall have gained our objective. My
             objective is to win the pentathlon.

   objectivity
             n.  impartiality, fairness, fair-mindedness, equitableness,
             equitability, even-handedness, neutrality, disinterest,
             detachment, indifference, dispassion:  The jury's objectivity
             was never in doubt.

   obligate  n.  oblige, pledge, commit, bind; require, compel, constrain,
             force:  I feel deeply obligated to her for her kindness to our
             children.  We are obligated to do what we are told.

   obligation
             n.  1 responsibility, duty, charge, burden, onus;
             accountability, liability, trust; demand, requirement,
             compulsion, Literary devoir:  It was Frank's obligation to get
             the children home safely. Civil servants have an obligation to
             serve the people. I could never fulfil all my obligations. 2
             constraint, requirement, contract, promise, pledge, bond,
             agreement, covenant:  The company is under no obligation to
             replace a product because the customer dislikes its colour. I am
             under an obligation to her for introducing us. 3 debt,
             liability:  Denby may be unable to meet all his obligations.

   obligatory
             adj.  required, demanded, necessary, requisite, compulsory,
             mandatory; incumbent; indispensable, essential:  Has she been
             able to meet all the obligatory qualifications?

   oblige    v.  1 accommodate, indulge, favour, serve, please, cater to,
             gratify:  The hotelier obliged us with every luxury he had to
             offer. Please oblige us by keeping your dog on a lead. 2 make,
             require, demand, force, compel, coerce, bind, obligate:  What
             hold has she over you that obliges you to do her housework?

   obliged   adj.  1 thankful, grateful, appreciative, beholden, indebted,
             obligated:  We are deeply obliged to you for lending us your
             car.  2 bound, required, compelled, forced, made, obligated:
             Under the terms of the agreement, I am obliged to repay the debt
             by May.

   obliging  adj.  accommodating, willing, indulgent, gracious, courteous,
             civil, considerate, polite, agreeable, amenable, kind, kindly,
             helpful, friendly, amiable, neighbourly, supportive:  It was
             very obliging of you to look after my cat while I was gone.

   oblique   adj.  1 slanting, slanted, sloping, aslant, inclined, diagonal,
             inclining, angled, angling, canted, canting, banked, banking,
             cambered, crooked, askew, divergent, diverging, tilted, atilt,
             tilting:  The roof joins the wall at an oblique angle.  2 awry,
             devious, roundabout, indirect, circuitous, circumlocutionary,
             evasive, sly, sidelong, offhand, surreptitious, furtive,
             implied, clandestine, underhand(ed), deceitful, devious,
             deceptive, false:  She made some oblique comments about the
             candidate's wife.

   obliterate
             v.  1 erase, expunge, rub out, efface, eradicate, wipe out,
             delete, dele, strike off or out, strike from, rule out,
             eliminate, write off:  After the scandal, that name was
             obliterated from the roll of honour. 2 annihilate, destroy,
             kill, exterminate, wipe out, eliminate, blot out, eradicate,
             extirpate:  The entrance to the cave was completely obliterated
             by the explosion.

   oblivion  n.  1 blankness, blackness, darkness, obscurity, nothingness,
             nihility, anonymity, extinction, non-existence, void, limbo:
             The rock band enjoyed brief fame, then sank into oblivion.  2
             unawareness, obliviousness, forgetfulness, heedlessness,
             disregard, unconsciousness, insensibility:  I sank back into the
             sweet oblivion of deep sleep.

   oblivious adj.  unaware, unconscious, unmindful, disregardful, insensible,
             insensitive, distant, unconcerned, detached, removed, unfeeling,
             abstracted, absent-minded, forgetful, Lethean:  Many are
             completely oblivious to the plight of the starving millions in
             Africa.

   obnoxious adj.  revolting, repulsive, repugnant, disgusting, offensive,
             objectionable, fulsome, noisome, vile, repellent, nauseous,
             nauseating, sickening, foul, noxious, mephitic, unsavoury,
             execrable, abominable, abhorrent, loathsome, detestable,
             hateful, odious, scurvy, base, obscene, despicable, awful,
             terrible, unpalatable, distasteful, unlikeable, unpleasant,
             nasty, Colloq chiefly Brit beastly:  Mary's obnoxious sister
             even has obnoxious table manners.

   obscene   adj.  1 inelegant, improper, rude, impure, unchaste, shameless,
             shameful, indecent, immodest, off colour, indecorous,
             indelicate, risqu‚, vulgar, immoral, degenerate, amoral,
             dissolute, broad, suggestive, erotic, sensual, ribald,
             debauched, wanton, loose, libertine, bawdy, blue, scabrous,
             coarse, dirty, filthy, smutty, pornographic, libidinous, lewd,
             licentious, lecherous, lustful, goatish, carnal, ruttish,
             lascivious, filthy, salacious, prurient, disgusting, offensive,
             repulsive, foul, abominable, vile, loathsome, gross,
             foul-mouthed, scurrilous, scatological, vile, Literary Cyprian,
             Paphian, Fescennine, thersitical:  In the cinema business,
             'adult' and 'obscene' seem to be synonyms.  2 evil, wicked,
             heinous, atrocious, awful, outrageous, repulsive, shocking,
             repellent, obnoxious, off-putting, objectionable, beastly,
             intolerable, insufferable, unpalatable, distasteful, nauseous,
             nauseating, sickening, execrable, despicable, nasty:  The
             obscene monster dashed the brave warriors to the rocks far
             below.

   obscure   adj.  1 dark, unlit, gloomy, sombre, dismal, murky, dusky,
             black, Cimmerian, tenebrous, dim, faint, blurred, veiled,
             shadowy, subfusc, subfuscous, umbral, shady, hazy, foggy,
             befogged, clouded, nebulous, overcast, cloudy:  The traveller's
             lantern was barely seen in the obscure reaches of the wood. 2
             unclear, uncertain, ambiguous, vague, hazy, doubtful, dubious,
             equivocal, indefinite, indistinct, fuzzy, blurred, confused,
             confusing, Delphic, puzzling, enigmatic, perplexing, baffling,
             mystifying, mysterious, cryptic, incomprehensible, unfamiliar,
             foreign, strange:  The sorcerer muttered some obscure words, and
             a golden horse stood prancing before them. 3 secret, concealed,
             hidden, remote, out-of-the-way, inconspicuous, unnoticeable,
             secluded, unnoticed:  The caped figure scurried down the alley
             and disappeared into some obscure doorway. 4 unknown,
             unheard-of, anonymous, unnamed, insignificant, unimportant,
             inconsequential, humble, lowly, mean, inglorious, inconspicuous,
             undistinguished, unnoticed, unsung, minor, little-known:  Though
             extremely popular, the song was written by an obscure composer.
             5 abstruse, arcane, recondite, esoteric, intricate, complex,
             occult, out of the ordinary, unfamiliar, Colloq far-out:  He is
             an authority on some obscure subject like Coptic calligraphy.

             --v.  6 cover, conceal, hide, veil, shroud, cloak, mask, screen,
             disguise, keep from:  Her link with military intelligence was
             obscured from her family.  7 dim, bedim, cloud, becloud, dull,
             shroud, shade, adumbrate, overshadow, darken, obfuscate, block,
             eclipse:  The street lamp was obscured by trees.

   obscurity n.  1 dimness, darkness, gloom, murk, murkiness, duskiness,
             dusk, blackness, faintness, blurriness, shade, shadow, haze,
             fog, cloudiness, nebulousness:  The two of them vanished into
             the obscurity of the night.  2 abstruseness, ambiguousness,
             intricacy, complexity, unintelligibility; mystery, arcanum,
             secret, esoterica (pl.):  Can he truly believe that he has
             fathomed all the obscurities of Scripture? 3 insignificance,
             unimportance, ingloriousness, inconspicuousness, anonymity,
             namelessness, limbo:  After a fleeting surge of popularity, punk
             rock sank into obscurity.

   obsequious
             adj.  low, cringing, toadying, toadyish, sycophantic(al),
             sycophantish, unctuous, truckling, grovelling, crawling,
             fawning, deferential, ingratiating, menial, flattering, servile,
             slavish, subservient, submissive, abject, mealy-mouthed, slimy,
             Colloq boot-licking, Chiefly Brit smarmy, Taboo slang
             brown-nosing, Brit arse-kissing, arse-licking, US ass-licking,
             ass-kissing:  He is surrounded with obsequious followers who
             cater to his every whim.

   observable
             adj.  perceptible, perceivable, noticeable, discernible,
             recognizable, detectable, visible, apparent, distinct, evident,
             manifest, plain, obvious, clear, explicit, transparent, patent,
             tangible, unmistakable or unmistakeable:  A marked change in
             public sentiment became at once observable.

   observance
             n.  1 observation, observing, obedience, obeying, compliance,
             complying, conformity, conforming, adherence, adhering, keeping,
             accordance, regard, recognition, recognizing, respect,
             respecting, heed, heeding, attention:  Observance of the rules
             by everyone makes for a happier community.  2 ceremony,
             celebration, ceremonial, practice, rite, ritual, service,
             performance, form, custom, convention, tradition, formality,
             usage, habit, wont, institution:  Almost all the fine arts
             derived their origin from religious observances.  3 observation,
             examination, inspection, scrutiny, looking, watching:  His
             observance of the passing scene was chronicled in his diary.

   observant adj.  1 watchful, alert, attentive, vigilant, on the lookout, on
             the qui vive, on guard, wide awake, regardful, mindful, aware,
             keen, keen-eyed, sharp-eyed, eagle-eyed, perceptive, sharp,
             shrewd:  Hannay was observant of all who passed him on the way
             to the train.  How very observant of you to spot the man in the
             crowd! 2 Usually, observant of. obedient (to), compliant (with),
             respectful (of), heedful(of), attentive (to or of), conformist
             (to), adherent (to):  One must be always be observant of the
             rules of the road.

   observation
             n.  1 watching, examination, scrutiny, inspection, viewing,
             survey, surveillance; notice, discovery, attention, awareness:
             The police put the house under 24-hour observation. The smuggled
             weapon escaped the guard's observation. 2 comment, remark, note,
             reflection, opinion, sentiment, point of view, impression,
             feeling, commentary, criticism; utterance, word, announcement,
             pronouncement, proclamation, declaration:  She made a number of
             trenchant observations concerning life in Britain today.

   observe   v.  1 obey, abide by, comply with, be heedful of, attend to,
             conform to, regard, keep, follow, adhere to, respect, pay
             attention to:  We observed the prohibition against swimming.  2
             watch, look at, examine, monitor, scrutinize, study, regard,
             view, inspect, pore over, contemplate, consider , Colloq check
             (out or up on), check over, size up, Slang case:  The
             naturalists went to the Arctic to observe the polar bears.  3
             see, mark, notice, look, perceive:  Observe how swiftly the skin
             forms pustules when this substance is applied. 4 Sometimes,
             observe on or upon. comment (on or upon), remark (on or upon),
             mention, say, note, refer (to), make reference to, animadvert on
             or upon or to; state, declare:  It is impolite to observe on
             others' manners. He couldn't help observing to his cell-mate how
             easy it would be to escape. 5 celebrate, keep, solemnize,
             respect, keep holy, mark, commemorate, memorialize, remember,
             recognize:  We always observe the sabbath.

   observer  n.  witness, eyewitness, spectator, viewer, onlooker, beholder,
             watcher, looker-on; non-participant:  UN observers reported that
             the battle was over.

   obsess    v.  haunt, harass, plague, bedevil, torment, take over,
             preoccupy, dominate, control, grip, possess, hold:  He was
             obsessed by the conviction that he could design a successful
             flying machine.

   obsession n.  fixed idea, id‚e fixe, fixation, conviction, preoccupation,
             prepossession, passion, mania, phobia, Colloq hang-up, thing:
             Thoughts of death became his constant obsession.

   obsessive adj.  haunting, harassing, tormenting, dominating, controlling,
             possessing, all-encompassing, passionate, unshakeable or
             unshakable:  She has an obsessive fear of heights.

   obsolescent
             adj.  fading, waning, on the wane, declining, dying, on the way
             out, on the decline, going or passing out of use or fashion or
             style:  Much of yesterday's newest slang is obsolescent today.

   obsolete  adj.  out of date, out of fashion, out-dated, pass‚, out, dead,
             outmoded, old, antiquated, antediluvian, ancient, superannuated,
             dated, archaic, old-fashioned, d‚mod‚; unused, disused,
             discarded, superseded, extinct, Colloq old hat:  The expression
             'tickety-boo' is obsolete. He plays his 78-rpm records on an
             obsolete gramophone.

   obstacle  n.  impediment, hindrance, obstruction, hurdle, hitch, catch,
             snag, stumbling-block, barrier, bar, check:  The obstacles in
             the road prevented our proceeding further. One must often
             overcome many obstacles before achieving success.

   obstinacy n.  obstinateness, stubbornness, doggedness, tenacity,
             persistence or persistency, mulishness, pigheadedness,
             wilfulness, contrariness, perverseness, perversity,
             cantankerousness, recalcitrance, uncooperativeness,
             rebelliousness, contumacy, contumaciousness, refractoriness,
             intractability, intransigence, pertinacity, pertinaciousness,
             obduracy, fixedness, stolidity, inflexibility, firmness, Archaic
             frowardness, Colloq Brit bloody-mindedness:  His obstinacy and
             narrow-mindedness made it impossible to work in any cooperative
             way with him.

   obstinate adj.  stubborn, dogged, tenacious, persistent, mulish, perverse,
             headstrong, pigheaded, single-minded, wilful, strong-willed,
             self-willed, contrary, recalcitrant, uncooperative, rebellious,
             contumacious, refractory, intransigent, pertinacious, obdurate,
             fixed, inflexible, stony, adamant, set, unmoving, immovable,
             inexorable, intractable, unchangeable, resolute, steadfast,
             unyielding, persevering, stiff, rigid, hard, Archaic froward,
             Colloq Brit bloody-minded:  The obstinate man does not hold
             opinions - they hold him.

   obstreperous
             adj.  vociferous, clamorous, noisy, loud, raucous, riotous,
             uproarious, tumultuous, boisterous, rowdy, rumbustious,
             tempestuous, unruly, disorderly, unmanageable, uncontrollable,
             uncontrolled, unrestrained, irrepressible, out of control,
             undisciplined, roisterous, wild, turbulent, Colloq rambunctious,
             Brit mafficking:  The party was getting rough and some of the
             guests a bit too obstreperous.

   obstruct  v.  1 block, bar, check, prevent, stop (up), arrest, halt, clog,
             make impassable; bring to a standstill:  The vein is obstructed
             by a large blood clot. A clogged drain is obstructing the water.
             2 hamper, slow, impede, interfere with, retard, hinder,
             interrupt, delay, stay, stall:  An overturned truck obstructed
             traffic on the motorway.  3 preclude, prevent, debar, block,
             prohibit, forbid, stop, stand in the way of:  They are
             manoeuvring to obstruct her from taking over the company.

   obstruction
             n.  1 obstacle, barrier, bar, check, stumbling-block, hindrance,
             impediment, hurdle, hitch, snag, catch, bottleneck, limitation,
             constraint, restriction:  The fallen trees created an almost
             impassable obstruction.  2 checking, stopping, cessation,
             proscription, forbidding, forbiddance; hindering, impeding,
             limiting, halting, slowing:  The obstruction of the bill's
             passage can be blamed on the Tories.

   obtain    v.  1 get, procure, acquire, come by, come into (the) possession
             of, secure, get hold of or one's hands on, grasp, capture, take
             possession of, seize; buy, purchase:  She has been unable to
             obtain the job she wants. You can obtain that kind of soap at
             the supermarket. 2 earn, gain:  We talked to the manager about
             obtaining an increase in wages.  3 prevail, be in force, be in
             vogue, exist, subsist, have (a) place, be prevalent, be
             established, be customary, apply, be relevant, relate:  A
             different set of regulations obtains here.

   obtrude   v.  thrust (oneself) forward or forth, intrude, impose
             (oneself), force (oneself):  The best writers never obtrude
             between the reader and the story.

   obtrusive adj.  interfering, intrusive, meddling, officious, meddlesome,
             importunate, forward, presumptuous, forceful, Colloq pushy:  She
             found him somewhat obtrusive - always giving advice when she
             least needed it.

   obtuse    adj.  1 rounded, unpointed, blunt:  When mature, the leaves
             become more obtuse.  2 dull, insensitive, unfeeling,
             imperceptive, thick-skinned, stolid, thick, dense, doltish,
             cloddish, thickheaded, dull-witted, dim-witted, slow-witted,
             (mentally) retarded, boneheaded, lumpish, loutish, oafish,
             simple, simple-minded:  Luke is a bit too obtuse to get the
             point of the story.

   obvious   adj.  clear, plain, apparent, patent, perceptible, evident,
             self-evident, clear-cut, manifest, palpable, (much) in evidence,
             conspicuous, open, visible, overt, ostensible, pronounced,
             prominent, glaring, undeniable, unconcealed, unhidden, unsubtle,
             distinct, simple, bald, bald-faced, straightforward, direct,
             self-explanatory, indisputable, unmistakable or unmistakeable:
             There are obvious flaws in the fabric. The reason you were
             refused seemed obvious to me.

   obviously adv.  clearly, plainly, apparently, patently, evidently, simply,
             certainly, of course, undeniable, unmistakably or unmistakeably,
             indubitably, doubtless(ly):  You are obviously the right person
             for the assignment.

15.3 occasion...
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   occasion  n.  1 time, moment, circumstance, incident, occurrence,
             opportunity, chance, opening, advantage:  I took the occasion of
             the inquiry to leave town.  2 reason, cause, call,
             justification, ground(s), warrant, provocation, prompting,
             impulse, stimulus, incitement, inducement:  Tom gave David no
             occasion to doubt his honesty.  3 event, function, happening,
             affair, observance, commemoration, ceremony, celebration, gala,
             party,:  Grandpapa's ninetieth birthday was a great occasion.
             This hall is saved for important occasions. 4 on occasion. See
             occasionally, below.

             --v.  5 give rise to, bring about, cause, bring on, effect,
             prompt, provoke, evoke, call forth, elicit, call up, induce,
             impel, create, generate, engender, produce, make (for):  An
             increase in the inflation rate occasions a decrease in the value
             of money.

   occasional
             adj.  1 intermittent, irregular, periodic, random, sporadic,
             infrequent, casual, incidental:  They staged occasional raids on
             the arsenal. He works as an occasional farm hand. 2 additional,
             extra, spare, supplementary, incidental, auxiliary, accessory:
             We bought a few occasional chairs in case we have company.  3
             special, particular, ceremonial, ritual:  She writes occasional
             verses for memorial services.

   occasionally
             adv.  sometimes, on occasion, (every) now and then, from time to
             time, at times, (every) now and again, once in a while, every so
             often, periodically, intermittently, sporadically, irregularly,
             off and on:  We go up the Lake District for a weekend
             occasionally. Trevor occasionally drops in at the local pub for
             a beer.

   occult    adj.  1 secret, dark, concealed, private, privy, hidden,
             obscure, veiled, obscured, shrouded, vague, abstruse, shadowy,
             mystical, mysterious, cabbalistic, esoteric, recondite, arcane:
             Printing was kept an occult art for generations.  2 magical,
             mystical, alchemic(al), unexplained, unexplainable,
             inexplicable, puzzling, baffling, perplexing, mystifying,
             mysterious, incomprehensible, inscrutable, indecipherable,
             impenetrable, unfathomable, transcendental, supernatural,
             preternatural, mystic:  They dress in odd clothes and
             participate in occult rituals at peculiar times of the day and
             night.

             --n.  3 Usually, the occult. the supernatural, the unknown, the
             black arts; arcana, cabbala or cabala or kabbala; cabbalism or
             cabalism or kabbalism, occultism, sorcery, witchcraft, black
             magic:  Keith has studied the occult for many years.

   occupant  n.  resident, inhabitant, occupier, tenant, lessee, leaseholder,
             renter, owner, householder, indweller, dweller, denizen, lodger,
             roomer, boarder; addressee; incumbent:  The occupant of the flat
             upstairs is rarely home.

   occupation
             n.  1 job, position, post, situation, appointment, employment,
             vocation, line (of work), career, field, calling, trade, m‚tier,
             craft, skill, profession, business, work:  Claverton pursued his
             occupation as a miniaturist for some fifty years. 2 possession,
             tenure, occupancy, rule, control, suzerainty, subjugation,
             subjection, oppression, bondage:  Terrible atrocities were
             committed while the land was under the occupation of the
             Mongols. 3 conquest, seizure, appropriation, take-over:
             Francisco Pizarro was responsible for the occupation of Peru.

   occupy    v.  1 capture, seize, take possession of, conquer, invade, take
             over, overrun, garrison, dominate, hold:  Rebel forces had
             occupied the capital and toppled the governor.  2 live or reside
             or dwell in, tenant, be established or ensconced or situated in,
             establish or ensconce or situate oneself in, inhabit, be settled
             in or into, settle in or into, take up residence in, make one's
             home in, move in or into; be located in:  She occupies a
             luxurious flat in Belgravia.  3 engage, busy, absorb,
             monopolize, hold, take up or over, catch, grab, seize, grip;
             divert, amuse, entertain, distract, beguile, preoccupy, hold
             (someone's) attention, interest, engross, involve:  Other
             matters occupied my attention last Sunday. While one man was
             keeping the shopkeeper occupied, the other man was robbing the
             till. 4 fill (in or up), take up, cover, extend over, consume,
             use (up), Colloq eat up:  The car occupies more garage space
             than I thought it would. Housework occupies very little of my
             time.

   occur     v.  1 happen, take place, arise, come about, befall, come to
             pass, chance, appear, surface, materialize, develop, become
             manifest, manifest itself, Colloq transpire, crop up, come off,
             turn up:  We reported to the police all that had occurred. What
             occurred to make you late this time? 2 occur to. dawn on,
             strike, hit, come to, suggest itself to, cross (someone's) mind,
             enter (someone's) head, be brought to (someone's) attention:
             Has it occurred to you that she might not like opera?

   occurrence
             n.  1 happening, event, incident, phenomenon, affair, matter,
             experience:  Earthquakes are frequent occurrences in California.
             2 existence, instance, manifestation, materialization,
             appearance, development:  The occurrence of mutations
             diversifies the species.  3 frequency, incidence, rate;
             likelihood, chance:  What is the recorded occurrence of typhoons
             in the South China Sea?

   ocean     n.  1 (deep blue) sea, (bounding) main, high seas, the deep,
             Davy Jones's locker, the depths, Colloq the briny, the drink:
             The sails filled, and our tiny craft was swept out into the open
             ocean. 2 Often, oceans. flood, abundance, multitude, profusion,
             plethora, Colloq scads, loads, tons, lots, oodles, gobs,
             zillions:  The direct mail campaign yielded oceans of responses.

   oceanic   adj.  marine, pelagic, thalassic; salt-water, deep-water,
             aquatic, maritime, sea, ocean:  These creatures are chiefly
             oceanic, coming ashore only to breed.

15.4 odd...
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   odd       adj.  1 strange, peculiar, unusual, uncommon, different,
             unexpected, unfamiliar, extraordinary, remarkable, atypical,
             untypical, exotic, out of the ordinary, unparalleled,
             unconventional, exceptional, unique, singular, individual,
             anomalous, idiosyncratic, rare, deviant, outlandish, uncanny,
             queer, curious, bizarre, weird, eccentric, funny, quaint,
             fantastic, freak, abnormal, freakish, Colloq offbeat, screwy,
             kinky, freaky, Slang Brit barmy, bent, rum, US and Canadian
             kooky or kookie:  Ebenezer is an odd name for a dog. Where did
             you get that odd hat? I cannot account for his odd behaviour. 2
             occasional, casual, part-time, irregular, random, sporadic,
             discontinuous, disconnected, various, varied, miscellaneous,
             sundry, incidental:  After being made redundant, he worked at
             odd jobs for a year or so. The odd shower can be expected during
             the afternoon. 3 leftover, surplus, remaining, unused, spare,
             superfluous, extra:  After the patterns were cut, we were
             allowed to take the odd scraps of fabric. 4 uneven, unmatched,
             unpaired:  This gallery has an odd number of columns.

   oddity    n.  1 peculiarity, strangeness, unnaturalness, curiousness,
             incongruity, incongruousness, eccentricity, outlandishness,
             extraordinariness, unconventionality, bizarreness, weirdness,
             queerness, oddness, unusualness, individuality, singularity,
             distinctiveness, anomalousness, anomaly, Colloq kinkiness, US
             and Canadian kookiness:  What caught my attention was the oddity
             of the clothes worn by the students. 2 peculiarity, curiosity,
             rarity, freak, original, phenomenon, character, eccentric,
             nonconformist, fish out of water, odd bird, rara avis, misfit,
             square peg in a round hole, maverick, Colloq card, crank,
             weirdie or weirdo, oner, Brit odd fish, US and Canadian kook,
             oddball, screwball:  The townspeople thought Albert an oddity,
             but we knew he was a genius. 3 peculiarity, irregularity,
             anomaly, idiosyncrasy, eccentricity, deviation, quirk,
             mannerism, twist, kink, crotchet:  I suppose people all have
             their own oddities when it comes to food.

   odds      n.pl.  1 chances, likelihood, probability:  The odds are that
             Janet will finish the job in time.  2 edge, advantage, lead,
             superiority:  We have won before against greater odds.  3
             difference, inequality, disparity, unevenness, discrepancy,
             dissimilarity, distinction:  It makes no odds who you are, you
             may not go in there.  4 at odds. at variance, at loggerheads, at
             daggers drawn, at sixes and sevens, at cross purposes, at each
             other's throats, in disagreement, in opposition, on bad terms,
             not in keeping, out of line, inharmonious, conflicting,
             clashing, disagreeing, differing:  Teenagers have been at odds
             with their parents since time immemorial.  5 odds and ends.
             oddments, fragments, debris, leftovers, leavings, remnants, bits
             (and pieces), particles, shreds, snippets, scraps, rubbish,
             litter, Colloq Brit odds and sods:  We managed to pack
             everything into boxes except for a few odds and ends.

   odour     n.  1 smell, scent, aroma, bouquet, fragrance, perfume,
             redolence; stench, stink, fetor or foetor:  The air was filled
             with the odour of orange blossoms. The odour of rotting
             vegetation assailed our noses. 2 air, breath, hint, suggestion,
             atmosphere, spirit, quality, flavour, savour, aura, tone:  She
             would never allow the odour of scandal to touch her family.

15.5 off...
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   off       adv.  1 away, out, elsewhere:  His secretary said that he'd gone
             off for the weekend.  2 distant, away, afar, far-off:  The
             U-boat was a mile off. Christmas is only a month off.

             --adj.  3 incorrect, wrong, inaccurate, in error, mistaken,
             misguided, misled, off the mark:  I'm afraid you're off on the
             question of the best way to approach him. 4 mad, insane, crazy,
             eccentric, touched (in the head), Colloq dotty, dippy, nutty,
             potty:  Underwood's aunt is slightly off.  5 remote, distant,
             improbable, unlikely:  He went to the station on the off chance
             that she would be on the midday train. 6 off work, at leisure,
             idle, free, open; on holiday:  Can you get the day off tomorrow
             to go on a picnic with me?  7 sour, mouldy, bad, rotten, rancid,
             turned, high:  The cream smells a bit off.  8 bad, unpropitious,
             disappointing, unsatisfactory, disheartening, displeasing,
             slack, slow, substandard, below par, below average, quiet:  It
             has been an off year for the local football team.  9 cancelled,
             postponed:  The meeting is off till next week.  10 situated,
             fixed, supplied:  Is he really that well off? She was much worse
             off when they were married.

   offbeat   adj.  strange, eccentric, bizarre, weird, peculiar, odd, queer,
             unconventional, unorthodox, Bohemian, idiosyncratic, unusual,
             unexpected, outr‚, outlandish, deviant, novel, innovative,
             Colloq kinky, way-out, far-out, off-the-wall, freaky, weirdo:
             Jasper's offbeat, satirical humour has made him a popular
             comedian.

   off colour
             adj.  1 unwell, ill, off form, out of sorts, queasy, sick, run
             down, awful, seedy, Colloq under the weather, poorly, Slang
             lousy, rotten:  I have been feeling off colour since eating that
             fish.  2 indelicate, risqu‚, ribald, bawdy, indecent,
             suggestive, broad, indelicate, inelegant, improper,
             inappropriate, unseemly, blue:  My mother does not tolerate
             off-colour remarks at the dinner table.

   offence   n.  1 violation, breach, crime, felony, misdemeanour,
             infraction, transgression, trespass, wrong, wrongdoing, sin,
             peccadillo, misdeed, fault, infringement, malefaction;
             dereliction, lapse, slip, error:  He was accused of offences
             against the rights of others. Some regard the splitting of an
             infinitive an offence against the Queen's English. 2 give
             offence. incur displeasure, create annoyance or irritation or
             resentment or pique, evoke indignation or anger; slight, injure,
             hurt, harm, offend, insult, outrage, Colloq put (someone) down:
             He denied that he meant to give offence in his criticism of the
             play. 3 take offence. take umbrage, feel displeasure or
             annoyance or resentment or pique or indignation, be angered or
             enraged:  Why should you take offence at what a fool says?

   offend    v.  1 hurt (someone's) feelings, affront, insult, slight, snub,
             give offence, hurt, pain, displease, disgruntle, chagrin,
             humiliate, embarrass; pique, fret, gall, vex, annoy, irritate,
             nettle, needle, rankle, provoke, ruffle, outrage, rile, anger ,
             Colloq miff, put (someone's) back up, put (someone's) nose out
             of joint, tread or step on (someone's) toes, put (someone) out,
             rattle:  I hope you weren't offended by my saying that you could
             do with losing some weight. 2 disgust, sicken, turn (someone's)
             stomach, nauseate, repel, repulse, revolt, Colloq turn (someone)
             off:  I, for one, am offended by seeing explicit sex on
             television.

   offender  n.  criminal, malefactor, lawbreaker, outlaw, wrongdoer,
             culprit, miscreant, transgressor, sinner, evil-doer, Slang
             crook:  I don't know if they apprehended the offender.

   offensive adj.  1 antagonistic, hostile, contentious, quarrelsome,
             attacking, aggressive, threatening, provocative, combative,
             martial, belligerent, warlike, bellicose:  The minute the enemy
             made an offensive move, we attacked.  2 insulting, rude,
             disrespectful, uncivil, insolent, discourteous, impolite,
             unmannerly, impertinent, impudent, objectionable, displeasing:
             Nigel has been asked to leave because of his offensive
             behaviour.  3 disgusting, unsavoury, unpalatable, nauseating,
             nauseous, noisome, noxious, obnoxious, repugnant, repulsive,
             repellent, revolting, abominable, foul, loathsome, vile,
             sickening, fetid or foetid, rank, malodorous, mephitic, putrid,
             putrescent, putrefying, rancid, rotten:  An offensive stench
             emanated from the stagnant pond.

             --n.  4 attack, offence:  At last, our team was on the
             offensive.  5 attack, onslaught, drive, assault, offence, push:
             The offensive to capture the arsenal will be launched at dawn
             tomorrow.

   offer     v.  1 proffer, propose, tender, bid:  They offered twice what I
             had paid for it. She offered to buy my old car. 2 make
             available, present, tender, put on the market, sell, put up for
             sale, put up, furnish:  The supermarket is offering lettuce at
             half price.  3 proffer, provide, submit, put forward or forth,
             advance, tender, extend, make; suggest:  Can you offer a
             suggestion for improving office efficiency? He offered to forget
             the whole thing if I paid him њ1000. 4 volunteer, present
             oneself, step or come forward:  I offered to help with her
             luggage.

             --n.  5 proposal, bid, tender, offering:  She said she would
             double any offer we have already had for the painting. 6
             proposal, presentation, proffer, proposition:  The company said
             they could entertain no offers past the deadline.  My offer to
             lend the money was contingent on being repaid.

   offering  n.  sacrifice, oblation, contribution, donation, gift, present:
             They made offerings to the gods in order to propitiate them.

   offhand   adj.  1 offhanded, casual, informal, nonchalant, cool, distant,
             aloof, easygoing, blas‚, unceremonious, relaxed, easy, smooth,
             unconcerned, insouciant, light-hearted, uninterested,
             superficial, cursory, cavalier, careless:  His offhand reaction
             shows that he doesn't care as much about her as we thought. 2
             curt, brusque, abrupt, perfunctory, ungracious, glib, smooth:
             When asked when he expected to pay, he gave an offhand reply.  3
             extempore, impromptu, unpremeditated, unstudied, extemporaneous,
             informal, off the cuff, ad lib:  She rose to make some offhand
             comments about the accomplishments of the guest of honour.

             --adv.  4 extempore, impromptu, extemporaneously, informally,
             off the cuff, ad lib, on the spur of the moment, at the drop of
             a hat:  That was a pretty good speech considering it was made
             offhand.  5 casually, informally, incidentally, by the way,
             offhandedly, by the by, parenthetically, in passing, en passant,
             cursorily, superficially:  Offhand, I'd say that the two of them
             deserve each other.

   office    n.  1 business, organization, department, firm, house,
             establishment, company, corporation:  Whenever I'm travelling, I
             always try to phone the office once a day. 2 commission,
             department, branch; section, division:  He was with the overseas
             office for years.  3 workplace, offices; room, area:  Our new
             office is completely air-conditioned. My office is next to the
             board room. 4 duty, obligation, responsibility, charge,
             commission, service, employment, occupation, position, post,
             appointment, assignment, chore, task, job, place, berth, work,
             role, function, purpose, part, bit, Colloq thing, Slang shtick:
             He was appointed to the office of Minister of Health. In her
             office as Minister of Finance, she wields great power. 5
             offices. indulgence, intermediation, auspices, support,
             advocacy, aegis, help, aid, intercession, mediation, patronage,
             favour, backing, backup:  She appealed to the police chief's
             good offices to allow her to visit her son.

   officer   n.  1 (public) official, dignitary, office-holder, public
             servant, office-bearer, (political) appointee, (government)
             agent, bureaucrat, functionary, commissioner, administrator,
             manager, director; apparatchik:  He was stopped by customs
             officers who demanded to search his baggage. The bailiff is an
             officer of the court. 2 policeman, policewoman, police officer,
             officer of the law, constable, Old-fashioned catchpole, US
             lawman, peace officer, G-man, T-Man, Colloq gendarme, Slang cop,
             copper, fuzz, US dick, narc, Brit Old Bill, tec:  The officer
             standing at the door was there to serve a writ.

   official  adj.  1 authorized, legitimate, lawful, legal, authentic, bona
             fide, proper, true, accredited, valid, documented, licensed,
             sanctioned, endorsed, certified, verified, recognized, accepted:
             I won't believe I've won till I hold the official notification
             in my own hands. 2 ceremonial, formal, solemn, ritualistic,
             ceremonious, pompous, stiff, proper, seemly, decorous:  She has
             to make an acceptance speech at the official dinner.

             --n.  3 See officer, 1, above.

   officiate v.  preside, direct, manage, chair, conduct, oversee, head (up),
             run, lead, supervise, superintend; umpire, referee, judge,
             adjudicate, moderate, mediate:  Who will officiate at the annual
             meeting? Dennis has been invited to officiate at the football
             match on Saturday.

   officious adj.  dictatorial, intrusive, intruding, meddlesome, meddling,
             obtrusive, forward, bold, interfering, aggressive, insistent,
             persistent, demanding, importunate:  Hamish is one of those
             officious little men who are always ready to give unasked-for
             advice.

   offset    v.  1 compensate, counterbalance, countervail, counterpoise,
             counteract, balance (out), equalize, even (out or up), square,
             cancel (out), neutralize, nullify, make up (for), atone (for),
             redress; recompense, repay, make amends or restitution, make
             good, reimburse, indemnify:  The votes from the Centre offset
             those lost to the Far Left. How are you going to offset losses
             resulting from pilferage by shop assistants?

             --n.  2 compensation, counterbalance, counteraction, check,
             equalizer, neutralizer:  The bank manager considered the money
             owed to the company as sufficient offset for the money owed by
             it.

   offshoot  n.  1 branch, spur; shoot, limb, bough, twig, stem, appendage,
             sucker, sprout, sprig, tendril, scion:  There is an offshoot of
             this road that goes up the hill. The offshoots are trained to
             grow along the arms of the espalier. 2 descendant, relation,
             relative, kin, kindred, offspring, scion, heir:  One offshoot of
             the family later emigrated to the United States.  3 outgrowth,
             development, branch, spin-off; by-product, derivative:  An
             offshoot of the company manufactures optical instruments. The
             sale of gravel for concrete is an offshoot of our mining
             operations.

   offspring n.  (Often used as plural) child, progeny, issue, seed,
             youngster, brood, young, successor, heir:  None of the earl's
             offspring ever amounted to much.

   often     adv.  frequently, regularly, much, many times, usually,
             habitually, commonly; ordinarily, again and again, over and over
             again, time after time, repeatedly, time and (time) again, in
             many cases or instances, on numerous occasions, day in (and) day
             out, continually, Literary oftentimes, oft:  How often do you
             visit your mother? We often went to the seaside for our summer
             holiday. She was often warned not to go too near the edge.

15.6 ogle...
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   ogle      v.  1 leer, eye, make eyes at, Colloq give (someone) the glad
             eye, give (someone) the once-over, make sheep's eyes at:  The
             old lecher is always ogling the pretty young secretaries.  2
             gape, gaze, goggle, gawk, stare, Slang Brit gawp or gaup:  We
             took turns ogling the rings of Saturn through the telescope.

             --n.  3 leer, stare, gape, goggle, oeillade, Colloq once-over,
             glad eye:  They all crowded round the paper for an ogle at the
             pin-ups.

   ogre      n.  ogress, monster, giant, fiend, demon, troll, man-eater,
             bogey, bogeyman, bugbear, spectre, Minotaur, Cyclops, Gorgon,
             Caliban; brute, sadist, villain, cad, scoundrel:  The ogre
             chased Jack to the beanstalk. The persistent ogre of poverty
             threatened him all his life.

15.7 oil...
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   oil       n.  1 lubricant, grease, lubricator, unguent:  A little oil will
             stop that squeak.  2 fuel:  Miraculously, the lamp burned for
             eight days with only one day's supply of oil.

             --v.  3 lubricate, grease:  Oil the bearings or they will burn
             out.

   oily      adj.  1 greasy, oleaginous, fat, fatty, adipose, pinguid,
             sebaceous, soapy, saponaceous, buttery, butyraceous, lardaceous;
             slippery, slimy, slithery, smooth, unctuous:  The cars slid
             about as the tyres failed to grip the oily surface.  2 glib,
             smooth, unctuous, servile, obsequious, sycophantic,
             ingratiating, flattering, hypocritical; suave, urbane,
             sophisticated, Colloq smarmy:  Sarah found Curtis's approach
             sickeningly oily.

   ointment  n.  unguent, balm, salve, emollient, embrocation, demulcent,
             pomade, pomatum, petrolatum; lotion, cream:  A little ointment
             will keep the sore moist till it heals.

15.8 OK
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   OK        interj.  1 O.K.!, Okay!, Fine!, Yes!, Definitely!, Agreed!, Very
             well!, All right!:  'Would you have dinner with me?' 'OK!' 'I
             think you ought to leave.' 'OK!'

             --adj.  2 satisfactory, acceptable, correct, suitable, all
             right, fine, good, in order:  Is it OK if I go the cinema
             tonight? That dress is OK to wear to the dance. 3 adequate,
             mediocre, fair, middling, passable, tolerable, Colloq so so,
             pretty good, not bad, not great:  The film was OK, I suppose.  4
             well, healthy; sound, in good condition, in fine fettle, fine,
             all right:  Now that he's on the proper medication, Sam is OK.
             The mechanic assured me that my car would be OK.

             --v.  5 approve, sanction, ratify, authorize, endorse, support,
             agree to, allow, consent to, agree to, Colloq give the go-ahead
             or green light to, give the thumbs up or the nod to,
             rubber-stamp:  A department head must OK your expense account
             before you can be reimbursed.

             --n.  6 approval, sanction, ratification, authorization,
             endorsement, agreement, support, permission, consent:  You need
             an OK from the security guard to enter the restricted area.

             --adv.  7 all right, satisfactorily, well (enough), adequately:
             She can get along OK without me.

15.9 old...
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   old       adj.  1 elderly, ageing, aged, advanced in years or age,
             long-lived, past one's prime, grey, full of years, getting on
             (in years), hoary, superannuated, Colloq over the hill, past it:
             Bill is too old to continue working in the mine.  2 ancient,
             antiquated, antediluvian, fossil, prehistoric, Noachian,
             obsolete, antique, outdated, out of date, old-time, dated,
             archaic, stale, out-moded, pass‚, Literary Ogygian:  The
             archaeological dig has turned up some interesting old artefacts.
             3 time-worn, decayed, dilapidated, ramshackle, disintegrated,
             crumbling, shabby, worn out, dusty, broken-down, tumbledown,
             disused, unused, cast off, cast aside:  They have torn down the
             old mill near the river.  4 long-standing, well-established,
             enduring, lasting, age-old, time-honoured:  It is hard to see an
             old friendship die.  5 former, olden, bygone, early, primordial,
             primitive:  In the old days, it took a week to travel from
             London to Edinburgh.  6 previous, preceding, prior, former,
             quondam, erstwhile, one-time, ex-:  The West End was my old
             stamping-ground when I lived in London.  7 experienced, veteran,
             practised, (well-)versed, knowledgeable, proficient,
             accomplished, adept, skilled, expert, old-time:  Charles is an
             old hand at steam engines.  8 dear, beloved, loved, esteemed,
             valued, precious, well-known, intimate, close, familiar:
             Penelope is an old friend of the family's.

   old-fashioned
             adj.  antiquated, antique, pass‚, out-moded, out-dated,
             unfashionable, stale, out-dated, dated, out of date, tired,
             old-time, obsolete, obsolescent, dead, superseded, replaced,
             disused, out, old-fangled, old hat:  Whoever thought we would
             see the day when miniskirts were old-fashioned?

15.10 omen...
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   omen      n.  portent, augury, sign, token, foretoken, indication,
             harbinger, forewarning, premonition, foreshadowing, writing on
             the wall, prognostic, presage:  Solar eclipses were once
             regarded as omens, sometimes good, sometimes bad.

   ominous   adj.  1 foreboding, threatening, fateful, dark, black, gloomy,
             lowering or louring, menacing, sinister; unpropitious,
             unfavourable, ill-omened, ill-starred, unpromising,
             star-crossed, inauspicious:  With ominous solemnity, the judge
             placed a black cloth square on his head before passing the death
             sentence. 2 minatory, warning, admonitory, cautionary:  The
             whispering had taken on ominous overtones.  3 portentous,
             prophetic, oracular, vaticinal, predictive, prognostic, augural,
             mantic, sibyllic, meaningful, premonitory, foreshadowing,
             foretelling, foretokening, indicative:  Virtually everything was
             regarded as ominous in ancient times.

   omission  n.  1 non-inclusion, omitting, leaving out or off, excluding,
             eliminating, dropping, skipping; exclusion, exception, deletion,
             elimination, excision:  The omission of your name from the list
             was a mistake. Allowing for inadvertent omissions, the inventory
             is complete. 2 failure, default, neglect, dereliction,
             oversight, shortcoming, negligence:  She is being punished for
             her innocent omission in failing to notify the police while he
             is at liberty despite his deliberate commission of a crime.

   omit      v.  1 leave out, exclude, skip, except, pass over; delete,
             erase, cancel, eradicate, edit out, strike (out), dele, cut
             (out), cross out, obliterate:  She was offended because he
             omitted any mention of all that she had contributed. 2 neglect,
             disregard, fail, forget, overlook, let slide, ignore:  I omitted
             to tell you that your sister telephoned yesterday.

15.11 once...
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   once      adv.  1 once upon a time, formerly, (at) one time, on a former
             occasion, previously, before, in days gone by, in olden days, in
             the (good) old days, long ago, some time ago, years or ages or
             aeons ago, in days of yore:  Your hair is as long as mine once
             was. He was once a famous film star. That once revered leader
             has fallen. 2 one time, on one occasion, a single time:  He has
             visited his family only once in all these years.  3 once and for
             all. finally, positively, definitely, decidedly, conclusively,
             for good:  We must settle the itinerary once and for all before
             we can make the bookings. 4 once in a while. occasionally,
             (every) now and then, now and again, at times, sometimes,
             periodically, from time to time, at intervals, sporadically:  We
             go to the theatre once in a while.

             --conj.  5 (if) ever, as soon as, at any time:  Once the bus
             comes, you'd best get on it straight away.

             --n.  6 at once.  a immediately, straight away, right away,
             directly, without delay, promptly, instantly, post-haste; in a
             wink, in the twinkling of an eye, in a minute or moment or
             second or split second, in no time (at all), before you can turn
             around, before you can say 'Jack Robinson', in a trice, Colloq
             in a jiffy, in two shakes of a lamb's tail:  Watson, come here
             at once. I'll be there at once.  b together, at the same time,
             simultaneously, at a stroke, in the same instant, in the same
             breath, Colloq at one go, at a go, in one go:  You cannot be in
             two places at once.

   oncoming  adj.  1 advancing, arriving, coming, nearing, approaching,
             onrushing, imminent:  He swerved and just managed to avoid the
             oncoming lorry.

             --n.  2 onset, beginning, nearing, arrival, advance, approach:
             With the oncoming of spring, the birds returned.

   one       adj.  1 single, lone, solitary, individual, sole, only:  The one
             time I kissed Margie it was heaven.  2 unified, united,
             inseparable, joined, undivided, one and the same, identical,
             equal, at one, harmonious, in unison, whole, entire, complete:
             When he went into a trance, he felt one with his God.  3 a
             particular, a certain, a given, a specific:  I recall one
             occasion when she brought all her dogs into work.

             --pron.  4 a person, an individual, a man or a woman, everybody,
             everyone, anybody, anyone; people; Possibly offensive man:  One
             ought to treat others as one would like to be treated. One
             cannot be too careful these days.

             --n.  5 joke, story, anecdote, chestnut, one-liner; limerick,
             rhyme, ditty, song; bromide:  Have you heard the one that
             begins, 'There was a young man from Loch Ness'?

   one-sided adj.  1 partial, biased, partisan, prejudiced, bigoted, unfair,
             unjust, inequitable, close-minded, narrow-minded, intolerant:
             His is a one-sided view of the problem.  2 lopsided, unbalanced,
             unequal, unequalized, uneven, disproportionate, Slang cock-eyed:
             The swelling on his left cheek made Tom's face look very
             one-sided.  3 unilateral, independent, exclusionary, exclusive:
             They made a one-sided decision to halt production of nuclear
             weapons.

   ongoing   adj.  1 continuing, continued, continuous, continual, ceaseless,
             unbroken, uninterrupted, constant, perpetual, non-stop,
             relentless, persistent, unending, endless, interminable,
             running:  There has been an ongoing dispute with the museum over
             the authenticity of the sculpture. 2 developing, evolving,
             growing, successive, unfolding, progressing, progressive:
             Rather than come to a hasty decision, we decided to monitor
             ongoing developments.

   onlooker  n.  spectator, observer, looker-on, eyewitness, witness,
             watcher, viewer; bystander, passer-by:  She was merely an
             onlooker, not a participant. Onlookers reported that the driver
             had run away from the accident.

   only      adj.  1 sole, single, solitary, lone, one and only, exclusive:
             He is the only one who can identify the murderer.

             --adv.  2 solely, just, exclusively, alone:  He has a face that
             only a mother could love. They have been here only twice. She
             gets her own way only because she has a tantrum if anyone
             crosses her. Harry was correct in one respect only. 3 merely,
             simply, barely, at best, at worst, at most, just, purely, not or
             no more than, not or no greater than:  She is only seventeen. I
             received your note only today. Don't get excited, it's only a
             small present.

             --conj.  4 but, however, on the other hand, on the contrary,
             contrariwise:  The flowers are lovely, only they have no scent.

   onset     n.  1 attack, assault, onrush, onslaught, charge, strike, hit,
             raid, storming, sally, sortie:  These troops had to bear the
             brunt of the onset.  2 beginning, start, outset, initiation,
             inauguration, commencement, inception, dawn, birth, origin,
             genesis, appearance, debut:  We must leave before the onset of
             the monsoon season. The sudden onset of a new policy will throw
             the ministers into a panic.

   onward    adj.  forward, advancing, progressive, progressing, moving
             onward or forward:  They resumed their onward march, laying
             waste to the countryside as they went.

   onwards   adv.  onward, forwards or forward, ahead, in front, on, forth:
             They marched onwards through the dismal valley. From this day
             onwards afternoon visiting hours will be from two to four
             o'clock.

15.12 ooze
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   ooze      n.  1 slime, muck, mud, mire, silt, sludge, sediment, slush,
             Colloq goo, gunk, guck, Slang US glop, goop:  I stepped into the
             bog and the ooze rose over the tops of my shoes.

             --v.  2 exude, weep, seep, secrete, bleed, leak, drain, trickle;
             emit, discharge:  Sap continues to ooze from the gash in the
             tree.

15.13 opacity...
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   opacity   n.  1 opaqueness, darkness, murkiness, dimness, obscurity,
             impermeability, impenetrability:  The opacity of the lens
             increases automatically in the presence of sunlight. 2
             obscurity, density, impenetrability, unintelligibility,
             indefiniteness, vagueness, reconditeness, abstruseness,
             ambiguity, equivocation, mystification:  For centuries
             scientists were unable to penetrate the opacity of the question
             of what occurred when substances burned. 3 stupidity, dullness,
             denseness, thickness, obtuseness:  A light finally dawned
             through the thick opacity of his brain.

   opalescent
             adj.  opaline, iridescent, nacreous, pearly, lustrous:  The sea
             was opalescent in the moonlight.

   opaque    adj.  1 dark, murky, dim, turbid, muddy, cloudy, obscure,
             obscured, obfuscated, black, impermeable, impenetrable, clouded,
             non-transparent, untransparent, non-translucent, hazy, blurred,
             blurry, smoky:  Solar eclipses should be viewed directly only
             through special opaque glass. 2 unclear, vague, indefinite,
             obscure, unfathomable, unplumbable, baffling, mystifying,
             ambiguous, equivocal, impenetrable, cryptic, enigmatic,
             puzzling, perplexing, mysterious, elusive, abstruse, arcane,
             recondite:  Despite years of study, the inscriptions on the tomb
             have remained opaque to scholars. 3 unintelligent, dense, thick,
             dull, obtuse, stupid, dull-witted, stolid, thickheaded,
             dunderheaded, dunderpated, slow, doltish, backward, cloddish:
             He was too opaque to notice the jeers of his colleagues.

   open      adj.  1 ajar, gaping, agape, unfastened, unlocked, unbarred,
             unbolted, unlatched, unclosed:  Come on in - the door is open.
             2 yawning, agape, uncovered, revealed, unsealed, exposed, bare:
             Her uncle escaped by hiding for three nights in an open grave.
             3 unwrapped, unsealed, unfastened:  The package was open and the
             contents gone.  4 free, accessible, public, available;
             obtainable; unrestricted, unobstructed, unencumbered or
             unincumbered, unimpeded, unhindered, unhampered, unregulated,
             unconditional, unqualified:  The parks are open to all. We were
             allowed open access to the library stacks. 5 unprotected,
             unenclosed, unsheltered, bare; uncovered, exposed:  They spent a
             week in an open boat before being rescued. The roof can be
             retracted, leaving the interior completely open to the sky. 6
             unsettled, unagreed, unsigned, unsealed, unclinched,
             unestablished, unconcluded, undecided, pending:  As far as I am
             concerned, the deal is open till the contract is signed. 7
             undecided, unsettled, unresolved, debatable, arguable,
             problematic, moot, US up in the air:  Whether they should get
             married is a question that will remain open until he returns
             from abroad. 8 unscheduled, unbooked, unspoken for, unreserved,
             uncommitted, free, unpromised:  The doctor has an hour open at
             noon on Friday.  9 clear, unobstructed, wide open, uncluttered,
             roomy, spacious, extensive, expansive; treeless, uncrowded,
             unfenced, unenclosed; ice-free, navigable, unblocked, passable:
             We travelled through open country for days. In the spring the
             shipping lanes will again be open. 10 available, unfilled,
             vacant, untaken:  There are not many jobs open in this part of
             the country.  11 receptive, open-minded, flexible, amenable,
             persuasible or persuadable, pliant, willing, responsive:  The
             management is open to suggestions for improving its products and
             services. 12 exposed, public, well-known, widely known,
             unconcealed:  That they are living together is an open secret.
             13 evident, obvious, conspicuous, manifest, clear, unconcealed,
             unequivocal, plain, palpable, apparent, patent, downright, out
             and out, blatant, flagrant, glaring, brazen:  He operates with
             open disregard for the law.  14 generous, liberal, charitable,
             unreserved, open-handed, liberal, munificent, magnanimous,
             big-hearted, beneficent, bounteous, unselfish, unstinting,
             humanitarian, altruistic:  They are quite open when it comes to
             giving to charity.  15 unreserved, candid, frank, outspoken,
             straightforward, forthright, direct, honest, sincere, guileless,
             artless, fair:  He found it difficult to be open with his wife.
             16 free, unrestrained, unconstrained, uninhibited, unreserved,
             unrestricted:  They have an open marriage, each aware of the
             other's affairs.  17 unfolded, extended, spread (out),
             outstretched, outspread:  She ran into my open arms.  18 liable,
             subject, susceptible, exposed, inclined, predisposed, disposed:
             These fraudulent shipping documents may well leave the captain
             open to prosecution for barratry. 19 unprotected, undefended,
             unfortified, exposed:  With the invaders at the gates, Paris was
             declared an open city.

             --v.  20 begin, start, initiate, commence, get under way,
             inaugurate, launch, put in or into operation, activate, get
             going, set in motion; establish, set up; Colloq get or start the
             ball rolling, get or put the show on the road, kick off:  The
             minister opened the proceedings with an interminable speech.
             Jeremy is planning to open a restaurant in Pebble Lane. The show
             opens in Manchester next week. 21 unlock, unbar, unlatch,
             unbolt, unfasten; uncover; uncork, unseal; undo, untie, unwrap;
             pull out:  Open the door. Open the box. Open the bottle. Open
             your present.  He opened the drawer. 22 unblock, clear,
             unobstruct, unclog, unstop:  They had to dig up the yard to open
             the drain. The new law has opened the way for increased exports.
             23 disclose, unveil, uncover, expose, display, show, exhibit,
             reveal, divulge, bring to light, communicate, bring out,
             unbosom, explain, present, announce, release, publish, air, make
             known, advertise:  The wonders of the language were opened to me
             by my first dictionary.  24 expand, spread (out), stretch out,
             open up or out, unfurl, extend:  The flag opened to the breeze.
             25 present, offer, furnish, provide, afford, yield, reveal,
             uncover, raise, contribute, introduce:  Expansion of technology
             opens new business opportunities every day.

   opening   n.  1 break, breach, rent, rift, cleft, crack, crevice, fissure,
             cranny, chink, pit, gap, split, slit, slot, aperture, hole,
             orifice, separation:  Flowers grew from openings in the wall.  2
             opportunity, chance, occasion, toe-hold, foothold, Colloq break,
             toe or foot in the door, Brit look-in:  I was waiting for an
             appropriate opening to make my presentation.  3 job, position,
             opportunity, vacancy:  Is there likely to be an opening in the
             art department of your company? 4 beginning, commencement,
             start, birth, origin, outset, onset, inauguration, launch,
             send-off, initiation, presentation, debut; vernissage, US
             start-off, start-up:  The opening of the autumn social season
             was marked by Malcolm's birthday party. Aren't you going to the
             opening at the museum tonight?

   openly    adv.  1 brazenly, brashly, flagrantly, unabashedly, unashamedly,
             unreservedly, boldly, audaciously, flauntingly:  She has openly
             defied the direct orders of her employer.  2 frankly,
             unreservedly, plainly, forthrightly, candidly, directly,
             outright, freely, outspokenly:  The man admitted openly that he
             had stolen the plans for the missile.

   operable  adj.  workable, practicable, serviceable, usable, functional,
             fit, operational, in working order or condition:  Aircraft
             engines that rely on oxygen for burning fuel are not operable
             where the air is too thin.

   operate   v.  1 go, run, perform; work, function, serve, act:  This watch
             operates even under water. The drug operates to reduce blood
             pressure. 2 manage, run, direct, conduct, control, carry on,
             ply, manipulate, handle; US drive:  Katherine has been operating
             as an antiques dealer for years.  It is unsafe to operate this
             machinery without goggles.

   operation n.  1 function, functioning, working, running, performance,
             action, motion, movement:  The operation of the internal
             combustion engine is very simple.  2 manipulation, handling,
             direction, running, control, management, managing; manoeuvring:
             The operation of the aircraft is under the control of the
             captain.  3 undertaking, enterprise, venture, project, affair,
             deal, procedure, proceeding, (day-to-day) business, transaction:
             Who will be in charge of the operation while the president is
             abroad? 4 Often, operations. action, manoeuvre, mission, task,
             campaign, exercise:  The generals directed military operations
             from positions close to enemy lines. 5 in or into operation.
             functioning, operative, in effect, in force, operating,
             operational, functional, effective, efficacious:  Is the factory
             in operation yet? The new regulations went into operation last
             week.

   operative adj.  1 See operation, 5, above.

             --n.  2 worker, hand, employee; craftsman, craftswoman, artisan,
             mechanic, machinist:  We hired two more lathe operatives today.
             3 private detective, (private) investigator, Colloq private eye,
             sleuth, Brit sleuth-hound, US P.I., gumshoe, Slang (private)
             dick, US shamus, eye:  Our operatives reported that Jones had
             been seen in the company of a known enemy agent. 4 espionage or
             intelligence agent, counter-espionage or counter-intelligence
             agent, spy, counter-spy, undercover agent or man, (FBI or CIA)
             agent, US G-man, Colloq US company man, member of the firm:  We
             had an operative at the top level of the NKVD.

   operator  n.  1 (bus or taxi or train) driver; worker, operative,
             manipulator, practitioner:  These operators are required to take
             safety courses.  2 director, administrator, manager, supervisor,
             superintendent:  Shaughnessey is the operator of a roofing
             business in Tring.  3 machinator, faker, fraud, manipulator,
             manoeuvrer, Colloq finagler, wise guy, Slang smooth or slick
             operator, smoothie, wheeler-dealer, big-shot, big-time operator,
             Chiefly US and Canadian big wheel:  Claude is a cunning operator
             who always gets what he goes after.

   opinion   n.  1 belief, judgement, thought, sentiment, (point of) view,
             viewpoint, conviction, way of thinking, perception, idea,
             impression, notion, conception, theory, id‚e re‡u; mind:  It is
             my opinion that sickness benefits ought to be increased.  In her
             opinion all men are chauvinists. 2 evaluation, estimation,
             estimate, appraisal, appreciation, impression:  Myra has a very
             low opinion of Ray's taste in architecture.

   opinionated
             adj.  1 stubborn, pigheaded, obstinate, doctrinaire, inflexible,
             dogmatic, single-minded, cocksure, obdurate, dictatorial,
             dogged, mulish, bull-headed, overbearing:  Felix is too
             opinionated to change his mind even if he knows he is wrong. 2
             prejudiced, biased, bigoted, one-sided, jaundiced, coloured,
             partial, partisan:  You can count on Joan for an opinionated
             view of social values.

   opponent  n.  antagonist, adversary, disputant, contestant, competitor,
             contender, rival, foe, enemy; the opposition:  He may be my
             opponent in the chess competition, but we are the best of
             friends.

   opportune adj.  1 favourable, advantageous, auspicious, good, felicitous,
             happy, propitious, beneficial, helpful, fortunate, lucky,
             profitable:  As I need money, and you have it to invest, our
             meeting is most opportune. 2 timely, well-timed, seasonable,
             apt, appropriate, germane, pertinent, convenient, fitting,
             suitable, becoming:  If this is not an opportune time to bring
             up the matter of the money you owe me, just say so.

   opportunistic
             adj.  expedient, selfish, taking advantage, exploitive or
             exploitative, unprincipled, Machiavellian, opportunist:  Don't
             you agree that it was opportunistic of him to inform on his own
             brother for a reward?

   opportunity
             n.  chance, occasion, opening, possibility, moment, time, Slang
             break:  She has taken advantage of every opportunity to vilify
             her ex-employers.

   oppose    v.  1 resist, counter, object (to), defy, take a stand against,
             withstand, resist, combat, contest, attack, counter-attack,
             fight, grapple with, contend with or against:  If it comes to
             that, we must oppose force with force.  2 check, bar, obstruct,
             block, hinder, impede, stop, slow, curb, restrain, inhibit,
             interfere with, restrict, prevent, obviate, preclude, thwart,
             foil, frustrate:  Labour seeks to oppose the privatization of
             industry.  3 match, offset, counterbalance, contrast, pit or set
             against, play off (against), set off:  What can they call upon
             to oppose the power of the Devil?

   opposed   adj.  Often, opposed to. against, in opposition (to), opposing,
             in conflict (with), antipathetic, conflicting, contrary (to), at
             variance (with), antithetical (to), hostile (to), inimical (to),
             opposite (to), contrasting:  Harvey is among those opposed to
             abortion. All those who are opposed to the motion raise your
             hands.

   opposing  adj.  opposite, conflicting, contrary, antithetical,
             antagonistic, antipathetic, hostile, inimical, contrasting,
             rival, contradictory, incompatible, irreconcilable, dissident,
             discrepant:  Those with opposing views will be heard from later.

   opposite  adj.  1 facing, vis-…-vis, en face:  The sniper was on the roof
             of the building opposite.  2 opposing, conflicting, contrary,
             contrasting, contradictory, antithetical, differing, different,
             divergent, diverse, antagonistic, inconsistent, irreconcilable:
             William and his wife hold diametrically opposite political
             views.

             --n.  3 reverse, converse, contrary, antithesis:  Whatever you
             tell teenagers to do, their first reaction is to do the
             opposite.

   opposition
             n.  1 hostility, antagonism, unfriendliness, resistance,
             counteraction, disapproval, objection, conflict, defiance,
             contrast, antipathy, adversity, Colloq flak:  There is strong
             opposition to plans for an amusement arcade.  2 competition,
             opponent, adversary, competitor, antagonist, enemy, foe, rival,
             other side:  We must overcome the opposition in order to win.  3
             in opposition. competing, competitive, antagonistic, hostile,
             conflicting, in conflict, antithetic(al), opposed, at daggers
             drawn, in deadly embrace:  Although they agree on some points,
             the parties are in opposition on others.

   oppress   v.  1 burden, afflict, trouble, weigh down, overload, encumber,
             wear (down), press, weary, overburden, overwhelm, Brit
             pressurize, US pressure:  He was oppressed by the heavy burden
             of responsibility.  2 crush, repress, put down, suppress,
             subjugate, tyrannize (over), subdue, overpower, enslave,
             persecute, maltreat, abuse, harry, harass, trample underfoot,
             ride roughshod over:  The Russian serfs had been oppressed for
             centuries before they finally rose up against tyranny.

   oppression
             n.  repression, suppression, subjugation, subjection, tyranny,
             despotism, enslavement, persecution, maltreatment, abuse,
             torment, torture, hardship, injury, pain, anguish, injustice:
             People who have not known oppression cannot imagine the agonies
             suffered by the oppressed who once were free.

   oppressive
             adj.  1 burdensome, overpowering, overwhelming, onerous, heavy,
             cumbersome, exhausting, racking, unbearable, intolerable,
             agonizing, unendurable, harsh, brutal, severe, tyrannical,
             repressive; dispiriting, depressing, disheartening,
             discouraging, grievous, distressing, dolorous, miserable,
             harrowing, wretched:  The conquerors resorted to oppressive
             measures to keep the people subjugated. 2 suffocating, stifling,
             stuffy, close, airless, unventilated, uncomfortable:  The
             atmosphere in the tiny cell quickly became oppressive, and a
             couple of people fainted.

   oppressor n.  bully, tyrant, taskmaster, taskmistress, despot, autocrat,
             persecutor, slave-driver, dictator, overlord, iron hand,
             scourge, tormentor, torturer, intimidator:  The citizens finally
             banded together and overthrew their oppressors.

   optimistic
             adj.  sanguine, positive, cheerful, buoyant, bright, hopeful,
             expectant, confident, bullish, idealistic, Pollyannaish:  We
             have every reason to be optimistic that the venture will
             succeed.

   optimum   n.  1 best, finest, most favourable, ideal, perfection, model,
             paragon, exemplar:  In all work, the optimum is difficult to
             achieve.

             --adj.  2 best, finest, most favourable, ideal, perfect,
             choicest, optimal, first-rate, first-class, sterling, prime,
             capital, excellent, exceptional, superlative, extraordinary,
             unique, peerless, unequalled, unexcelled, unsurpassed:  These
             instruments keep the chamber at the optimum temperature.  After
             months of training, Guy is in optimum condition to win the
             marathon.

   option    n.  1 choice, selection, alternative, recourse, opportunity, way
             out:  There are fewer employment options open to the uneducated.
             2 choice, privilege, election, opportunity, chance:  Investors
             pay for the option to buy at a fixed figure if the price of the
             shares goes up.

   optional  adj.  voluntary, discretionary or discretional, elective,
             facultative, free, spontaneous, uncoerced, unforced,
             non-compulsory, uncompulsory, non-mandatory, unmandatory,
             non-requisite, unrequisite:  Life insurance is optional for
             those who have our hospitalization policy.

   opulent   adj.  1 wealthy, affluent, rich, prosperous, well-to-do, well
             off, comfortable, Colloq flush, well-heeled, loaded, rolling in
             it, made of money, in clover, on Easy Street, Brit on velvet, US
             in velvet, in the chips:  Timothy was fortunate in having met
             and wed an opulent widow.  2 luxurious, lavish, sumptuous:  That
             poor little rich girl was raised in the most opulent of
             surroundings.  3 abundant, copious, bountiful, plentiful,
             prolific, profuse, plenteous:  We enjoyed a most opulent harvest
             this year.

   opus      n.  work, composition, production, oeuvre, creation; magnum
             opus:  Her most important opus will be performed at the Albert
             Hall next week.

15.14 oracle...
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   oracle    n.  1 prophet, sibyl, seer, soothsayer, augur, fortune-teller,
             diviner, prognosticator, US reader (and adviser or advisor),
             Cassandra, Nostradamus; authority, guru, mastermind, mentor,
             wizard:  He insists on consulting his oracle before making any
             final decision.  2 prophecy, augury, prediction, divination,
             advice, prognostication, answer, message, divine utterance:
             According to the oracle, the travellers would survive the perils
             of the journey.

   oral      adj.  spoken, said, verbal, uttered, voiced, vocal, vocalized,
             enunciated, pronounced, articulated, word-of-mouth, viva voce:
             Tomorrow James must make an oral presentation of his plan to the
             entire staff.

   oration   n.  speech, declaration, address, lecture, recitation,
             discourse, monologue, declamation; valedictory, eulogy, homily,
             panegyric; Colloq spiel:  Bentley delivered a long oration on
             the future of the economy.

   oratory   n.  public speaking, speech-making, eloquence, rhetoric, way
             with words, command of the language, fluency, glibness,
             grandiloquence, magniloquence, declamation; elocution, diction,
             enunciation, articulation, address; Colloq gift of the gab:  The
             crowds who thronged to hear Churchill's oratory were seldom
             disappointed.

   orb       n.  sphere, ball, globe:  The golden orb of the sun sank into
             the sea.

   orbit     n.  1 circuit, course, path, track, revolution, circle, round,
             cycle:  The earth's orbit round the sun is elliptical.

             --v.  2 revolve, go round, circle, encircle, turn:  The earth
             orbits the sun in a year. Electrons orbit the nucleus of an
             atom.

   ordeal    n.  trial, test, tribulation(s), hardship, affliction,
             trouble(s), suffering, distress, anguish, nightmare, misery,
             grief, misfortune, adversity, tragedy, disaster:  She never
             fully recovered from her ordeal at the hands of the kidnappers.

   order     n.  1 organization, arrangement, grouping, disposition, form,
             structure, categorization, systematization or systemization,
             classification, codification, disposal, layout, array, sequence,
             Colloq set-up:  The order of the library is of crucial
             importance if we are to find anything. 2 organization,
             uniformity, regularity, system, pattern, symmetry, harmony,
             tidiness, orderliness, neatness:  Some believe that there is an
             order of things in the universe, others that the universe tends
             to chaos. 3 category, class, caste, level, kind, sort, rank,
             group, scale, importance, hierarchy, position, status, degree,
             Colloq pecking order:  Gregory's musical talents are of a very
             high order.  4 command, direction, directive, instruction,
             commandment, dictate, mandate, edict, behest, request, demand,
             ukase, decree, fiat, proclamation, pronouncement,
             pronunciamento; rule, regulation, law, ordinance, statute,
             requirement:  The police have issued an order to surrender all
             hand guns.  5 procedure, proceeding(s), discipline, conduct:
             The order of the meeting was breached by some rowdies.  6
             condition, state (of affairs):  Please leave everything in the
             order in which you found it.  7 purchase order, request,
             requisition, commitment, commission, instruction:  We received a
             large order for office furniture.  8 calm, peace, peacefulness,
             tranquillity, quiet, serenity, law and order, discipline,
             lawfulness:  After a brief commotion, order was restored.  9
             brotherhood, fraternity, sisterhood, sorority, fellowship,
             sodality, association, organization, society, guild, sect,
             company, community, lodge, body, knighthood:  One of her
             ancestors was a Knight of the Teutonic Order.  10 in order.  a
             neat, clean, tidy, shipshape, orderly, (well-)organized, ready,
             prepared, arranged:  Is everything in order for the wedding
             tomorrow?  b fitting, suitable, appropriate, correct, right,
             apt, called-for; required, demanded, needed:  I think that an
             apology is in order for the way you behaved.  11 in order that.
             so (that), with the aim or purpose that, to the end that:  We
             invited him in order that you might meet him.  12 in order to.
             to, for the purpose of:  In order to get there, you have to
             drive up the hill.  13 out of order.  a disordered,
             non-sequential, out of sequence, non-alphabetical, disorganized,
             unorganized, in disorder:  The cards in this catalogue are out
             of order and I cannot find anything. b unseemly, out of place,
             improper, uncalled-for, unsuitable, indecorous, Colloq chiefly
             Brit not cricket:  Your remark about her religion was completely
             out of order.  c out of commission, broken, in disrepair,
             non-functioning, non-functional, not working, broken-down,
             inoperative, out of kilter or Brit also kelter, Colloq (gone)
             haywire, kaput, bust(ed), US out of whack, on the fritz, shot;
             Slang on the blink, Brit wonky, gone phut:  The telly is out of
             order again.

             --v.  14 direct, command, instruct, charge, tell, bid, require,
             enjoin; demand, ordain; force, make:  The sergeant ordered the
             men to run around the drill field with full packs. The council
             ordered that garden rubbish should be packed in special bags. 15
             requisition, ask for, send (away) for, call for, apply for,
             reserve, engage, commission, contract for; purchase, buy:  Have
             you ordered breakfast for tomorrow? Let's order a take-away from
             the Chinese restaurant. 16 organize, systematize, arrange,
             classify, categorize, codify, lay out, sort (out), straighten
             (out or up):  The bottles were ordered in neat rows along the
             wall.

   orderly   adj.  1 in (good) order, (well-)organized, neat, shipshape,
             tidy, arranged, methodical, systematic, systematized or
             systemized, harmonious, symmetrical, regular, uniform:  Before
             you leave, make sure that your room is orderly.  2 well-behaved,
             disciplined, decorous, law-abiding, well-mannered, peaceable,
             tranquil, mannerly, polite, courteous, civil, civilized,
             non-violent:  Everyone left the burning theatre in an orderly
             fashion.

             --n.  3 assistant, adjutant, attendant, messenger; menial,
             servant; nurse's aide; Brit military batman; US candystriper;
             Slang US and Canadian gofer:  An orderly arrived with dispatches
             from the general. She has a job as a hospital orderly.

   ordinarily
             adv.  usually, normally, as a rule, commonly, generally, in
             general, customarily, routinely, typically, habitually, by and
             large, for the most part:  Ellie is ordinarily at her desk by
             nine o'clock.

   ordinary  adj.  1 usual, normal, expected, common, general, customary,
             routine, typical, habitual, accustomed, traditional, regular,
             everyday, familiar, set, humdrum:  This wine is quite good for
             ordinary drinking. Just display ordinary good manners when you
             meet the queen. 2 common, conventional, modest, plain, simple,
             prosaic, homespun, commonplace, run-of-the-mill, everyday,
             average, unpretentious, workaday, mediocre, fair, passable, so
             so, undistinguished, unexceptional, unremarkable, uninspired,
             pedestrian, bourgeois, peasant, provincial, unrefined, Colloq
             Brit common or garden, US common-or-garden variety,
             garden-variety:  They bought a rather ordinary house in an
             inferior neighbourhood.

             --n.  3 standard, norm, average, status quo, convention,
             expected:  Saint-Gaudens' architectural designs are far from the
             ordinary.  4 out of the ordinary. extraordinary, unusual,
             uncommon, strange, unfamiliar, different, unexpected,
             unconventional, curious, eccentric, peculiar, rare, exceptional,
             original, singular, unique, odd, bizarre, weird, offbeat,
             outlandish, striking, quaint, picturesque:  She was looking for
             a gift that was a little out of the ordinary, so I suggested a
             pet tarantula.

   organ     n.  1 device, instrument, implement, tool; member, part,
             element, unit, component, structure, Technical process:  The
             eye, come to think of it, is a truly miraculous organ.  2
             medium, vehicle, voice, mouthpiece, forum, publication, paper,
             magazine, newsletter, house organ, newspaper, annual,
             semi-annual, quarterly, monthly, fortnightly, weekly,
             hebdomadal, daily, journal, periodical:  The official organ of
             the Society is published in Abergavenny.

   organic   adj.  1 living, natural, biological, biotic, animate, breathing:
             Though coal may seem to be a mineral, it is organic, for it was
             formed from plants. 2 basic, elementary, essential, innate,
             inborn, natural, native, ingrained, primary, fundamental,
             visceral, constitutional, inherent, structural, integral:  The
             organic differences between the styles of writing are obvious.
             3 organized, systematic, coherent, coordinated, integrated,
             structured, methodical, orderly, consistent:  The various
             elements of the painting blend into an organic whole.

   organism  n.  living thing, structure, body; being, creature:  It is the
             work of natural scientists to classify all kinds of organisms.

   organization
             n.  1 organizing, structuring, assembling, assembly, putting
             together, coordination, systematizing, systematization,
             classifying, classification, categorizing, categorization,
             codifying, codification:  The organization of the school
             timetable took hours to complete.  2 structure, pattern,
             configuration, design, plan, scheme, order, system, organism,
             composition, arrangement, constitution, make-up, grouping,
             framework, format, form, shape:  One must consider the
             organization as a whole, not merely its constituent elements. 3
             body, system, institution, federation, confederacy,
             confederation, society, group, league, coalition, conglomerate,
             combine, consortium, syndicate, organism:  The organization is a
             coherent structure made up of an enormous number of disparate
             elements.

   organize  v.  1 structure, coordinate, systematize, systemize, order,
             arrange, sort (out), classify, categorize, codify, catalogue,
             group, tabulate, pigeon-hole, standardize:  These files ought to
             be organized so that you can find something when you need it. 2
             form, found, set up, establish, institute, start, begin, create,
             originate, initiate, put together, build, develop, US pull
             together:  In 1969, we organized a company to publish reference
             books.

   orgy      n.  1 bacchanalia, bacchanal, Saturnalia, Dionysia, debauch,
             carousal, carouse, spree, revel, party, Colloq binge, bender,
             drunk, bust, Slang jag, US and Canadian toot, tear:  The
             journalist represented the earl's party as a wild orgy.  2
             overindulgence, splurge, spree, fling, Slang US bender:  Trying
             to lift himself out of depression, Roger went on a spending
             orgy.

   orient    n.  1 east:  Harriet is in the orient on business.

             --adj.  2 Literary oriental, eastern:  The grass was sown with
             orient pearls.

             --v.  3 adjust, adapt, acclimatize or acclimate, habituate,
             accommodate, condition, accustom, familiarize, feel one's way,
             assess, get one's bearings, Colloq orientate:  It is a new job
             and she needs a few days to orient herself.

   orientation
             n.  1 placement, bearings, attitude, alignment, lie, placing,
             situation, layout, location, position, positioning, arrangement,
             set-up:  The orientation of the buildings is such that the
             windows face south. 2 introduction, training, initiation,
             briefing, familiarization, assimilation, acclimatization,
             preparation, instruction:  The orientation of the new employees
             is scheduled for next week.  We were given orientation lectures.

   origin    n.  1 source, derivation, rise, fountain-head, foundation,
             basis, base, well-spring, fount, provenance, Chiefly US
             provenience:  The origins of many English words are unknown.  2
             creation, genesis, birth, birthplace, cradle, dawning, dawn,
             origination, start, beginning, commencement, outset, launch,
             launching, inception, inauguration:  The origin of the notion of
             democracy can be traced to ancient Greece. 3 Often, origins.
             parentage, ancestry, extraction, descent, lineage, pedigree,
             genealogy, stock, heritage:  We have traced our family's origins
             back to the Middle Ages.

   original  adj.  1 initial, first, earliest, primary, beginning, starting,
             basic:  The original report made no mention of any missing
             jewellery.  2 native, indigenous, autochthonous, aboriginal,
             primordial, primeval, primitive:  At first, we could find only
             slight traces of the original inhabitants.  3 master, actual,
             primary, authentic, true, genuine, real, basic; prototypic(al),
             archetypal, source:  I have the original document and my lawyer
             has a copy.  4 creative, novel, innovative, unique, imaginative,
             unusual, inventive, ingenious; firsthand, fresh, underived,
             unprecedented:  The film is based on a highly original story by
             Daphne du Maurier.  The author has some original insights into
             Hamlet's relationship with Ophelia.

             --n.  5 prototype, archetype, source, model, pattern; master:
             The original hangs in the National Gallery.  6 eccentric,
             nonconformist, individualist, Colloq case, card, character, Brit
             queer fish:  True to his reputation as an original, Wilde
             sauntered down the Strand with a lily in his hand.

   originality
             n.  creativeness, creativity, inventiveness, ingenuity,
             innovativeness, innovation, novelty, newness, unorthodoxy,
             unconventionality, cleverness, daring, resourcefulness,
             independence, individuality, uniqueness, nonconformity:  One
             must admire Dali for his originality.

   originally
             adv.  in or at or from the beginning, (at ) first, from the
             first, initially, to begin with, at or from the outset, at or
             from the start, in the first place or instance, Colloq from the
             word go, from day one:  Originally, we were to have gone in
             Patrick's car.

   originate v.  1 create, bring about, engender, give birth to, beget,
             conceive, initiate, inaugurate, start, begin, introduce, launch,
             found, set up, institute, establish, invent, coin, devise,
             pioneer, design, contrive, concoct, mastermind, compose,
             organize, formulate, form, generate, produce, develop, evolve:
             Wasn't it the Chinese who originated free public health schemes?
             2 arise, rise, begin, start, come, spring, stem, flow, issue,
             emerge, emanate, proceed, grow, develop, evolve, derive, result:
             Where did the idea of the democratic form of government
             originate?

   ornament  n.  1 enhancement, embellishment, adornment, decoration,
             ornamentation, gingerbread, trimming, garnish, garnishment,
             frill, embroidery, beautification, accessory; frippery;
             knick-knack, furbelow, bauble, gewgaw, Slang US tchotchke:  We
             spent a pleasant afternoon putting ornaments on the Christmas
             tree. The ornaments on the mantelpiece needed dusting.

             --v.  2 decorate, embellish, enhance, adorn, trim, garnish,
             embroider, elaborate, beautify, accessorize, deck (out), dress
             up:  The cabinet is ornamented with ormolu fittings in the
             Empire style.

   ornamental
             adj.  decorative, beautifying, adorning, garnishing,
             embellishing:  Nothing in the house is ornamental, everything is
             functional.

   ornate    adj.  elaborate, florid, overdone, laboured, rococo, baroque,
             gingerbread, arabesque, fancy, lavish, rich, flowery, busy,
             fussy, frilly, intricate; high-flown, euphuistic, Ossianic,
             bombastic, pompous, pretentious, affected, grandiose, fulsome,
             highfalutin or hifalutin, grandiloquent, flamboyant:  Louis
             Quinze style is far too ornate for my tastes. We find his
             writing, with its contorted artificialities, far too ornate to
             appeal to the modern reader.

   orthodox  adj.  conformist, accepted, authoritative, authorized,
             recognized, received, official, standard, prevailing, prevalent,
             common, regular, popular, ordinary, doctrinal, established,
             traditional, traditionalist, accustomed, conventional,
             customary, conservative:  The orthodox view is that he was
             killed by an assassin acting on his own.

15.15 oscillate...
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   oscillate v.  fluctuate, vibrate, waver, see-saw, swing, sway; vacillate,
             equivocate, shilly-shally, hem and haw, tergiversate:  The
             needle is oscillating between the 'Safe' and 'Danger' marks.  I
             wish he'd stop oscillating and make up his mind.

   ostensibly
             adv.  outwardly, externally, superficially, patently,
             ostensively, demonstrably, apparently, evidently, seemingly;
             clearly, plainly, manifestly, conspicuously, obviously,
             patently, noticeably, prominently:  Ostensibly, he was visiting
             his aunt, but we all know he went to see Stella.

   ostentation
             n.  show, display, exhibition, exhibitionism, showing off,
             pretension, pretentiousness, flaunting, flashiness, flourish,
             flamboyance, parade, window-dressing:  His clothes are elegant
             without ostentation.

   ostentatious
             adj.  showy, boastful, braggart, vaunting, vain, vainglorious,
             flaunting, pretentious, flamboyant, theatrical, Colloq flash:
             It's terribly ostentatious of Lady Penny to wear her diamond
             tiara to the disco.

   ostracize v.  blackball, blacklist, banish, exile, boycott, isolate,
             segregate, exclude, excommunicate, snub, shun, avoid, Chiefly
             Brit send to Coventry, Colloq cut, cold-shoulder, give (someone)
             the cold shoulder:  Marcus has been ostracized at the club ever
             since the court case.

15.16 otherwise
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   otherwise adv.  1 if not, or else, under other circumstances, in another
             situation, on the other hand:  I learned something about you
             tonight that otherwise I should never have guessed. 2
             differently, in another manner or way:  You may travel unless
             the doctor advises otherwise.

15.17 out...
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   out       adv.  1 outside, outdoors, in or into the open air:  If you go
             out take an umbrella.  2 away (from), abroad, elsewhere, not
             (at) home, gone (from), gone away (from), absent (from):  She
             was out of the house when I phoned.  3 in or into the open, to
             or into public notice, for all to see, out of the closet:
             Everything will be brought out at the trial.  4 revealed,
             exposed, visible, discernible, manifest, in sight, in view:  Are
             the stars out tonight?  5 short, minus, missing, in default, out
             of pocket:  He is out the њ2000 he invested in a Welsh diamond
             mine.  6 free, at liberty, at large, loose, unconfined:  They
             let Matilda out after she served her sentence.  7 completely,
             thoroughly, effectively, entirely:  I was tired out after that
             long swim.

             --adj.  8 unconscious, senseless, insensible, Colloq out cold,
             out like a light:  He has been out for almost an hour.  9 dated,
             out-dated, out-moded, pass‚, old-fashioned, antiquated, old hat,
             d‚mod‚, obsolete, unfashionable:  Longer skirts were out in the
             mid-1960s.  10 outlying, distant, far-off, peripheral:  He was
             planning to travel to the outer reaches of his empire.  Let's
             sail to some of the out islands. 11 exhausted, gone, finished,
             ended; over, completed:  Our food was out. Rescue came before
             the day was out.  12 inaccurate, incorrect, wrong, at fault,
             faulty, off, wide of the mark:  Your figures are out by a factor
             of four.  13 unacceptable, forbidden, prohibited, not allowed,
             Colloq not on:  Smoking is out in the dining room.  14
             extinguished, unlit; off, doused; inoperative, non-functioning,
             out of order or commission, unserviceable, broken:  Make certain
             that all camp-fires are completely out. The light is out in the
             corridor.

             --n.  15 alibi, excuse, escape, loophole, evasion:  She used
             your visit as an out to avoid calling on her mother.

   out-and-out
             adj.  complete, unmitigated, unalloyed, undiluted, pure, utter,
             perfect, consummate, outright, total, downright, unqualified,
             thorough, thoroughgoing, through-and-through, dyed in the wool:
             She was an out-and-out fool to turn down his marriage proposal.

   outburst  n.  outbreak, eruption, explosion, blow-up, flare-up,
             fulmination; upsurge, surge, outpouring, welling (forth),
             upwelling, outflow(ing), rush, flood, effusion, effluence or
             efflux; fit, access, attack, spasm, paroxysm, seizure, tantrum:
             Another outburst like that, young man, and you'll be sent home.

   outcast   n.  pariah, exile, reject, persona non grata, leper,
             untouchable, expatriate, refugee, displaced person, DP, evacuee:
             In 1946, Europe swarmed with outcasts, the detritus of the war.

   outcome   n.  result, consequence, end (result or product), after-effect,
             effect, upshot, sequel, development, outgrowth, aftermath, wake,
             follow-up, Medicine sequela (usually pl. sequelae), Colloq
             pay-off, bottom line:  One outcome of the new safety regulations
             will be higher fares.  We eagerly awaited the outcome of the
             race.

   outcry    n.  protest, protestation, decrial, complaint, indignation,
             uproar, vociferation, clamour, clamouring, commotion, outburst,
             noise, hullabaloo, howl, howling, hoot, hooting, boo, booing,
             hiss, hissing:  The public outcry against terrorism was heard
             round the world.

   outdo     v.  exceed, surpass, excel, transcend, beat, outstrip, outshine,
             top, cap, trump, overcome, defeat, outweigh:  Their prices are
             lower because they outdo us in cheapness of labour.

   outdoor   adj.  outside, out of doors, alfresco, open-air:  Both of them
             enjoy outdoor activities like hiking and bicycling.

   outfit    n.  1 gear, rig, equipment, equipage, apparatus, accoutrements
             or US also accouterments, paraphernalia, trappings, tackle,
             tack, utensils:  His mountain-climbing outfit turned out to be
             extremely expensive.  2 clothes, costume, ensemble; attire,
             garb, clothing, dress; Colloq get-up, togs:  She was wearing a
             very weird outfit that attracted a lot of stares.  3 firm,
             concern, business, organization, company, (military) unit,
             corporation; party, set, group; Colloq set-up:  I joined the
             outfit when it consisted of only a hundred people.

             --v.  4 fit (out or up), equip, kit out, provision, stock,
             accoutre or US also accouter, rig (out or up), supply, furnish:
             The shop is prepared to outfit anyone for anything from a walk
             in the country to an African safari or an Arctic expedition.

   outgoing  adj.  1 departing, retiring, ex-, former, past, emeritus,
             leaving, withdrawing:  It is our custom to honour the outgoing
             president with a banquet.  2 genial, friendly, amiable, cordial,
             warm, expansive, approachable, affable, accessible, amenable,
             easygoing, amicable, sociable, congenial, extrovert, familiar,
             informal, communicative:  Because of his outgoing attitude,
             Keith gets along well with most people.

   outing    n.  jaunt, junket, excursion, trip, expedition, tour, ride,
             Colloq spin:  This year, the annual church outing will again be
             to Torquay.

   outlandish
             adj.  unfamiliar, strange, odd, queer, offbeat, peculiar,
             curious, exotic, foreign, alien, unknown, unheard-of, different,
             exceptional, extraordinary, quaint, eccentric, bizarre, outr‚,
             weird, fantastic, unusual, singular, unique; freakish,
             grotesque, barbarous; Colloq far-out, camp(y), kinky:  Those
             youngsters wear the most outlandish hair-dos you have ever seen.

   outlast   v.  survive, outlive; outwear; weather:  Considering her
             condition, it seems doubtful that she will outlast her husband.

   outlaw    n.  1 criminal, gangster, robber, desperado, bandit, highwayman,
             brigand, footpad, picaroon, pirate, fugitive (from justice or
             the law), renegade, US road-agent:  In Westerns, the sheriff
             always wins out over the outlaws.

             --v.  2 forbid, disallow, ban, interdict, bar, exclude,
             prohibit, proscribe:  Some countries have outlawed prostitution,
             but with little effect.

   outlay    n.  expense, cost, expenditure, spending, disbursement, payment:
             The city council refused to approve the outlay for a new
             swimming-pool.

   outlet    n.  1 way out, exit, egress, loophole, relief, escape, escape
             hatch, vent, opening, release, safety-valve, discharge:  There
             seemed to be no outlet for his anger but to throw the cushion at
             her. The main outlet of the Great Lakes is the St Lawrence
             river. 2 retailer, shop, store, market:  The company is having
             difficulty finding outlets that will stock its products.

   outline   n.  1 profile, silhouette, contour, periphery, boundary,
             footprint:  This outline is of the desk area occupied by the
             keyboard and monitor. 2 pr‚cis, synopsis, r‚sum‚, summary,
             digest, abstract, conspectus, survey, overview, run-down,
             recapitulation, review, (thumbnail) sketch, skeleton, (overall)
             plan, layout, framework, draft, scenario:  O'Brien presented an
             outline of what his company planned to do after the take-over.

             --v.  3 trace, draft, sketch, rough out, profile, block (out),
             plan (out), lay out, define, delineate:  None of the divers was
             particularly enthusiastic about the procedure outlined for
             bringing up the wreckage.

   outlook   n.  1 view, position, point of view, viewpoint, prospect,
             perspective, slant, angle, standpoint, attitude, opinion:  His
             outlook on the situation in the Middle East is bound to be
             somewhat biased. 2 prospect, forecast, expectation(s):  What is
             the outlook for the value of the pound sterling over the next
             year?

   outlying  adj.  distant, far-off, far-flung, outer, outermost,
             out-of-the-way, remote, far-away, peripheral, furthest or
             farthest:  In those days it took weeks for the news to reach the
             outlying parts of the empire.

   out-of-the-way
             adj.  1 untravelled, unfrequented, isolated, lonely, outlying,
             obscure, hidden, secluded, inaccessible:  She now lives in some
             out-of-the-way village in the Himalayas.  2 unusual, odd,
             peculiar, extraordinary, far-fetched, remarkable, outr‚,
             exceptional, outlandish, strange, rare, uncommon, exotic,
             unheard-of, unconventional, queer, weird, bizarre:  His latest
             book is a treatise on some out-of-the-way subject.

   outpouring
             n.  effusion, outflow, flow, outburst, flood, deluge, torrent,
             spate, emanation, spouting, spurt, gushing, efflux, effluence,
             outrush, tide, cascade, cataract, Niagara, Technical
             debouchment:  We scarcely expected such an outpouring of grief
             at her death.  This writing appears to reflect the outpourings
             of his soul.

   output    n.  1 production, result, yield, crop, harvest:  Nobody was
             quite ready for such a massive output.  2 productivity,
             achievement, efficiency:  Job insecurity has diminished her
             output.

             --v.  3 put out, produce, generate, create, manufacture, yield,
             achieve:  Our new laser printer outputs about ten pages a
             minute.

   outrage   n.  1 violence, atrocity, inhumanity, barbarism, enormity, evil,
             barbarity, savagery, brutality, malignity, malefaction,
             wrongdoing, evil-doing, maltreatment, abuse, cruelty, injury,
             harm, damage:  Wherever there is war there is misery and
             outrage.  2 resentment, affront, bitterness, indignation, hurt,
             shock, anger, wrath, ire:  The minister felt outrage at being
             given a parking ticket.  3 insult, indignity, slight:
             Contributors to the charity considered it an outrage that the
             fund-raisers should keep so much of the money.

             --v.  4 offend, insult, affront, vex, displease, distress,
             nettle, chafe, infuriate, anger, enrage, madden, make one's
             blood boil, raise (someone's) hackles, rile:  He was outraged to
             discover that the wretch had proposed to his daughter. 5
             violate, desecrate, defile, do violence to, injure, harm, abuse,
             damage:  Such deeds outrage human feelings.  6 rape, violate,
             ravage, ravish, deflower, attack:  He seized the unhappy girl
             and outraged her.

   outrageous
             adj.  1 excessive, extravagant, immoderate, exorbitant,
             enormous, unreasonable, preposterous, shocking, extreme,
             unwarranted, exaggerated, unconscionable, inordinate,
             intolerable, disgraceful, shameful, scandalous:  The prices at
             that restaurant are absolutely outrageous.  2 vicious, cruel,
             heinous, atrocious, barbaric, inhuman, abusive, beastly,
             horrible, horrid, horrendous, iniquitous, villainous, wicked,
             evil, egregious, flagrant, grievous, infamous, execrable,
             abominable, grisly, hideous, monstrous, vile, unthinkable, foul,
             awful, unspeakable, appalling, offensive, indecent:  The
             captives suffered the most outrageous treatment at the hands of
             their conquerors. 3 indecent, offensive, immoral, rude,
             indelicate, obnoxious, profane, obscene, dirty, filthy, lewd,
             salacious, foul, smutty, scatological, pornographic,
             objectionable, repellent, repulsive, nauseating, nauseous,
             nasty, gross, revolting, shocking, repugnant, disgusting,
             fulsome, perverted, depraved, dissolute, degenerate, dissipated,
             debauched, profligate; explicit, unrestrained; foul-mouthed,
             thersitical, insulting; unseemly, inappropriate, indecorous,
             improper, naughty, appalling, embarrassing; Literary Fescennine,
             US shy-making:  The sermon denounced the outrageous films,
             books, magazines, and television programmes to which children
             are exposed. Warren sometimes says the most outrageous things.

   outr‚     adj.  unconventional, unusual, extravagant, bizarre, weird,
             strange, odd, peculiar, grotesque, outlandish, freakish,
             out-of-the-way:  The attention of the media was turned upon the
             singer's outr‚ behaviour on stage.

   outright  adj.  1 unqualified, total, unreserved, unrestricted, full,
             complete, unconditional, unequivocal, clear, direct, definite,
             unmistakable or unmistakeable:  The duke is the outright owner
             of the property.  2 undisguised, unmitigated, utter, consummate,
             pure, out-and-out, all-out, sheer, absolute, stark, bald,
             thorough, arrant, thoroughgoing, through-and-through, downright,
             direct, definite, unmistakable or unmistakeable:  Her outright
             refusal to provide further help was met with dismay.

             --adv.  3 directly, at once, immediately, instantaneously,
             instantly, then and there or there and then, straight or right
             away, on the spot, right off:  One passenger was killed
             outright, the other died later in hospital.  4 completely,
             entirely, exactly, precisely, totally, in toto, utterly, baldly,
             starkly, consummately, purely, thoroughly, directly,
             unhesitatingly, quite, absolutely, explicitly, categorically,
             straightforwardly, plainly, openly, forthrightly, unequivocally,
             unambiguously, candidly:  I wish that Henry wasn't so reticent
             and would say outright what he means. 5 unrestrictedly,
             unqualifiedly, unreservedly, unconditionally:  The duke owns the
             property outright.

   outset    n.  beginning, start, inauguration, inception, first, Colloq
             kick-off:  Had you let them know who you were at the outset,
             this wouldn't have happened.

   outside   n.  1 exterior, face, facing, shell, skin, case, casing,
             surface, front; fa‡ade:  What is that on the outside of the box?
             The outside of the house is painted white. 2 aspect, appearance,
             look, demeanour, face, front, fa‡ade, mien, mask, disguise,
             false front, pretence:  One cannot tell what people are really
             like from the outside they present to the world. 3 extreme,
             limit, most, maximum, utmost, best, worst, longest:  At the
             outside, you shouldn't pay more than half your income for
             housing. I'll wait for her for an hour at the outside. 4 the
             world at large:  We had to bring in someone from the outside to
             complete the work.

             --adj.  5 exterior, external, out of doors, outdoor:  They have
             added an outside swimming-pool to the house.  6 maximum,
             maximal, highest, best, worst, greatest, most, largest, longest,
             furthest or farthest:  What was their outside estimate for
             replacing the roof? The outside time for driving here from
             London is about an hour. 7 private, home, cottage, secondary,
             peripheral, independent, freelance:  Her outside job pays more
             than her regular work.  8 unlikely, remote, faint, Colloq slim:
             He has an outside chance of beating the world record.  9
             foreign, alien, outward; unconnected, excluded, uninvolved,
             disinvolved, independent, separate, different:  I'm worried that
             Phil might be subject to outside influences.  An outside
             contractor is doing the work.

             --adv.  10 outdoors, out of doors:  Perhaps you'd like to step
             outside to discuss the matter further?

   outsider  n.  non-member, non-initiate, foreigner, alien, outlander,
             stranger, newcomer, guest, visitor, trespasser, interloper,
             intruder, squatter, invader, Colloq gatecrasher:  The others
             always treated Peter as an outsider. Why do I feel an outsider
             in my own home?

   outskirts n.pl.  periphery, edge, environs, outer reaches, vicinity,
             border(s), suburb(s), exurb(s), general area or neighbourhood,
             purlieus, fringes, vicinage, faubourg(s):  The university is on
             the outskirts of the city.

   outsmart  v.  outwit, outfox, out-think, outmanoeuvre, outmanipulate,
             outplay, steal a march on, get the better or best of, trick,
             dupe, hoodwink, fool, deceive, hoax, gull, make a fool of;
             swindle, cheat, defraud, cozen, Colloq put one over on, pull a
             fast one on, take in, make a monkey (out) of, bamboozle, con,
             Brit nobble, Slang slip or put one or something over on
             (someone):  'I have been outsmarted by bigger fools than you!',
             Mr White shouted.

   outspoken adj.  candid, frank, open, free, direct, unreserved, unreticent,
             straightforward, forthright, explicit, specific, plain-spoken,
             plain-speaking, unequivocal, unceremonious, unambiguous,
             unsubtle, uninhibited, unshrinking, blunt, bold, brusque, brash,
             undiplomatic, tactless, crude:  Linda was always quite outspoken
             in her opinions of her neighbours.  Her outspoken observations
             are a fruitful source of gossip.

   outstanding
             adj.  1 prominent, eminent, renowned, famous, famed,
             unforgettable, memorable, celebrated, distinguished, special,
             choice, noteworthy, notable, noted, important, conspicuous,
             exceptional, excellent, superior, first-class, first-rate,
             superb, remarkable, extraordinary, marvellous, sensational,
             Colloq smashing, super:  Liszt was the outstanding
             pianist-composer of his time.  2 unsettled, on-going,
             unresolved, unpaid, due, owed or owing, receivable or payable;
             remaining, leftover:  The company has a few outstanding debts.

   outstrip  v.  overcome, surpass, outdo, outperform, outshine, outclass,
             better, beat, transcend, best, worst, exceed, excel,
             outdistance, overtake, top, cap, put in the shade, eclipse:
             Bannister again outstripped everyone in the race.

   outward   adj.  external, exterior, outer, outside, outlying, manifest,
             obvious, evident, apparent, visible, observable; superficial,
             surface, extrinsic, skin-deep, shallow, pretended, false,
             ostensible, formal, physical, bodily, fleshly, carnal, mundane,
             worldly, secular, temporal, terrestrial, material,
             non-spiritual:  She gave every outward sign of being the
             bereaved widow. Whatever outward trappings money may buy, A
             man's true wealth lies deep inside.

   outwardly adv.  externally, apparently, visibly, superficially,
             ostensibly, evidently, seemingly, on the surface, to all
             appearances, to all intents and purposes:  Though the town was
             outwardly quiet, we had a feeling of ominous foreboding.

   outwards  adv.  outward, outside, away, out, without:  The towns of the
             early twentieth century centred on the railway station and
             radiated outwards.

   outweigh  v.  overcome, outbalance, overbalance, overweigh, tip the
             scales, preponderate (over), surpass, prevail (over), override,
             take precedence (over), compensate (for), make up for:  His
             feeling for his wife outweighed all else in his life.

   outwit    v.  See outsmart, above.

15.18 oval...
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   oval      adj.  egg-shaped, ovoid, ovate, oviform, obovoid, obovate;
             elliptical, ellipsoid(al):  His mother's picture hung in an oval
             frame over the mantel.

   ovation   n.  applause, acclamation, acclaim, plaudits, cheers, cheering,
             clapping, laudation, praise, kudos, Colloq (big) hand:  At the
             conclusion of the concerto, the pianist was given a standing
             ovation.

   over      prep.  1 above, on, upon, on top of, atop (of):  She spread a
             tarpaulin over the boat to protect it.  2 more than, greater
             than, upwards or upward of, in excess of, (over and) above,
             (over and) beyond; exceeding:  Of the 2000 people questioned in
             our survey, over half said they think prunes are funny. The
             thieves took over њ50,000-worth of paintings. 3 across, to or
             from or on the other side of; beyond:  The children crossed over
             the river to play in the woods on the other side. 4 for, during,
             in or over or during the course of, through, throughout:  Over
             the next week she will be working in the Paris office.  5 (all)
             through, throughout, (all) about, all over:  We travelled over
             the entire country in the course of our holiday.  Have you gone
             over the manuscript I left with you?

             --adj.  6 done (with), finished, terminated, concluded, ended,
             past, settled, closed, at an end, over with:  I'm afraid it's
             all over between us, Carrie.

             --adv.  7 to, onto, past, beyond, across:  This room looks out
             over the sea.  8 remaining, as a remainder, as surplus,
             outstanding:  When we finished eating, there wasn't much left
             over.  9 (once) again, once more, one more time:  This pot will
             have to be cleaned over again.  10 down, to the ground or floor:
             You almost knocked over the lamp.

   overall   adj.  total, complete, comprehensive, all-inclusive, inclusive,
             whole, entire, all-embracing, blanket:  The overall cost,
             including materials and labour, came to more than I had
             expected.

   overawe   v.  overwhelm, intimidate, cow, daunt, awe, bully, hector,
             browbeat, dominate, domineer, frighten, scare, terrify,
             disconcert, discomfit, upset, abash:  The children were overawed
             by their father's slightest sign of displeasure.

   overbearing
             adj.  repressive, domineering, bullying, imperious, officious,
             high and mighty, high-handed, overweening, magisterial, lordly,
             authoritarian, wilful, despotic, dogmatic, autocratic,
             tyrannical, dictatorial, peremptory, arbitrary, assertive,
             arrogant, cavalier, haughty, superior, supercilious,
             pretentious, Colloq bossy, pushy, hoity-toity, highfalutin or
             hifalutin, snooty, Slang snotty:  His temper was harsh and
             severe, his manner haughty and overbearing.

   overcast  adj.  cloudy, clouded, sunless, moonless, starless, murky, grey,
             louring or lowering, dull, dark, darkened, dreary, sombre,
             gloomy, dismal, threatening, menacing:  The sky was overcast
             this morning, but the sun is now beginning to shine through.

   overcome  v.  1 beat, defeat, conquer, overpower, subdue, worst, best,
             triumph over, win (out) (over), prevail (over), overthrow,
             overwhelm, vanquish, get the better or best of, whip, drub,
             rout, break, subjugate, suppress, crush, master, Colloq lick:
             If we do not overcome these temptations, they will overcome us.
             The superior force easily overcame the tiny group of defenders.

             --adj.  2 beaten, defeated, overwhelmed, subdued, worsted,
             bested; affected, speechless, swept off one's feet, rendered
             helpless, overpowered, moved, influenced, at a loss (for words),
             Colloq bowled over:  The victim's parents were overcome with
             grief when the casualty list was published. Colin was too
             overcome to speak at the award presentation.

   overconfident
             adj.  1 brash, arrogant, cocksure, cocky, brazen, hubristic,
             swaggering, audacious, overbearing, vainglorious, Colloq pushy:
             It is harmful for a sportsman's morale to be overconfident of
             winning. 2 heedless, foolhardy, thoughtless, short-sighted,
             hasty:  Rock-climbers should not be overconfident and rely
             entirely on their ropes.

   overcritical
             adj.  supercritical, hypercritical, captious, carping, niggling,
             cavilling, querulous, fault-finding, finicky, fussy,
             hair-splitting, difficult, fastidious, harsh, severe, demanding,
             exacting, small, small-minded, US and Canadian picayune, Colloq
             picky, nit-picking, pernickety or US also persnickety:  You
             should not be overcritical of Maddy - she's only a child.

   overcrowded
             adj.  jammed, packed, congested, populous, over-populous,
             jam-packed, overpopulated; swarming, crawling, choked, packed to
             the gunwales:  The planet is becoming overcrowded. We squeezed
             into an already overcrowded train.

   overdo    v.  1 carry to excess, overindulge, be intemperate, go or carry
             to extremes, overact, exaggerate, carry or go too far,
             overreach, not know when to stop, paint the lily, gild refined
             gold, out-Herod Herod, Colloq go overboard, do to death, lay it
             on thick, lay it on with a trowel; go off the deep end:
             Exercise a little judgement and try not to overdo it.  2
             overwork, do too much, overtax, exhaust, fatigue, overload,
             overburden, Colloq bite off more than one can chew, burn the
             candle at both ends:  Don't overdo it or you'll feel the results
             tomorrow.

   overdue   adj.  late, tardy, behindhand, behind, unpunctual, belated, US
             past due:  As it is now December, payment is long overdue. I've
             got an overdue library book to return.

   overeat   v.  gorge, binge, gormandize, stuff oneself, overindulge,
             guzzle, feast, wolf down, overfeed, do the gavage, Colloq pack
             away, Brit pig, US pig out:  People not only overeat but they
             tend to eat the wrong foods.

   overgrown adj.  covered, overrun, overspread, luxuriant, weedy, abundant:
             The walls are all overgrown with ivy.

   overhang  v.  1 jut (out), beetle, bulge (out), project (out), protrude,
             stick out, loom (out), extend (out), hang (out) over:  The
             balcony overhangs the sea.  2 impend, threaten, menace, imperil,
             loom:  His life was overhung by the threat of blackmail.

             --n.  3 ledge, projection, bulge, protrusion, extension:  A
             swallow nested under the overhang of the roof.

   overhaul  v.  1 overtake, pass, gain on or upon, draw ahead of, catch up
             with, get ahead of, outstrip, outdistance, leave behind, lap:
             We overhauled the ketch and were beginning to close on the yawl
             when the squall hit us. 2 renovate, refurbish, recondition,
             rebuild, restore, repair, service, adjust, patch (up), mend, fix
             (up):  The car engine needs to be thoroughly overhauled.

             --n.  3 reconditioning, overhauling, refurbishing, rebuilding,
             renovation, servicing, adjustment, mending, fixing (up):  The
             overhaul of the die-stamping machine will require two months to
             complete.

   overhead  adv.  1 (up) above, (up) in the air or sky, high up, on high,
             aloft, skyward:  The aeroplanes passed overhead at dawn.

             --adj.  2 elevated, raised, upper:  The crane travels on an
             overhead track.

             --n.  3 Brit overheads, US overhead. (basic or fixed) costs,
             operating cost(s), expense(s), outlay, disbursement(s), running
             cost(s), expenditure(s), maintenance, cost(s) of doing business:
             One way to increase profits is by reducing overheads.

   overjoyed adj.  delighted, ecstatic, elated, happy, rapturous, euphoric,
             jubilant, thrilled, cock-a-hoop, transported, Colloq tickled
             pink, in seventh heaven, on cloud nine, Brit over the moon:  We
             were overjoyed to hear your news and to receive the invitation
             to your wedding.

   overlap   v.  1 lap (over), overlie, overlay, shingle, Technical
             imbricate, strobilate:  Note how the upper tiles overlap the
             lower to keep the rain out.  2 coincide, correspond, intersect:
             Our work shifts overlap by four hours.

             --n.  3 lap, flap, overlay, fly (front) or Brit flies,
             imbrication:  The overlap conceals the buttons that close the
             skirt on the side.

   overload  v.  1 weigh down, burden, overburden, load (up), overtax, saddle
             with, tax, strain, impede, handicap, oppress, encumber, cumber,
             overcharge:  They overloaded me with so much work that I'll
             never finish.

             --n.  2 surcharge, overcharge, overburden, dead weight,
             oppression, handicap, tax, load, encumbrance, impediment,
             hindrance:  We had to hire extra people at Christmas to help
             deal with the overload.

   overlook  v.  1 miss, slip up on, omit, neglect, slight, disregard, fail
             to notice, ignore, pass over, leave out, forget, Colloq pass up:
             You overlooked an error on the first page.  2 blink at, wink at,
             let go (by), let pass, let ride, turn a blind eye to, shut
             (one's) eyes to, pretend not to notice, take no notice of,
             ignore, disregard, forgive, pardon, excuse, permit, allow,
             forget about, write off, condone, make allowances (for), let
             bygones be bygones, gloss over:  I shall overlook your slowness
             if you will work late to compensate for it. 3 front on (to),
             face, give upon, command or afford a view of, look out on or
             over, have as a vista or view:  My room overlooks the lake.

   overly    adv.  excessively, too, exceedingly, immoderately,
             disproportionately, unduly, inordinately, extraordinarily, very,
             Colloq damned:  She seemed overly anxious for us to leave.

   overpower v.  1 overcome, overwhelm, beat, vanquish, conquer, defeat,
             crush, put down, worst, best, prevail, master, quell, subdue,
             subjugate:  The thugs easily overpowered the elderly couple and
             took their money. 2 overcome, overwhelm, dumbfound or dumfound,
             daze, stagger, amaze, stun, stupefy, nonplus, strike, Colloq
             floor:  I was quite overpowered by the grandeur of the house.

   overpowering
             adj.  overwhelming, irresistible, powerful, telling, compelling,
             unendurable, unbearable, oppressive:  They presented an
             overpowering argument against the use of asbestos as an
             insulator.

   overrate  v.  overvalue, make too much of, exaggerate the worth or value
             of, attach too much importance to, overprize, assess too highly:
             They insist that his value to the company is overrated and that
             he should be dismissed.

   overreact v.  exaggerate, make much ado about nothing, make too much of
             (something), make a mountain out of a molehill, lose all or
             one's sense of proportion, blow (up) out of (all) proportion:
             I'd say that she overreacted by leaving him because he forgot
             her birthday.

   overriding
             adj.  dominant, dominating, predominant, predominating,
             compelling, prevailing, primary, prime, most important,
             overruling, overwhelming, paramount, preponderant, principal,
             cardinal, main, chief:  His overriding reason for buying the
             larger dictionary was that it made a better doorstop.

   overrun   v.  invade, defeat, attack, ravage, destroy, overwhelm, conquer,
             harry, vandalize, plunder, maraud, scourge, despoil, sack,
             strip, pillage, storm, Colloq blitz:  Within a week the armies
             had overrun the country and captured the capital city.

   overseas  adv.  abroad:  Did you serve overseas during the war?

   oversee   v.  direct, manage, watch (over), keep an eye on, administer,
             superintend, run, supervise, operate, manipulate, handle,
             control:  We employed Gertrude to oversee our offices in
             Frankfurt.

   overseer  n.  superintendent, supervisor, manager, foreman, forewoman,
             superior, Colloq boss, chief, super, Brit gaffer, US straw boss,
             (head or chief) honcho:  Simon is too hard a taskmaster to be
             overseer of that sensitive operation.

   overshadow
             v.  1 dominate, outshine, eclipse, dwarf, diminish, minimize,
             put in or throw into or leave the shade, steal the limelight
             from, tower over or above, excel:  The Crown, overshadowed by
             the great barons, turned for aid to the Church. 2 spoil, blight,
             ruin, mar, take (all) the pleasure from, put a damper on, take
             the edge off, impair, take the enjoyment out of:  The news from
             the east overshadowed everyone's spirits at the party.

   oversight n.  1 omission, inadvertence, neglect, laxity, laxness, fault,
             failure, dereliction, error, mistake, blunder, carelessness,
             heedlessness:  It was owing to an oversight by a clerk that the
             flight booking was not made. 2 supervision, superintendence,
             surveillance, management, direction, guidance, administration;
             charge, care, custody, keeping, hands, protection, auspices:
             The matter of expenses must be left to the oversight of the
             committee established to deal with such things.

   overstate v.  exaggerate, magnify, hyperbolize, embroider, overstress,
             colour, make (too) much of, overdraw, overemphasize, stretch,
             enlarge, inflate, blow up:  They might have overstated the
             problem by asking for a 24-hour police guard.

   overstep  v.  exceed, transcend, surpass, go beyond:  Again Hortense has
             overstepped the bounds of propriety by inviting herself to the
             reception.

   overt     adj.  apparent, evident, plain, clear, obvious, manifest,
             clear-cut, unconcealed, patent, open, visible, observable,
             public:  Moving the troops to the border may be considered an
             act of overt hostility.

   overtake  v.  1 catch (up with or to), reach, draw level or even with,
             overhaul, gain on or upon, move by or past, pass, leave behind,
             outstrip, outdistance:  The express train overtakes the local
             one at Amersham.  2 come upon, seize, catch (unprepared),
             befall, strike, hit, overwhelm:  The weaknesses of old age
             overtook the actress before she could finish writing her
             memoirs.

   overthrow v.  1 defeat, beat, rout, conquer, overpower, master, bring
             down, depose, oust, overwhelm, unseat, unhorse, topple,
             overturn, dethrone, thrash, worst, best:  The new leader was
             overthrown by the partisans in two weeks. Cotswold Rangers
             overthrew Kent United in last night's match at Hurley.

             --n.  2 defeat, rout, conquest, deposing, ousting, unseating,
             toppling, overturn, overturning, downfall, end, ruin, fall,
             collapse, destruction, suppression, quashing, crushing,
             subjugation, US ouster:  The overthrow of the military regime
             was followed by weeks of rioting and looting.

   overtone  n.  undertone, connotation, hint, suggestion, innuendo,
             insinuation, intimation, indication, implication:  Do I detect
             overtones of regret now that you are finally leaving?

   overture  n.  Often, overtures. approach, advance, offer, proposal,
             proposition, tender:  While they were winning, they rejected all
             peace overtures.

   overturn  v.  1 turn over, knock down or over, tip over, capsize, up-end,
             upset, turn turtle, turn upside down, turn topsy-turvy, invert:
             The tanks overturned when they tried to drive past the huge
             concrete barriers. On his first day as a waiter, he overturned
             the soup in a guest's lap. 2 bring down, overthrow, throw over,
             upset, depose, unthrone, unseat, oust, eject:  The dictatorship
             was overturned and the country returned to being a democratic
             republic.

             --n.  3 overturning, overthrow, unseating, ousting, toppling,
             fall, destruction, ruin, defeat, US ouster:  Could the overturn
             of the present regime be effected without force of arms?

   overwhelm v.  1 overpower, overcome, overtax, devastate, stagger, crush,
             defeat, destroy, subdue, suppress, quash, quell, conquer, beat,
             bring down, prostrate, weigh down, oppress:  Overwhelmed by
             grief, she dissolved into tears.  2 inundate, overcome, engulf,
             submerge, flood (over); deluge, swamp, bury, immerse:  A feeling
             of terror suddenly overwhelmed me as I watched my safety rope
             fray and break. In only a few hours the rising waters had
             completely overwhelmed the house. 3 overcome, stagger, astound,
             astonish, dumbfound or dumfound, shock, stun, bewilder, confuse,
             confound, nonplus, surprise, take aback, Colloq bowl over, knock
             off one's feet or pins, blow one's mind, discombobulate, Brit
             knock for six:  We were overwhelmed by the friendly reception
             that awaited our return.

   overwhelming
             adj.  1 overpowering, uncontrollable, irresistible, devastating,
             unendurable, unbearable, crushing, burdensome, formidable:  He
             had an overwhelming sense of shame for what he had said.  2
             awesome, awe-inspiring, stupefying, astounding, astonishing,
             staggering, bewildering, mind-shattering, prodigious,
             mind-boggling, Colloq mind-blowing:  When I first went to live
             in London, I found its sheer size totally overwhelming.

   overwork  v.  1 overexert, overstrain, overburden, oppress, overtax,
             overload, overuse:  We were so overworked that the quality had
             to suffer.  2 slave (away), burn the midnight oil, lucubrate:
             She insisted on overworking in order to get the project finished
             on time.

             --n.  3 overexertion, overstrain, strain:  I was ready to drop
             from overwork.

   overwrought
             adj.  1 tense, nervous, jittery, jumpy, fidgety, touchy, in a
             dither or twitter, all a-twitter, overexcited, on edge,
             over-stimulated, frantic, frenetic, distracted, Brit strung up,
             US strung out, Colloq (all) worked up, edgy, in a tizzy, wound
             up, uptight:  They were quite overwrought worrying about the
             children's safety.  2 overworked, ornate, elaborate, baroque,
             rococo, florid, flowery, fussy, ostentatious, busy, gaudy,
             garish:  Some of the Victorian houses were characterized by
             overwrought gingerbread decoration. A few of his poems are
             overwrought and difficult to digest.

15.19 owe...
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   owe       v.  1 be in debt to, be indebted to, be beholden to:  It must be
             a good feeling not to owe anyone any money at all.  2 owing to.
             because of, on account of, thanks to; through, as a result of,
             resulting from, Colloq due to:  Owing to my schedule, I cannot
             stay the night. The higher tides are owing to the positions of
             the sun and moon.

   owner     n.  possessor, holder; proprietor, proprietress:  The papers
             have been returned to their rightful owner. Who is the owner of
             the property?

16.0 P
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16.1 pace...
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   pace      n.  1 step, stride:  Please walk forward two paces.  2 rate (of
             speed), tempo, speed, velocity, Colloq clip:  We were proceeding
             at a pace of five miles per hour.

             --v.  3 walk, stride, tread; traverse:  Alistair paced up and
             down nervously, waiting for word from the surgeon. 4 measure,
             gauge or gage, judge, rate, estimate, determine, reckon, figure,
             compute:  I was trying to pace myself to conserve some energy
             for a sprint finish.

   pack      n.  1 parcel, package, packet, bundle, bale, backpack, knapsack,
             rucksack, haversack, kitbag, kit, duffle or duffel bag:  The
             stranger hoisted his pack onto his shoulder and loped off.  2
             load, lot, bunch, multitude, heap, pile, accumulation, mass,
             amassment, mess, barrel, peck:  She told the jury a pack of
             lies.  3 group, collection, assembly, assemblage, congregation,
             gathering, crowd, number, throng, horde, mass, crew, gang, body,
             lots, loads, band, company, party, set, flock, herd, drove, mob,
             swarm, bevy, covey, circle, coterie, clique:  A huge pack of
             people were waiting at the stage door for the star to emerge. 4
             deck:  We ought to have two packs of cards for bridge.

             --v.  5 Often, pack in or into. package, bale, bundle, compact,
             crowd, cram, jam, fill, stuff, squeeze, ram, press, wedge, tamp:
             They packed us into the train like sardines. I packed as much as
             I could into the short time I had left. 6 pack it in. stop,
             cease, end, finish, quit, wind up, terminate, give up, call it a
             day, Colloq chuck:  Edward finally packed it in because they
             were giving him too much trouble. 7 pack off. dismiss, send off
             or away, bundle off or out, hustle off or out or away, get rid
             of, drive off or away, order off or away or out, send (someone)
             about his or her business:  At the beginning of the war, Sally's
             mother packed her off to America to stay with her aunt. 8 pack
             up.  a get or gather together, put away, store:  Pack up your
             troubles in your old kit bag and smile, smile, smile.  b quit,
             stop, break down, fail, give out, stall, die, give up the ghost,
             Colloq conk out, have had it:  After three days crossing the
             desert, the engine finally packed up.

   package   n.  1 packet, parcel, box, container, case, carton, bundle:  I
             am donating a package of clothing to the relief fund.  2
             combination, unit, package deal:  Included in the package from
             the car dealer are several luxury features.

             --v.  3 wrap, pack, containerize, carton, case, encase, enclose,
             include; combine, unite, coupled, incorporate:  More and more
             merchandise comes packaged in plastic these days.  A special
             sponge is packaged with the cleaning liquid.

   packed    adj.  filled, full, loaded, crowded, stuffed, jammed, crammed,
             brim-full, chock-a-block, chock-full, jam-packed, overloaded,
             overflowing, loaded or filled to the gunwales, up to there,
             bursting, groaning, swollen, replete, Colloq wall-to-wall:  The
             gallery was packed with the soprano's relatives, who cheered
             every note. The publicity for the show promised a packed
             programme of mirth and merriment.

   packet    n.  1 package, parcel, pack, batch:  We found a packet of your
             old love-letters in a trunk in the lumber room. 2 loads, lot(s),
             great deal, fortune, mint, Colloq bundle, pretty penny, pile(s),
             tidy sum, king's ransom, Brit bomb:  He lost a packet on that
             property when they built a sewage plant alongside it.

   pact      n.  agreement, treaty, bargain, alliance, contract, compact,
             concord, covenant, concordat, entente, understanding,
             arrangement, deal:  The companies entered into an illegal pact
             not to compete in the same markets.

   pad       n.  1 cushion, pillow, wad, wadding, stuffing, padding, filling,
             filler:  Wrap a soft cotton pad over the wound to protect it.  2
             writing-pad, note-pad, memo pad, block (of paper), jotter, US
             filler:  You'd best take a pad with you to make notes at the
             lecture.  3 flat, apartment, room(s), home, place, quarters,
             Colloq hang-out, Brit digs or diggings, Slang US flop:  A few
             friends are crashing at my pad while they're in town.

             --v.  4 cushion, wad, stuff, fill; upholster:  The chair seats
             are padded with foam rubber, but the arms are bare. 5 Sometimes,
             pad out. expand, inflate, stretch, dilate, lengthen, protract,
             extend, blow up, flesh out, puff up, augment, spin out, amplify:
             He pads his weekly newspaper column with trivia in order to fill
             the space.

   paddle    n.  1 oar, sweep, scull:  A 'crab' occurs when you catch the
             water with the paddle blade on the return stroke.

             --v.  2 row, scull, oar:  Deftly she paddled the canoe over to
             the pier.  3 wade:  The children were paddling at the water's
             edge.  4 spank, paddywhack, thrash, beat, whip, flog:  Dad
             threatened to paddle me if he caught me playing hookey again.

   paddy     n.  rage, (fit of) temper, fit, tantrum, Colloq Brit paddywhack
             or paddywack, wax:  She was in a proper paddy when she found out
             what you'd done.

   pagan     n.  1 heathen, unbeliever, idolater, polytheist, infidel,
             Gentile:  He joined the religion of the pagans and worshipped
             the golden calf.

             --adj.  2 heathen, infidel, idolatrous, polytheistic,
             heathenish, Gentile:  Many churchmen condemned Renaissance
             scholars for their interest in pagan and pre-Christian writers.

   page°     n.  1 leaf, folio, side, sheet, verso or recto:  On which page
             does the index begin?  2 episode, phase, period, time, stage,
             point, era, epoch, age, chapter:  The early 1940s were among the
             darkest pages in Britain's history.

             --v.  3 paginate, folio, number:  Roman numerals were used in
             paging the preface to the book.

   pageэ     n.  1 attendant, page-boy, servant, errand-boy, messenger, Brit
             foot-boy, US bellman, bellhop, Offensive used of an adult
             bellboy:  Please have a page deliver this message to Mr
             Simmonds.

             --v.  2 announce, summon (forth), send for or after, call, call
             for, call out:  They are paging your wife now to give her your
             message.

   pageant   n.  spectacle, display, grandeur, tableau, show, parade,
             procession, ceremony, formality, ritual, event, affair,
             extravaganza, presentation, gala:  The children stage a medieval
             mystery play as a part of the annual Christmas pageant.

   pageantry n.  pomp, ceremony, display, magnificence, extravagance,
             panorama, showiness, show:  The pageantry of the Oberammergau
             passion play should be experienced at least once.

   pain      n.  1 hurt, suffering, discomfort, soreness, ache, aching, pang,
             spasm, smarting, cramp:  I feel the pain in my back from lifting
             that box.  2 anguish, agony, affliction, distress, grief, woe,
             suffering, misery, travail, wretchedness, despair, torment,
             tribulation, trial, torture, dolour, discomposure, ordeal,
             disquiet:  No one who has not experienced it can imagine the
             pain of losing a child. 3 irritation, vexation, annoyance,
             bother, nuisance, pest, Colloq pain in the neck, headache, drag,
             bore, Taboo slang pain in the Brit arse or US ass:  What a pain
             it is that you have forgotten your keys again! David can really
             be a pain when he goes on about the book he's writing. 4 pains.
             effort, trouble, exertion, toil, labour:  She went to great
             pains to make our stay comfortable.

             --v.  5 hurt, distress, grieve, wound, injure; trouble, depress,
             sadden, sorrow, cut to the quick:  It pained us to learn of Mrs
             McArthur's illness.

   painful   adj.  1 hurting, grievous, hurtful, sore, distressing,
             distressful, excruciating, torturous, agonizing, smarting,
             stinging, aching, achy, throbbing, burning, piercing, stabbing,
             sharp, tender, sensitive, raw, bitter, Formal nociceptive:  The
             bullet caused a painful wound in the knee. Mother's arthritis
             can be quite painful at times. 2 vexing, vexatious, annoying,
             harassing, irritating, irksome, aggravating, galling,
             exasperating, unpleasant, afflictive, harrowing, worrisome,
             worrying, troubling, disquieting, disturbing, distressing:
             Fighting in the front lines was a painful experience for Rupert.
             3 painstaking, laborious, careful, rigorous, arduous, assiduous,
             sedulous, diligent, earnest, conscientious, meticulous,
             scrupulous, detailed, thorough, thoroughgoing, exacting,
             demanding:  A great deal of painful research went into
             discovering the cause of yellow fever.

   painfully adv.  agonizingly, distressingly, disagreeably, unpleasantly,
             unfortunately, sadly, woefully, lamentably, ruefully, unhappily:
             I became painfully aware that much of the relief destined for
             the poor never reached them.

   painkiller
             n.  anodyne, analgesic, anaesthetic, sedative, palliative:  When
             he wrenched his back, the doctor gave him a painkiller so that
             he could walk.

   painless  adj.  trouble-free, easy, simple, comfortable, effortless,
             Colloq easy as 1, 2, 3 or as ABC, easy as pie, a piece of cake,
             pushover, child's play, Slang cinch, no sweat:  The procedure
             for assembling the bicycle is relatively painless.

   painstaking
             adj.  See painful, 3, above.

   paint     n.  1 colour, tint, dye, colouring, pigment, stain:  I bought
             the paint and brushes, and started work on the kitchen walls. 2
             coating, coat, surface; enamel:  The rust has come through the
             paint here and there.  3 make-up, cosmetics, maquillage,
             greasepaint, Colloq warpaint, face:  Sheila is in her room
             putting on some paint before we go out.

             --v.  4 depict, portray, picture, show, represent, delineate,
             render, draw, limn, characterize, describe:  Whistler painted a
             portrait of my grandmother. Correspondents painted a very grim
             picture of the plight of the hostages. 5 coat, brush, apply,
             cover, daub:  The doctor painted the area with some medication
             that soothed the pain. 6 colour, tint, dye, stain, decorate:  We
             are planning to paint the nursery pale blue.  7 paint the town
             red. make merry, carouse, revel, go on a spree, go out on the
             town, Colloq whoop it up, live it up, (go on a) pub-crawl, step
             out, Slang make whoopee, go on a bender or drunk or binge, booze
             it up:  Saturday nights a few of the boys would go out and paint
             the town red till the wee hours.

   pair      n.  1 couple, twosome, two of a kind, set of two, matched set,
             duo, dyad, twins, double, doublet; brace, span, yoke, team,
             tandem:  A pair of silver candelabra disappeared during the
             party.

             --v.  2 match (up), mate, pair off or up, team (up), put
             together, partner, twin, double, join, unite, yoke; wed, marry,
             join in wedlock or in holy matrimony:  Pair these gloves for me,
             would you? Husbands may not pair off with wives for the next
             dance.

   pal       n.  1 friend, consort, comrade, alter ego, crony, companion,
             amigo, playmate, classmate, Colloq chum, sidekick, mate, Chiefly
             US and Canadian buddy:  Jim left a little while ago with a few
             of his pals.

             --v.  2 pal (up) with or about or US around (with). associate
             (with), be or become friendly or friends (with), be or get or
             become on friendly or intimate terms (with), go (around or
             about) with, fraternize (with), consort (with), spend time
             together or with, keep company (with), Colloq hang out or about
             or around (with), knock about or around (with):  Fiona and
             Isabel palled up last year. Do you still pal about with Timothy?

   palace    n.  mansion, castle, stately or palatial home or residence,
             manor (house), (country) estate, chѓteau, palazzo, villa:  After
             the wedding, they went to the prince's palace and lived happily
             ever after.

   palatial  adj.  luxurious, de luxe, magnificent, splendid, stately,
             sumptuous, opulent, majestic, magnificent, grand, elegant,
             palatine, Slang posh, ritzy, swanky, classy:  After winning the
             pools, they moved into a palatial house in Belgravia.

   palaver   n.  1 nuisance, procedure, red tape, to-do, rigmarole or
             rigamarole, Colloq song and dance, bother, nonsense, business,
             carry-on, performance:  He lost the certificates, so she now has
             to go through all the palaver of getting new ones. 2 chatter,
             babble, jabber, (empty or small) talk, blather or blether,
             gossip, prating, prattle, prattling, palavering, Brit natter,
             nattering, Scots clishmaclaver, Colloq jawing, hot air, Colloq
             Brit witter, wittering:  There is so much palaver at the annual
             meeting that nothing important ever gets said. 3 parley, talk,
             conference, discussion, colloquy, conversation, confabulation,
             meeting, get-together, round table, powwow, Colloq confab,
             huddle, chin-wag:  The annual palaver of the regional general
             managers is scheduled for next week.

             --v.  4 chatter, babble, jabber, blather or blether, gossip,
             prattle, prate, chit-chat, gabble, Brit natter, witter, Colloq
             jaw, chin-wag, US and Canadian shoot the breeze, Slang yack,
             yackety-yack:  Peter and I were palavering outside the
             supermarket when Sophie came along. 5 confer, consult, discuss,
             parley, talk, converse, powwow, meet, get together, sit down
             (together), confabulate, negotiate, Colloq confab, huddle, chew
             the fat or the rag:  Management and union representatives will
             palaver tomorrow.

   pale°     adj.  1 colourless, white, wan, sallow, waxen, livid, ashen,
             ashy, pallid, bloodless, whitish, pasty, whey-faced, washed out,
             anaemic, blanched, drained, ghostly, ghastly, peaky or peakish,
             peaked, cadaverous:  If you had been through an ordeal like
             that, you'd look pale, too. 2 faint, light, dim, washed out,
             pastel:  She was wearing a pale green evening gown tonight.  3
             feeble, weak, flimsy, meagre, enfeebled, ineffective,
             ineffectual, puny, insignificant, paltry, lame, poor,
             inadequate, half-hearted, tame, spiritless, whey-faced, empty,
             sterile, lifeless, uninspired, anaemic, Colloq half-baked:  The
             sequel was a pale imitation of the original film.

             --v.  4 blanch, blench, dim, whiten:  He paled when they told
             him of the car crash.  5 diminish, lessen, fade (away),
             decrease, abate:  The works of most modern writers pale in
             comparison with those of the Elizabethans.

   paleэ     n.  1 paling, palisade, picket, upright, post, stake:  The pales
             are attached to horizontal rails to form a fence.  2 boundary,
             limit(s), restriction, bounds, border(s), confines:  Nothing is
             outside the pale of the imagination of a great novelist.  3
             beyond the pale. improper, irregular, unseemly, unsuitable,
             indecent, unacceptable, inadmissible, forbidden, anathema,
             disallowed, prohibited, verboten, interdicted; US unusual,
             bizarre, peculiar, outr‚, weird, abnormal, strange:  The
             committee have found your behaviour to be beyond the pale,
             Frances, and we demand your resignation.

   pall°     n.  1 shroud, covering, mantle, cloth, veil:  A black velvet
             pall covered the coffin.  2 gloomy or melancholy or sombre or
             grave or depressing air or mood or atmosphere; damper, cold
             water, Colloq wet blanket:  The recently uncovered scandals have
             cast a pall over his successes in office.

   pallэ     v.  1 Often, pall on or upon. bore, tire, weary, jade, irk,
             irritate, sicken:  His position lost all its charm when the work
             began to pall on him. 2 sate, satiate, cloy, glut, surfeit,
             gorge:  I had reached the point where even the finest foods
             began to pall me.

   paltry    adj.  trifling, trivial, petty, small, insignificant, worthless,
             pitiful, pathetic, pitiable, puny, sorry, wretched, miserable,
             inconsequential, inconsiderable, unimportant, meagre, mean,
             beggarly, base, low, contemptible, Colloq piddling, Brit
             twopenny, twopenny-halfpenny, mingy, US penny-ante, Slang Mickey
             Mouse:  Despite his wealth, his charitable contributions are
             paltry. We all recognize Denison for the paltry pedant he is.

   pamper    v.  baby, coddle, cosset, (over)indulge, spoil, mollycoddle,
             cater to, pet, Rare cocker, Irish cosher:  The Simpsons pamper
             their children far too much.

   pamphlet  n.  booklet, brochure, tract, essay, folder, leaflet, circular;
             handbill, bill, notice, bulletin, advertisement, hand-out, ad,
             Brit advert, US flyer, throw-away:  He was arrested for printing
             a pamphlet that denounced the government's repression of free
             speech. Yesterday we received our sixteenth pamphlet promoting
             replacement windows.

   pan       n.  1 saucepan, frying-pan, skillet, pot, casserole, US spider:
             Melt a teaspoonful of butter in the pan, add the mixture, and
             stir briskly over a medium heat. 2 face, visage, mien, fa‡ade,
             Slang kisser, mug, puss:  The worst part of Alf's not working is
             that I have to look at his ugly pan all day. 3 depression,
             indentation, concavity, cavity, hollow, pit, hole, crater:  In a
             rain-shower, the pans fill with water and the desert blooms.

             --v.  4 wash, separate, sift:  For years prospectors have panned
             for gold in these hills.  5 criticize, censure, find fault, put
             down, reject, flay, excoriate, Brit hammer, Colloq knock, roast,
             slate, Slang Brit rubbish, US trash:  The critics panned the
             play and it closed after a week.  6 pan out. succeed, thrive,
             prosper, flourish, fare well, make it; work out, turn out,
             result, come out, end (up), conclude, culminate, eventuate:
             Your grandiose plans for irrigating the Sahara didn't pan out,
             either! How did the election pan out?

   panache   n.  flourish, dash, ‚lan, ‚clat, chic, sophistication, savoir
             faire, savoir vivre, flamboyance, verve, style, cultivation,
             (good) taste, flair, smartness, boldness, self-assurance,
             swagger, vigour, liveliness, spirit, brio, gusto, zest,
             animation, enthusiasm, energy:  Whatever needs to be done, you
             can count on Irena to carry it off with panache.

   pandemonium
             n.  bedlam, chaos, turmoil, disorder, tumult, frenzy, uproar,
             Brit furore or US furor, confusion:  Pandemonium reigned after
             the first bomb struck.

   pander    v.  1 Usually, pander to. satisfy, gratify, humour, indulge,
             fulfil, bow to, yield to, truckle to, cater to:  She is tired of
             pandering to his every wish.  2 procure, pimp, solicit:  I
             didn't believe he would sink so low as to pander for his
             business clients.

             --n.  3 panderer, pimp, procurer, solicitor, whoremonger, White
             slaver, Slang flesh-pedlar or US also flesh-peddler or
             flesh-pedler, Brit ponce, mack:  The word pander is an eponym
             for Pandarus, who acted as a sycophantic go-between for Troilus
             in Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde .

   pane      n.  panel, sheet, glass, window-pane, light, quarrel,
             bull's-eye:  Ring up the glazier and have that pane replaced in
             the door.

   pang      n.  1 pain, stab, ache, pinch, twinge, stitch, spasm:  I felt a
             sharp pang of hunger.  2 qualm, hesitation, scruple, misgiving,
             remorse, regret, contrition, contriteness, self-reproach,
             mortification, guilt, anguish, discomfort, malaise:  Does Claire
             feel the slightest pangs for treating him badly?

   panic     n.  1 terror, alarm, fear, fright, dread, horror, dismay,
             consternation, hysteria; anxiety, apprehension,
             apprehensiveness, nervousness:  As the speeding car veered
             towards us, a feeling of panic gripped me.

             --v.  2 be terrified or alarmed or fearful or frightened or
             terror-stricken or terror-struck, dread, fear, lose one's nerve;
             frighten, scare; Colloq go to pieces, fall apart, Brit lose
             one's bottle:  I panicked, turned the wheel the wrong way, and
             crashed the car into a tree. Gregory panics at the slightest
             sign of danger. 3 frighten, scare, alarm, terrify, unnerve:
             Something panicked the horses and one kicked out his stall door.

   panic-stricken
             adj.  panic-struck, terrified, alarmed, horrified, aghast,
             terror-stricken or terror-struck, panicky, frenzied, in a
             frenzy, hysterical, besides oneself with fear or terror,
             fearful, afraid, scared (stiff), petrified, horror-struck or
             horror-stricken, frightened or scared out of one's wits,
             appalled, stunned, stupefied, perturbed, unnerved, nervous,
             distressed, upset, jittery, jumpy, (all) worked up, Colloq in a
             cold sweat, in a flap, in a tizzy, Taboo slang scared shitless,
             shitting green:  At the news of the leak at the nuclear plant,
             hundreds of panic-stricken people fled from the area.

   panoramic adj.  sweeping, commanding, extensive, comprehensive, wide,
             overall, scenic, far-reaching, all-embracing, far-ranging,
             all-encompassing, inclusive, bird's-eye, general:  This room
             affords a panoramic view of the sea-coast.

   pant      v.  1 gasp, huff (and puff), blow, heave, breathe hard, wheeze:
             He was panting when he came into the room, having run up the
             stairs.  2 Usually, pant for or after. crave, hanker after,
             hunger or thirst for or after, yearn for, ache for, want,
             desire, covet, wish for, long or pine or sigh for, have one's
             heart set on, die for, be dying for, Colloq have a yen for, give
             one's eye-teeth or right arm for:  Margery was the girl that all
             the boys panted after when we were ten.

   pants     n.pl.  1 In Britain (men's) drawers, small-clothes, smalls,
             drawers, underpants, boxer shorts, trunks, undershorts,
             Y-fronts, briefs, Colloq smalls; (women's) knickers,
             camiknickers, panties, drawers, bloomers, pantalettes, tights,
             pantihose, undies:  The baby was dressed in a frilly dress and
             matching pants.  2 In US: trousers, slacks, breeches, (Oxford)
             bags, knickerbockers, flannels, shorts, Bermuda shorts or
             Bermudas, pedal pushers, bell-bottoms, peg-tops, hip-huggers,
             (blue) jeans, dungarees, denims, Trade Mark Levis, Scots trews;
             Scots and No. Eng. breeks, US knickers, Colloq cut-offs:
             Americans who go into British shops asking for a pair of pants
             are embarrassed to be offered only underwear.

   paper     n.  1 newspaper, tabloid, daily, weekly, journal, gazette,
             publication, periodical, newsletter, organ, Colloq rag, sheet:
             She is feature editor of a paper in Manchester.  2 Often,
             papers.  a document(s), instrument, legal papers, form,
             certificate, deed, ownership papers; credential(s),
             identification:  Bring the papers to my office for signing. His
             papers are not in order. Many people lost their papers during
             the war. b docket, files, dossier, record(s), archive(s):  Your
             papers seem to have disappeared from our office.  3 stationery,
             letterhead, writing-paper, letter-paper, notepaper; foolscap;
             scrap or US also scratch paper; wrapping paper; gift-wrapping,
             gift-wrap; wallpaper:  She wrote to me on the most beautiful
             engraved paper. We buy our Christmas paper from a museum shop. 4
             article, composition, essay, assignment, report, thesis, study,
             tract, analysis, critique, exegesis, treatise, dissertation,
             disquisition, manuscript, MS or ms, autograph, holograph,
             typescript, script, speech:  Adelaide will present her paper at
             the meeting of the Royal Academy this year.

             --v.  5 (hang) wallpaper, line; post, distribute:  The entire
             area was papered with posters announcing the meeting.

   par       adj.  1 standard, normal, average, expected:  A success rate of
             two per cent is par for these candidates.

             --n.  2 level, rank, standing, scale, standard:  How can you
             place yourself on a par with her as a tennis player?  3 above
             par. above average, superior, outstanding, excellent,
             exceptional; choice, select, prime:  Since I stopped taking that
             medication, I've been feeling above par. I am pleased to
             announce that the test results were above par for the school as
             a whole. 4 at par. average, level, even, equal, equivalent,
             standard; par value:  The shares are selling at par, or below
             their true market value.  5 below or under par.  a below
             average, substandard, inferior, second-rate, mediocre, middling,
             not up to par, poor, inadequate, unsatisfactory, wanting, bad,
             wretched, miserable, awful, terrible, Colloq lousy, not up to
             snuff or scratch:  Ian's goal-keeping has been below par all
             season.  b ill, sickly, unhealthy, unwell, not (very) well, not
             oneself, not in good or the best shape, in bad shape, Brit off
             form, off colour; Colloq under the weather, poorly, not up to
             snuff:  I was feeling below par.  6 up to par. all right,
             adequate, average, satisfactory, good enough, passable,
             acceptable, Colloq OK or okay, up to scratch or snuff, fair to
             middling:  If your game had been up to par, Davis would not have
             won.

   parable   n.  allegory, fable, lesson, morality tale:  When we first read
             Aesop's Fables we didn't know they were parables.

   parade    n.  1 procession, march, train, file, promenade, cortЉge,
             column; entourage:  They held a parade to celebrate the
             soldiers' safe return from the war. 2 exhibition, (ostentatious)
             display, show, spectacle, array, pomp, splash:  She often makes
             a parade of her knowledge of architecture.  3 promenade, walk,
             (pedestrian) way, mall, esplanade:  Let's meet in the Parade
             when you have finished shopping.

             --v.  4 march, pass in review, promenade, walk, file:  The
             generals saluted smartly as the troops paraded past.  5 strut,
             flaunt, show (off), brandish, wave, vaunt, display, air:  Why
             does he feel it necessary to parade every new girlfriend in
             front of all the neighbours?

   paradise  n.  1 heaven, City of God, Zion, Elysium, Elysian Fields, happy
             hunting-grounds, Abraham's bosom, heavenly kingdom, Promised
             Land, Celestial City, New Jerusalem, Avalon, Valhalla,
             Hesperides, Isles or Islands of the Blessed, seventh heaven:
             People all have their own ideas of paradise, but everyone agrees
             it's a nice place to be. 2 heaven on earth, (Garden of) Eden,
             (land of) Goshen, Utopia, Shangri-La, Land of Beulah:  Early
             settlers of California thought it a paradise.  3 bliss,
             happiness, rapture, heaven, delight, blessedness, ecstasy,
             seventh heaven, joy, dreamland, nirvana:  Being with you has
             been sheer paradise.

   paradox   n.  contradiction, self-contradiction, incongruity,
             inconsistency, absurdity, ambiguity, enigma, puzzle, mystery,
             quandary, problem, dilemma:  Can you explain away Zeno's paradox
             of Achilles and the tortoise?  The paradox was that although it
             was Edward's fifth birthday, he was 20 years old.

   paradoxical
             adj.  contradictory, self-contradictory, conflicting,
             oxymoronic, impossible, improbable, incongruous, illogical,
             inconsistent, absurd, ambiguous, confusing, equivocal,
             enigmatic, puzzling, baffling, incomprehensible, bewildering,
             perplexing, mysterious, problematic:  It would be true, though
             it might sound paradoxical, to say that the Norman Conquest made
             England Saxon.

   paragon   n.  epitome, archetype, model, prototype, quintessence, pattern,
             standard, exemplar, ideal, beau id‚al, criterion:  He had
             previously regarded Michael as a paragon of virtue and was
             deeply shocked by the revelations.

   parallel  adj.  1 similar, corresponding, congruent, analogous,
             analogic(al), correspondent, like, matching, homologous,
             coordinate, equivalent, coequal, proportional, proportionate,
             pari passu, mutatis mutandis, in proportion, uniform;
             contemporary or cotemporary, contemporaneous or cotemporaneous:
             The situation in Northern Ireland could be compared with a
             parallel situation in Lebanon.

             --n.  2 analogue, match, homologue, equivalent, complement,
             counterpart, equal, coequal:  Campbell found many parallels
             among the legendary heroes of other cultures. 3 analogy,
             parallelism, equivalence, complementarity, relationship,
             kinship, correspondence, resemblance, likeness, similarity,
             symmetry, equality, coequality, parity, correlation; proportion,
             balance, equiponderance, equipoise, counterbalance, offset:  One
             can draw parallels between the human arm, the fish's fin, and
             the bird's wing. By way of parallel, consider the flood in the
             Bible and that in the Gilgamesh epic.

             --v.  4 correspond to or with, match, equate to or with, be
             likened to, correlate to or with, compare with or to, imitate,
             repeat, echo, iterate, reiterate, duplicate, follow, agree with;
             keep pace with, conform (to), balance, set off, offset, even off
             or up, be accompanied by, coincide with, Colloq jibe with:  In
             many respects, your attitudes towards life parallel mine when I
             was your age. A decrease in the rate of inflation supposedly
             parallels a rise in interest rates.

   paralyse  v.  1 immobilize, inactivate, deactivate, transfix; halt, stop:
             The stroke paralysed his entire left side. As the thing
             approached, the children became paralysed by fear. 2 deaden,
             numb, freeze, anaesthetize, benumb, render insensible:  This
             injection will paralyse your thumb so that we can operate on it.
             3 disable, cripple, incapacitate, disenable:  His left leg was
             paralysed in the accident.

   paramount adj.  pre-eminent, chief, supreme, dominant, main, predominant,
             cardinal, first, prime, primary, principal, essential, vital,
             requisite, basic:  The company feel that the independence of
             researchers is paramount.  It is of paramount importance that
             you study trigonometry before calculus.

   paramour  n.  lover, love, inamorato or inamorata, amorist, mistress,
             gigolo, concubine, cicisbeo, kept woman, Colloq flame,
             sugar-daddy, US POSSLQ (= 'Person of the Opposite Sex Sharing
             Living Quarters'), Slang fancy man or woman:  At eighty, she
             liked to reminisce about her many paramours.

   paraphernalia
             n.  usually pl equipment, apparatus, accessories, outfit,
             appliances, utensils, gear, rig, material(s), mat‚riel, things,
             tackle, equipage, accoutrements, effects, chattels, possessions,
             belongings, appurtenances, trappings, property, baggage,
             impedimenta, supplies, stuff, Colloq junk, Brit rubbish,
             clobber, Slang crap, Taboo slang US shit:  Bring along your
             scuba paraphernalia. It took us a month just to pack up all the
             paraphernalia we had in the flat.

   paraphrase
             n.  1 rephrasing, rephrase, rewording, restatement, rewriting,
             rewrite, rehash, rendition, rendering, version, Technical
             paraphrasis:  The editor wanted a revision, not merely a
             paraphrase of the original.

             --v.  2 rephrase, reword, restate, rewrite, explicate, explain:
             Please paraphrase the specialized jargon to make it
             understandable to non-professionals.

   parasite  n.  leech, hanger-on, Colloq freeloader, sponger or sponge,
             bloodsucker, cadger, scrounger or scrounge, barnacle, jackal,
             hyena or hyaena:  That parasite lives off Gemma's money and has
             never worked a day in his life.

   parcel    n.  1 package, packet, carton, box, container, case:  We are
             sending food parcels to the needy.  2 portion, plot, plat, lot,
             piece, section, tract:  We have bought a small parcel of land
             and plan to build on it next year. 3 lot, group, batch,
             collection, pack, bundle, set:  She gathered a parcel of
             drawings and published them as a travel sketchbook.

             --v.  4 Often, parcel out. apportion, allot, deal (out), dole
             (out), mete (out), hand out, distribute, share (out), divide,
             Colloq divvy (up):  Before he died he parcelled out his fortune
             amongst his grandchildren.

   parch     v.  dry (out or up), desiccate, dehydrate, exsiccate; scorch,
             sear, burn, bake; shrivel (up), wither:  The earth was parched
             by the unrelenting sun.

   pardon    n.  1 forgiveness, forgiving, amnesty, remission, release,
             reprieval, absolution, indulgence, excuse, excusal, allowance,
             overlooking, condonation, exoneration, exculpation:  Should
             there be any pardon for crimes against humanity?

             --v.  2 forgive, remit, release, reprieve, absolve, indulge,
             allow, overlook, let off, excuse, condone, exonerate, exculpate:
             There are some crimes that ought not be pardoned.

   pare      v.  1 trim, peel, skin, shave (off), shuck; decorticate,
             excoriate:  Pare the apples and then grate them coarsely.  2
             Often, pare down. reduce, diminish, decrease, cut (back or
             down), curtail, slash (back), lower, lessen:  Since his illness,
             Bob has pared down his time at the office.  We'll have to pare
             our prices to stay competitive in the present climate.

   parent    n.  1 father or mother, progenitor, progenitrix, procreator,
             begetter, materfamilias or paterfamilias; foster-parent,
             stepmother or stepfather, guardian, Colloq old lady or old man,
             Brit old-fashioned or facetiousmater or pater:  Most teenagers
             clash with their parents sooner or later.  2 source, origin,
             originator, well-spring, fountain-head, root:  The liturgy of St
             James is undoubtedly the parent of the Armenian Rite.

   parentage n.  lineage, ancestry, line, family, extraction, descent,
             origin, pedigree, stock, birth, strain, bloodline, heritage,
             roots:  As he was separated from his mother at birth, he knows
             nothing of his royal parentage.

   parenting n.  (of children) rearing, upbringing, raising, nurturing:
             Brian and Betty take their parenting very seriously.

   parity    n.  1 equality, equivalence, consistency, uniformity, par,
             likeness, similarity, analogy, congruity, similitude,
             conformity, congruence:  The ministers agreed that they would
             observe parity of power amongst themselves at the conference. 2
             proportion, parallelism, analogy, balance, correspondence:  We
             are trying to maintain parity between the Deutschmark and the
             pound sterling.

   park      n.  1 garden, green(s), common(s), preserve, reserve,
             greensward, parkland, woodland, estate, Chiefly Brit
             reservation:  Twice a day he strolls through the nearby park.  2
             Brit car park, US and Canadian and New Zealand parking-lot:  I
             shall meet you in the car park at the railway station.

             --v.  3 leave, put, deposit, store:  It is illegal to park in
             this street.

   parlance  n.  way or manner of talking or speaking, fa‡on de parler,
             phrasing, phraseology, speech, wording, language, idiom,
             dialect, jargon, Colloq lingo:  In the parlance of the yuppies,
             that's a ballpark figure.

   parley    n.  1 conference, discussion, dialogue, palaver, deliberation,
             meeting, colloquy, colloquium, confabulation, powwow, talk(s),
             Colloq huddle, confab:  The issue will be decided at the
             executive council's parley.

             --v.  2 confer, discuss, palaver, deliberate, talk (over),
             negotiate, deal, Colloq huddle:  Would Sitting Bull parley with
             General Custer?

   parliament
             n.  1 Parliament. Houses of Parliament, House of Lords and House
             of Commons, Westminster, the House, Mother of Parliaments:  The
             new health bill got its second reading in Parliament today.  2
             legislature, council, congress, diet, council, assembly, Upper
             and Lower House or chamber:  The United States parliament
             consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

   parliamentary
             adj.  formal, ordered, orderly, procedural, conforming,
             conformist, US according to Roberts Rules of Order:  The debate
             must follow parliamentary procedure.

   parlour   n.  living-room, Old-fashioned or Brit drawing-room, Chiefly
             Brit sitting-room, reception (room), lounge:  She invited us
             into the parlour where tea was laid out.

   parlous   adj.  perilous, risky, precarious, uncertain, dangerous,
             hazardous, difficult, ticklish, awkward, Colloq chancy, iffy,
             Slang hairy:  These are parlous times in the Middle East.

   parochial adj.  regional, provincial, narrow, local, insular, isolated,
             limited, restricted, narrow-minded, petty, short-sighted,
             hidebound, conservative, conventional, illiberal, bigoted,
             prejudiced, intolerant, one-sided, partial, biased, stubborn,
             opinionated, dogmatic, rigid, stiff, stiff-necked, immovable,
             intractable, unchangeable, unchanging, close-minded,
             unsophisticated, unworldly, uncultivated, uncultured:
             Uneducated and untravelled, Mr Shriver maintained a very
             parochial view of the world.

   parody    n.  1 burlesque, lampoon, satire, caricature, mockery, mimicry,
             Colloq take-off, spoof, Brit send-up:  The more serious the
             intent of the original author's work, the easier it is to write
             a parody of it. 2 travesty, mockery, feeble or poor imitation,
             distortion, perversion, corruption, debasement:  The Inquisition
             was a parody of justice and of religion.

             --v.  3 burlesque, lampoon, satirize, caricature, mock, mimic,
             ape, ridicule, deride, laugh at, poke fun at, guy, scoff at,
             sneer at, rib, tease, twit, roast, pillory, make a
             laughing-stock (of), make sport of, make fun of, make a monkey
             (out) of, Archaic fleer, Colloq take off, spoof, kid, Brit send
             up:  Swift parodied English political figures and policies of
             the day in Gulliver's Travels .

   paroxysm  n.  fit, convulsion, spasm, throe, seizure, spell, outburst,
             eruption, explosion, Colloq flare-up:  At the sight of George
             dressed as Madame Pompadour Melissa rolled on the floor in a
             paroxysm of hysterical laughter.

   parrot    n.  1 imitator, mimic, Colloq copycat:  She never has an
             original idea of her own: she's a mere parrot of others'
             fashions and fancies.

             --v.  2 imitate, mimic, ape, copy, echo, repeat, reiterate:
             Mick doesn't understand the issues and just parrots what he
             hears on TV.

   part      n.  1 piece, portion, division, allotment, share, percentage,
             participation, interest; parcel, fragment, scrap, shard; some:
             I bought a part of the company when it was available. I want no
             part of the deal now. 2 portion, component, factor, constituent,
             element, ingredient:  A part of her problem is that she doesn't
             speak Japanese.  3 role, function, duty, responsibility, share;
             say, voice, influence, participation, involvement, business:
             Every man must do his part. Don't thank me! I had no part in
             your getting the contract. 4 role, character:  He plays the part
             of Tweedledum in the school play.  5 side, interest, cause,
             behalf, faction, party:  Which part did you support in the
             argument? No explanation has been offered on either part. 6
             neighbourhood, quarter, section, district, region, area, corner,
             vicinity, vicinage, Colloq neck of the woods:  I come from the
             same part of the country as you.  7 piece, portion, segment,
             section; department, division, component, unit:  Which part of
             the turkey do you prefer? In which part of the company do you
             work? 8 for the most part. mostly, generally, usually, mainly,
             in the main, by and large, on the whole, chiefly, principally,
             essentially, for all practical purposes, to all intents and
             purposes, in most cases or instances:  The shops are for the
             most part closed on Sunday.  9 in part. partly, partially, to
             some extent or degree, in some measure, relatively,
             comparatively, somewhat:  He is himself in part responsible for
             the present state of affairs.  10 on the part of (someone) or on
             (someone's or one's) part. by, on or US also in behalf of, (as)
             for, as regards, as far as (someone) is concerned, in the name
             of, for the sake of, in support of:  Tyrannical acts on the part
             of the king were not condoned. For my part, I want nothing to do
             with it. 11 take (a) part (in). participate (in), join (in), be
             (a) party to, play a part or role (in), be involved (in or
             with), associate oneself (with), have or take a hand in, partake
             (of), contribute (to):  Why insist that she take part in your
             nefarious plot? People began to sing, but she didn't feel like
             taking part.

             --v.  12 separate, part company, split up, go his or her (or
             their) separate way(s), break up, say or bid goodbye (or adieu,
             etc.); leave, depart, go (away or off):  We parted on the best
             of terms.  13 separate, divide, put or pull apart, put asunder:
             I saw a pale hand part the curtains for a brief moment. A fool
             and his money are soon parted. 14 part with. give up, yield,
             relinquish, release, sacrifice, forgo, renounce, forsake, let
             go, surrender:  I doubt that you'll persuade Rover to part with
             his bone.

             --adj.  15 partial, fractional, limited:  Ronald is a part owner
             of the company.

   partake   v.  1 Usually, partake in. share (in), participate (in), take
             (a) part (in), enter (in or into):  We share each other's
             burdens and partake in each other's joys.  2 Usually, partake
             of.  a receive, get, have a share or portion or part (of),
             share:  We were invited to partake of a meagre repast.  b evoke,
             suggest, hint at, intimate, imply, possess or have the quality
             of:  Greater knowledge often partakes of insolence.

   partial   adj.  1 incomplete, fragmentary, not total or whole, imperfect:
             They were able to afford only a partial restoration of the
             house.  There will be a partial solar eclipse at noon. 2
             prejudiced, biased, partisan, inclined, influenced, one-sided,
             jaundiced, unfair, discriminatory:  It will be difficult to find
             a judge who is not partial.  3 partial to. in favour of,
             predisposed to, fond of, having a soft spot or weakness for,
             having a liking or taste or predilection for, having a fondness
             for, feeling an attraction or affinity to or toward(s), finding
             enjoyment in:  She used to be partial to punk rockers. I am
             partial to Scotch beef.

   partiality
             n.  1 prejudice, bias, inclination, favouritism, predilection,
             predisposition, leaning, preference:  The losers of the contest
             accused the judges of partiality.  2 preference, taste, relish,
             liking, fondness, appreciation, fancy, love, eye, weakness, soft
             spot, penchant; fetish or fetich:  Alas, my wife has acquired a
             partiality for emeralds.

   partially adv.  partly, in part, to some extent or degree, to a limited or
             a certain extent or degree, not totally or wholly or entirely,
             restrictedly, incompletely, in some measure, relatively,
             comparatively, moderately, (up) to a (given or certain) point,
             somewhat:  Jon found the meal only partially satisfying and
             ordered another bread pudding.

   participant
             n.  1 participator, partaker, sharer, party, contributor, prime
             mover:  The chief participants in the recent terrorist attack
             are in custody.

             --adj.  2 Usually, participant in or of. participating,
             partaking, sharing:  As a shareholder, he will be participant in
             the profits.

   participate
             v.  Often, participate in. take part (in), share (in), partake
             (in or of), join (in), engage (in), get or become involved (in),
             be or become associated (with), enter (in or into), contribute
             (to):  We invited her to join the group, but she refuses to
             participate.  I would like to participate in the venture.

   particle  n.  atom, molecule, scintilla, spark, mote, suggestion, hint,
             suspicion, gleam, bit, crumb, jot, tittle, whit, mite, speck,
             dot, spot, iota, grain, morsel, shred, sliver, scrap, Colloq
             smidgen or smidgin:  There isn't the slightest particle of
             evidence linking them with the murder.

   particular
             adj.  1 certain, specific, special, peculiar, singular, single,
             isolated, individual, distinct, discrete, separate, definite,
             precise, express:  These are not his particular sentiments but
             those of thousands of his followers. In this particular instance
             your theory does not apply. 2 marked, special, especial,
             exceptional, remarkable, noteworthy, notable, outstanding,
             unusual:  The commendation is for her particular contribution to
             the treatment of nervous disorders. Vintage port is a particular
             favourite of mine. 3 detailed, itemized, item-by-item, thorough,
             minute, precise, exact, exacting, painstaking, nice, rigorous,
             close, blow-by-blow:  The inscriptions reveal the particular
             care taken in keeping daily records. 4 fussy, meticulous,
             finicky, finical, fastidious, discriminating, selective,
             demanding, hypercritical, critical, Colloq pernickety or US also
             persnickety, choosy, picky:  Daphne is very particular about
             whom she invites to dinner.

             --n.  5 Usually, particulars. detail, minutia, fine point, item,
             specific, element, fact, circumstance, information:  The
             particulars may never be revealed, but we know in general what
             took place that fateful night. 6 in particular. particularly,
             specifically, precisely, exactly, especially, specially;
             particular, specific, special, definite:  I told mother that I
             was just going out, not anywhere in particular.

   particularly
             adv.  1 especially, specially, exceptionally, peculiarly,
             singularly, distinctively, uniquely, unusually, uncommonly,
             notably, outstandingly, markedly, extraordinarily, very,
             extremely, strikingly, surprisingly, amazingly:  Susannah went
             through a particularly bad patch but she's better now. Holroyd
             is a good writer, particularly of biography. 2 in particular,
             specifically, especially, principally, mainly, exceptionally,
             expressly, explicitly, notably, markedly; only, solely:
             Maeterlinck was particularly interested in bees.

   parting   n.  1 separating, splitting, dividing, breaking (up or apart),
             sundering, cleaving; separation, split, division, break-up,
             rift, rupture:  The high point of the film was the parting of
             the Red Sea. The parting between Harriet and Sam after twenty
             turbulent years was to be expected. 2 leave-taking, farewell,
             saying goodbye, departure, leaving, going (away), making one's
             adieus or adieux; valediction:  Parting is such sweet sorrow.

             --adj.  3 closing, final, concluding, last, departing,
             valedictory; deathbed, dying:  Her parting comment was, 'If
             you're leaving, take the rubbish'.

   partisan  n.  1 partizan, devotee, follower, supporter, adherent, backer,
             champion, enthusiast, fan, zealot, fanatic, Chiefly US and
             Canadian booster, Colloq US rooter:  He has long been a partisan
             of surrealism.  2 guerrilla or guerilla, freedom fighter,
             underground or resistance fighter, irregular:  During the war
             the Yugoslav partisans were led by Marshal Tito.

             --adj.  3 one-sided, factional, biased, tendentious, sectarian,
             opinionated, partial, bigoted, prejudiced, parochial, myopic,
             short-sighted, near-sighted, narrow, narrow-minded, limited:
             She refuses to become involved in partisan politics.  4
             guerrilla or guerilla, freedom, underground, resistance,
             irregular:  They were both members of the Maquis, the French
             partisan group who fought against the Nazis.

   partition n.  1 separation, division, splitting (up), split-up,
             partitionment, break-up, breaking up, segmenting, segmentation:
             One of the results of World War II was the partition of Germany.
             2 allotment, allotting, apportionment, apportioning,
             distribution, distributing, meting out, doling out, rationing
             (out), sharing (out), dividing (up), giving or handing or
             passing out, parcelling out, Colloq divvying up:  The partition
             of the estate is in the hands of our solicitors.  3 (room)
             divider, (dividing) wall, barrier, screen, separator:  Let's put
             up a partition to divide this office into two.  4 compartment,
             room, chamber, section, part, area, division, subdivision, cell,
             stall, booth:  In open floor planning, furniture, plantings, and
             other movables are used to create the partitions where people
             work.

             --v.  5 divide (up), separate, cut up, subdivide, split (up):
             It is always a mistake to partition a country into smaller,
             potentially quarrelsome units. 6 Often, partition off. divide,
             separate, subdivide, wall off, screen (off), fence off:  We must
             partition off the machine room so that the office staff are not
             disturbed by the noise.

   partly    adv.  See partially, above.

   partner   n.  1 sharer, partaker, associate, colleague, participant,
             accomplice, accessory, confederate, comrade, ally, collaborator,
             companion, team-mate, fellow, alter ego, friend, Colloq pal,
             sidekick, mate, US and Canadian buddy, cohort:  His partner in
             the bank robbery was arrested this morning.  2 wife or husband,
             spouse, mate, helpmate, helpmeet, consort:  She became my life
             partner more than 50 years ago.  3 companion, fellow-dancer:
             Won't you change partners and dance with me?

   party     n.  1 (social) gathering, (cocktail or dinner) party,
             celebration, f€te or fete, function, reception, soir‚e, levee,
             festivity, festivities, festival, frolic, spree, romp, carousal
             or carouse, saturnalia, bacchanalia, debauch, orgy, Colloq
             get-together, bash, bust, shindig or shindy, ball, at-home, do,
             Brit beanfeast, beano, knees-up, US blow-out, Slang Brit rave or
             rave-up, Chiefly US and Canadian wingding, bust-up, US hop:
             Campbell said he had a marvellous time at your birthday party.
             2 group, company, band, body, corps, gang, crew, team, squad,
             troop, platoon, detachment, detail, cadre, unit, Colloq bunch,
             outfit:  A small party of men is trapped on the other side of
             the river.  3 side, interest, faction, league, club, coalition,
             bloc, division, sect, denomination, clique, coterie, set, cabal,
             junta or junto, partisans, adherents, confederacy,
             confederation, federation, Chiefly US and Canadian caucus:  The
             proliferation of political parties confuses the electorate.  4
             participant, participator, confederate, associate, ally,
             accomplice, accessory, approver, ratifier, upholder,
             contributor, supporter, advocate, backer, aid, helper, seconder,
             promoter, partisan, defender, exponent, proponent, champion:  I
             refuse to be a party to any illegal act.  5 individual, person,
             litigant, plaintiff, defendant, side, interest, signer,
             signatory, co-signatory, participant, US co-signer:  The party
             of the first part accuses the party of the second part of
             infidelity. How many parties are there to this contract?

   parvenu   n.  1 parvenue, upstart, arriviste, nouveau riche, intruder,
             adventurer, social climber:  Usually one generation has to pass
             before a parvenu is accepted by the class with which his money
             associates him.

             --adj.  2 nouveau riche, upstart, intrusive:  This parvenu
             industrialist tried to use his wealth to make up for his lack of
             refinement.

   pass      v.  1 Often, pass by. proceed or move past, go by or past:  She
             passed me in the street. I didn't recognize her till she had
             passed. We met like ships that pass in the night. 2 proceed,
             move (onwards), go (ahead), progress, extend, lie, run, flow,
             fly, roll, course, stream, drift, sweep:  A flock of geese
             passed overhead.  3 let pass, let go (by), overlook, disregard,
             ignore, pay no heed, omit, skip:  I think I'll pass on making a
             decision till the proper time comes.  4 qualify (in), pass
             muster (in), get or come through, succeed:  Deirdre didn't
             believe she would pass chemistry, but pass she did. 5 spend,
             devote, use (up), expend, employ, occupy, fill, while away, take
             (up); dissipate, waste, fritter away, kill:  He passed his time
             on Devil's Island planning ways to escape.  6 surpass, exceed,
             outdo, transcend, go beyond, overshoot, outstrip, outrun,
             surmount, outdistance:  She passed her own expectations in
             winning the scholarship. How Alan ever got a degree passes all
             comprehension. 7 allow, tolerate, permit, approve, sanction,
             accept, authorize, endorse, carry, agree to, confirm:  The
             customs inspectors passed my luggage without question. The bill
             passed the committee and came up for voting. 8 give, hand round
             or along or over, transfer, pass on or over, deliver, convey,
             Sports US hand off, Colloq toss, throw, reach:  Please pass the
             salt. The sweeper passed the ball back to the goalkeeper. 9
             utter, express, issue, declare, pronounce, deliver, set forth,
             offer:  Who is she to pass judgement on abstract paintings?  10
             go away, disappear, vanish, evaporate, fade away, melt away,
             evanesce, cease (to exist), (come to an) end, die out, go by the
             board, terminate, Literary evanish, Colloq blow over:  For an
             instant I was gripped by a horrible fear, but the feeling
             passed. 11 go (by), expire, elapse; slip by or away, fly; crawl,
             creep, drag:  Weeks have passed since we last met. Time passes
             quickly when you're having fun. 12 evacuate, void, eliminate,
             excrete, defecate, urinate:  The tests showed that he had passed
             some gravel in his urine.  13 come to pass. befall, happen,
             occur, take place, come about, arise, Colloq come off:  And it
             came to pass that a great pestilence was abroad in the land. 14
             pass away.  a die, expire, perish, succumb, breathe one's last,
             pass on, go to one's reward, go to one's final or last
             resting-place, (go to) meet one's Maker, Colloq go west, give up
             the ghost, Slang croak, kick the bucket, Chiefly US bite the
             dust, turn up one's toes:  He was the sole beneficiary when she
             passed away.  b vanish, disappear, go away, stop, cease, end:
             The feeling of vertigo simply passed away when the plane landed.
             15 pass by. See 1, above:  The strikers were urging people to
             pass by the shop.  16 pass for or as.  a be taken for, be
             mistaken for, be regarded as, be accepted as:  He wrote a book
             about being a man who passed for a woman.  b impersonate,
             imitate, mimic, pass (oneself) off as, come or go as, be
             disguised as, disguise oneself as, assume the guise of,
             masquerade as, pose as, assume the role of, act the part of, act
             like, pretend to be, play:  Using her best cockney accent, she
             tried to pass as a Londoner.  17 pass off. evaporate, disappear,
             evanesce, be emitted:  The water passes off as steam, leaving
             the distillate in the flask.  18 pass on.  a proceed, continue,
             progress:  Let us now pass on to the next lesson.  b bequeath,
             hand down or on, transfer, make over, will, cede, give:  The old
             gambler passed on to me the secret of never losing - Don't
             gamble. c See 14, (a), above.  19 pass (oneself) off as. See 16,
             (b), above.  20 pass out.  a faint, collapse, swoon, black out,
             drop, Colloq conk out, keel over:  When they told her of the
             accident, she passed out on the spot.  b distribute, dole out,
             mete out, deal (out), hand out:  After we took our seats, the
             cabin staff passed out glasses of champagne. 21 pass over. See
             3, above:  I shall pass over his latest misdeeds without
             comment.  22 pass up. reject, decline, refuse, waive, turn down,
             dismiss, spurn, renounce; deny (oneself), skip, give up, forgo,
             let go (by), abandon, forswear, forsake, let pass, ignore, pay
             no heed, disregard, pay no heed, omit:  If you don't buy this
             car, you are passing up an opportunity of a lifetime.

             --n.  23 defile, gorge, col, cwm, cut, canyon or ca¤on, notch,
             gap, gully, couloir; passage, opening, way, route, road:  We had
             mined the pass to prevent the enemy's advance.  24
             authorization, permit, licence, approval, safe conduct, green
             light, go-ahead; permission, freedom, liberty, authority,
             clearance; Colloq OK or okay:  He bribed an official for a pass
             to leave the country.  25 free pass, complimentary ticket, Slang
             US twofer, Annie Oakley:  I have two passes to the opera tonight
             - Want to go?  26 state (of affairs), condition, situation,
             stage, juncture, status, crux; predicament, crisis:  At that
             critical pass, it was too late to change policy. Things had come
             to a pretty pass. 27 attempt, trial, try, effort, endeavour:
             Anita's first pass at a perfect score resulted in disaster. We
             made a pass at docking while under sail. 28 (sexual or indecent)
             overture or advance(s), proposition, indecent proposal:  That
             lecher has made a pass at every secretary he's ever had.  29
             manoeuvre, approach; passage, flight, fly-by, transit:  The
             pilot's first pass over the airfield was at 500 feet.  30
             transfer, toss, throw, US hand-off:  A forward pass is illegal
             in rugby.

   passable  adj.  1 satisfactory, acceptable, tolerable, all right,
             adequate, admissible, allowable, presentable, average, fair
             (enough), fair to middling, fairly good, middling, not bad,
             unexceptional, sufficient, indifferent, Colloq OK or okay, so
             so:  I thought the play passable, but not up to his usual
             standard.  2 traversable, navigable, open, unobstructed,
             unblocked:  The channel is passable till October, when the river
             freezes over.

   passage   n.  1 movement, moving, going, transition, transit, traversal,
             traverse, progress, crossing, passing:  The queen's passage
             through the town was attended by much jubilation.  We observed
             the passage of Mercury across the sun's disc. 2 extract,
             excerpt, selection, section, part, portion, text, paragraph,
             canto, stanza, verse, line, sentence, phrase, citation,
             quotation:  I recognize this passage from The Faerie Queene .  3
             way, route, avenue, course, channel; road, thoroughfare:
             Amundsen found a navigable passage between the Atlantic and
             Pacific across North America. 4 corridor, hall, passageway,
             hallway, vestibule, lobby, foyer:  As I stepped into the passage
             outside my room I heard a door slam.  5 change, mutation, shift,
             conversion, progression, passing:  In sublimation, the passage
             is directly between the solid and gaseous or vaporous states,
             without an intermediate liquid stage. 6 passing, elapse,
             progress, progression, flow, march, advance:  She may become
             more tractable with the passage of time.  7 voyage, trip,
             journey, cruise, crossing, sail, run, travel, travelling; Brit
             accommodation or US accommodations, arrangement(s), facilities:
             In 1942 the trans-Atlantic passage was fraught with danger. The
             refugees were guaranteed safe passage to the border. We have
             been unable to book a passage to Majorca for tomorrow. 8 safe
             conduct, permission, privilege, liberty, freedom, visa,
             authorization, allowance:  Our troops were denied passage
             through Nepal.  9 enactment, ratification, sanction, approval,
             acceptance, passing, adoption, endorsement, endorsing,
             legitimatization or legitimization, legalization, legislation,
             constitutionalization, ordainment:  It appears that there is
             enough support to ensure passage of the bill. 10 traffic,
             trafficking, dealing, shipment, shipping, commerce, trade,
             exchange, transaction:  Representatives of several governments
             discussed putting a halt to the passage of narcotics from
             Colombia. 11 aperture, hole, orifice, opening; entry, access,
             inlet; exit, outlet:  We found a tiny passage through which the
             termites were entering and leaving.

   pass‚     adj.  old-fashioned, unfashionable, dated, out of date, behind
             the times, outmoded, obsolete, obsolescent, antiquated, archaic,
             d‚mod‚, quaint, antique, superseded, Colloq out, not or no
             longer in, old hat, back number:  She persisted in dressing in a
             style that had been pass‚ at the turn of the century.

   passenger n.  rider, fare, traveller, voyager, commuter:  The cruise ships
             have very comfortable accommodation for their passengers.

   passing   adj.  1 disappearing, vanishing, ephemeral, brief, going, fading
             (away), slipping away, short-lived, expiring, transient,
             transitory, temporary, momentary, fleeting, transitional,
             impermanent:  I hope that Anne's obsession with acid rock is a
             passing fancy.  2 hasty, superficial, cursory, casual, quick,
             fleeting, brief, summary, abrupt, dismissive; glancing:  The
             speaker paid only passing attention to those he disagreed with.
             3 in passing. by the way, incidentally, by the by,
             parenthetically, en passant:  I might mention, in passing, that
             my train was late owing to the strike.

             --n.  4 death, dying, demise, end, loss, expiry, expiration,
             dying out, extinction, disappearance, vanishment:  Her passing
             is a great sorrow to all of us. Who thought we would live to see
             the passing of the steam engine?

   passion   n.  1 Often, passions. ardour, ardency, eagerness, intensity,
             fervour, fervency, fervidness, zeal, zealousness, avidity,
             avidness, zest, zestfulness, vivacity, vivaciousness, gusto,
             verve, emotion, feeling, animation, spirit, spiritedness,
             vigour, enthusiasm, eagerness; zealotry, fanaticism,
             feverishness:  The passions of the mob are uncontrollable.
             Passion and prejudice govern the world. Passions ran high at the
             political convention. 2 fit, outburst, frenzy, paroxysm,
             seizure, spasm, convulsion, eruption, whirlwind, tempest, storm,
             ferment, fury, furore or US furor:  Henry fell on his knees in a
             passion of grief.  3 infatuation, mania, obsession, craze,
             craving, lust, (unquenchable) thirst, (insatiable) hunger, itch,
             yearning, longing, desire, concupiscence, love, affection,
             enthusiasm, compulsion, fondness, predilection, keenness, fancy,
             fascination, partiality, liking, interest, weakness, Colloq yen:
             Would the world be a better place if the passion for spiritual
             values were as great as for material things? She has a passion
             for chocolates. 4 love, heart's desire, beloved, idol, hero or
             heroine, obsession, Colloq heartthrob, dream-girl or dream-boy:
             He may not look much to you but he is the passion of every
             teenage girl. 5 Usually, Passion. pain, suffering, agony,
             martyrdom:  Christ underwent his Passion at Calvary.

   passionate
             adj.  1 ardent, eager, intense, fervid, zealous, avid, eager,
             earnest, zestful, feverish, fanatic(al), vehement, impassioned,
             emotional, animated, spirited, enthusiastic, vigorous,
             invigorated, energetic:  Passionate environmentalists campaign
             for better governmental control of carbon dioxide emissions. 2
             aroused, lustful, lecherous, erotic, sexual, amorous, sensual,
             Colloq hot:  She tried to resist his passionate advances.  3
             quick-tempered, irascible, hotheaded, fiery, testy, huffy or
             huffish, peevish, cranky, peppery, choleric, touchy, bilious,
             snappish, volatile, cross, temperamental, irritable,
             quarrelsome, pugnacious, argumentative, contentious,
             belligerent, Rare atrabilious or atrabiliar:  Valerie gets into
             a passionate mood whenever she thinks she is being treated
             unjustly.

   passive   adj.  1 inactive, non-aggressive, inert, motionless,
             unresponsive, quiet, calm, tranquil, serene, placid, still,
             idle, unmoving, unmoved, impassive, untouched, cool,
             indifferent, phlegmatic, uninterested, uninvolved,
             dispassionate, apathetic, lifeless, listless, quiescent,
             unperturbed, unaffected, imperturbable, unshaken, Colloq
             laid-back, out of it:  The comic was unable to get a reaction
             from the passive audience.  2 submissive, repressed,
             deferential, yielding, compliant, complaisant, receptive,
             flexible, malleable, pliable, tractable, docile, subdued,
             sheepish, ovine, lamblike, cow-like, bovine, tame, gentle, meek,
             patient, unresisting, unassertive, forbearing, tolerant,
             resigned, long-suffering, Colloq US excuse-me-for-living:
             People tend to bully those of a more passive nature.  3
             unexpressed, tacit, unrevealed, undisclosed, implicit,
             unasserted:  We can no longer take a passive position regarding
             crime. Your passive support, while welcome, is not as effective
             as active campaigning.

   password  n.  watchword, shibboleth, open sesame, countersign:  If you
             don't know the password, the guard won't let you in.

   past      adj.  1 over, done, finished, (over and) done with, gone (and
             forgotten), dead (and buried or gone), defunct:  The day of the
             horse and carriage is past.  2 late, former, one-time, sometime,
             previous, prior, erstwhile, quondam, whilom; last, recent:  Past
             owners of the house had no idea that this treasure was buried in
             the basement.

             --adv.  3 on, (close) by, nearby:  I was standing here when he
             ran past.  4 ago, before, heretofore, since:  The previous
             owners moved out two years past.

             --n.  5 history, background, life, lifetime, existence, career,
             lifestyle, biography:  She reveals all about her past in her new
             book.  6 days or years or times gone by, days of yore, old
             times, olden times or days, former times, (good) old days, days
             of old, days beyond recall:  In the past, life proceeded at a
             more leisurely pace.

   pastiche  n.  mixture, medley, blend, compound, composite, patchwork, olla
             podrida, pot-pourri, motley, miscellany, omnium gatherum,
             m‚lange, gallimaufry, farrago, mishmash, hotchpotch or US and
             Canadian hodgepodge, tangle, Colloq mess:  The room was
             furnished in a pastiche of styles from every imaginable period.

   pastime   n.  hobby, avocation, recreation, diversion, distraction,
             amusement, entertainment, fun, play, leisure-time activity,
             relaxation, leisure, sport, divertissement:  As a pastime, she
             collects books.

   pastor    n.  vicar, clergyman, clergywoman, parson, minister, churchman,
             churchwoman, rector, canon, reverend, father, divine,
             ecclesiastic, priest, bishop:  The pastor led the congregation
             in prayer.

   pastoral  adj.  1 bucolic, idyllic, Edenic, innocent, simple, tranquil,
             serene, quiet, restful, peaceful, peaceable, placid, pacific,
             harmonious, simple, uncomplicated, Literary Arcadian, georgic:
             After a week in those pastoral surroundings, she felt inspired.
             Theocritus is noted for his pastoral poetry. 2 country, rural,
             rustic, provincial, farming, agricultural, agrarian; humble:  He
             has chosen a pastoral setting for the play, which contrasts
             sharply with the emotional intensity of the characters. 3
             clerical, ministerial, ecclesiastic(al), church(ly):  Our vicar
             discharges his pastoral duties with energy and sincerity.

             --n.  4 idyll, eclogue, georgic:  Flambeau did these marvellous
             engravings for a book of pastorals.

   pasture   n.  meadow, meadow-land, pasture land, grassland, grass, lea,
             range; pasturage:  How much pasture is needed for 200 head of
             cattle?

   pasty     adj.  wan, pallid, pasty-faced, sallow, pale, pale-faced,
             whey-faced, sickly, anaemic:  He had the pasty complexion of a
             child raised in an industrial city.

   pat°      v.  1 tap, touch, dab, pet, stroke, caress:  Being short, he
             hated it when people affectionately patted him on the head. Pat
             down the coverlet to smooth out the wrinkles. 2 pat on the back.
             congratulate, commend, praise, compliment, encourage, reassure:
             The sales manager patted me on the back for clinching the
             contract.

             --n.  3 tap, touch, dab, stroke, caress:  Give the dog a pat and
             he'll leave you alone.  4 (small) piece, patty, lump, cake,
             portion; patty:  The waiter put a pat of butter on my plate.  5
             pat on the back. commendation, praise, compliment, flattery,
             encouragement, credit, reassurance, approval, endorsement,
             recognition; honeyed words:  I was expecting a big bonus, but
             all I got was a pat on the back.

   patэ      adv.  1 perfectly, exactly, precisely, faultlessly, flawlessly,
             just so or right, Brit off pat:  She has the new technique pat.
             2 aptly, suitably, appositely, readily, appropriately,
             fittingly, relevantly:  His reply came out a little too pat.

             --adj.  3 apt, suitable, apposite, ready, appropriate, fitting,
             relevant:  The poet made a very pat comparison.

   patch     n.  1 piece, scrap, reinforcement; shred, snip, snippet, tatter;
             pad:  Mother sewed colourful patches over the holes in my jeans.
             2 area, section, segment, plat, plot, lot, tract, ground,
             parcel, field:  All he ever wanted was a little house on a
             little patch of land.  3 responsibility, area, bailiwick,
             territory:  The handling of customer complaints is in your
             patch, Gordon.  4 period, interval, spell, stage, episode, time;
             experience:  She went through a bad patch shortly after Starkey
             died.

             --v.  5 patch up or over, mend, repair, vamp, revamp, darn, sew
             (up), reinforce, cover:  I had my trousers patched where the dog
             bit me. Her father always wore the same patched jacket to the
             club. 6 Often, patch up. fix (up), doctor, jury-rig, improvise,
             knock together or up:  Can you patch it up so I can drive it
             home?  7 patch up. settle, set right or straight, straighten
             out, reconcile, resolve, heal; come or bring to terms, bury the
             hatchet, kiss and make up, call a truce:  Will the two girls
             ever patch up their differences?

   patchwork n.  pastiche or pasticcio, mixture, confusion, hotchpotch or US
             also hodgepodge, gallimaufry, olio, olla podrida, mishmash,
             jumble, m‚lange, medley, hash, US crazy quilt, Colloq mixed bag:
             The landscape is a patchwork of ploughland and pasture, with
             little copses and rivers. The concerto by Lindslade is
             'derivative' - that is, it is a patchwork.

   patent    n.  1 certificate of invention, letters patent, trade name,
             trade mark, copyright, US service mark; licence, permit,
             charter, franchise, grant; control:  My brother holds the patent
             on a new piece of laboratory equipment.  You think you have a
             patent on misery, but I have news for you.

             --adj.  2 obvious, clear, transparent, manifest, apparent,
             plain, evident, self-evident, unmistakable or unmistakeable,
             unequivocal, explicit, palpable, tangible, physical,
             conspicuous, flagrant, blatant, prominent:  The results are as
             patent as the fact that two and two make four.

   paternal  adj.  1 fatherly, kindly, indulgent, solicitous, fond,
             concerned, devoted, loving; patriarchal:  Uncle Charles takes a
             paternal interest in the welfare of his nieces and nephews. 2
             patrilineal or patrilinear, patriclinous or patroclinous or
             patriclinal or patroclinal or patriclinic or patroclinic,
             patrilateral, patrimonial:  She resembles her paternal
             grandmother. His fortune is partly paternal, partly acquired.

   paternity n.  fatherhood, fathership; parentage, descent, heritage, line,
             lineage, extraction, family, stock, strain, blood, patrilineage:
             The child's paternity was established through DNA tests.

   path      n.  1 footpath, pathway, tow-path, track, trail, walk, walkway,
             Brit footway:  A little kitten was sitting on the garden path.
             2 way, course, track, route, road; orbit, trajectory, circuit:
             She had to overcome many obstacles in her path to the
             directorship.  The path of the missile will take it outside the
             atmosphere. 3 course, approach, channel, direction, procedure,
             process, way, avenue, means, method, technique, strategy,
             scheme, plan, Colloq US game plan, scenario:  What path would
             you follow to accomplish your ends?

   pathetic  adj.  1 moving, stirring, affecting, affective, touching,
             emotional, emotive, poignant, tragic, heart-rending,
             heart-breaking, pitiful, pitiable, piteous, plaintive, wretched,
             miserable, sorrowful, grievous, sad, doleful, dolorous,
             mournful, woeful, lamentable:  The boat people told a pathetic
             tale of the hardship of weeks in the open sea. 2 meagre, paltry,
             feeble, inadequate, poor, petty, puny, sorry, piddling, Colloq
             measly, Slang crummy:  He made a pathetic effort to pull himself
             together. A return of three per cent a year is pathetic.

   patience  n.  1 tolerance, forbearance, restraint, toleration, sufferance,
             leniency, submission, resignation, self-control,
             imperturbability, even temper, unflappability, composure,
             calmness, serenity, equanimity:  Many parents lose their
             patience when dealing with children.  2 diligence, tenacity,
             doggedness, indefatigability, endurance, assiduity,
             perseverance, constancy, persistence, steadfastness,
             pertinacity, determination, resolve, resolution, firmness,
             stoicism, fortitude, Colloq US stick-to-it-iveness:  Where do
             you get the patience to wait in those long queues?

   patient   adj.  1 resigned, submissive, stoical, long-suffering,
             compliant, acquiescent, passive, self-possessed, philosophical,
             serene, unaggressive:  The staff who handle complaints must be
             extremely patient.  2 diligent, dogged, tenacious, persistent,
             assiduous, sedulous, steadfast, staunch, perseverant,
             unwavering, unswerving, constant, unfaltering, unfailing,
             untiring, tireless, indefatigable, pertinacious, determined,
             resolved, resolute, firm, unyielding:  Be patient, and don't do
             anything rash.  3 forbearing, tolerant, forgiving, lenient,
             accommodating:  We have been patient long enough and must now
             put a stop to the vandalism.

             --n.  4 invalid, sufferer, case, valetudinarian:  Doctors were
             called in to treat patients who developed the symptoms.

   patriot   n.  nationalist, loyalist; flag-waver, jingo, jingoist,
             chauvinist:  She was among the patriots ready to do battle for
             their country.

   patriotic adj.  nationalist(ic), loyalist; flag-waving, jingoist(ic),
             chauvinist(ic):  The fact that they criticize the government may
             show that they are more rather than less patriotic.

   patrol    n.  1 guard, sentry, watch, watchman, sentinel, patrolman:  The
             patrol passes here once every hour.  2 rounds, policing,
             patrolling, beat; protecting, protection, guarding,
             safeguarding, defending, watchfulness, vigilance:  The patrol
             must be maintained night and day.

             --v.  3 police, guard, protect, defend, watch over, walk a beat,
             make (the) rounds, stand or keep guard or watch (over), keep
             vigil:  Some of the local residents have taken to patrolling the
             neighbourhood at night.

   patron    n.  1 patroness, benefactor, benefactress, philanthropist,
             Maecenas, protector, supporter, defender, advocate, champion,
             guardian (angel), sponsor, backer, promoter, sympathizer,
             friend, US booster; friend at court; Colloq angel:  Lady Agnes
             is a well-known patron of the arts.  2 customer, client,
             purchaser, buyer, patronizer, habitu‚, regular, frequenter:  The
             patrons habituate her shop because of the bargains to be found
             there.

   patronage n.  1 sponsorship, support, backing, promotion, encouragement,
             boosting, aid, help, sympathy, financing, auspices, protection,
             guardianship, aegis:  The exhibition was organized with the
             duke's patronage.  2 trade, business, custom, trading, traffic:
             The shop could never succeed with our patronage.  3
             condescension, disdain, scorn, contempt, contumely, superiority,
             patronizing, stooping, deigning, humiliation:  There is an air
             of patronage about him when he finally does allow me a visit. 4
             favouritism, partiality, preference, bias, nepotism, political
             patronage, granting of indulgences, US spoils (system):
             Politicians have always used patronage to reward support.

   patronize v.  1 look down on, scorn, look down one's nose at, treat
             condescendingly, talk down to, treat as (an) inferior, disdain,
             demean, put down, humiliate, Formal contemn:  He patronizes
             people by patting them on the head.  2 bring trade to, deal or
             trade or do or transact business with, buy or purchase from,
             frequent, shop at, be a customer or client of:  You should
             patronize the local merchants in your town.  3 sponsor, support,
             back, promote, encourage, boost, aid, assist, help, fund,
             contribute or subscribe to, underwrite, foster:  The fund has
             patronized the arts in this town for many years.

   patter°   v.  1 tiptoe; scurry, scuttle, skip, trip:  I could hear the
             squirrels pattering across the metal roof.  2 spatter,
             pitter-patter, tap, pit-a-pat; beat, pelt:  The rain pattered on
             the tent with increasing intensity.

             --n.  3 spatter, spattering, pit-a-pat, pitter-patter, tattoo,
             drum, thrum, beat, beating, tap, ratatat, tap-tap:  The
             rhythmical patter of the rain lulled me to sleep.

   patterэ   n.  1 pitch, sales talk, spiel, line:  Anyone listening to his
             patter might be inclined to buy a time-share holiday. 2 chatter,
             prattle, prate, babbling, babble, gabble, gabbling, cackle,
             cackling, palaver, jabber, jabbering, chit-chat, small talk,
             gossip, blather or blether, gibberish or gibber, Chiefly Brit
             natter, nattering, Scots clishmaclaver, Colloq gab, gabbing,
             Slang gas, hot air, yackety-yack, yack:  The chap tapping our
             phone had to listen to the teenagers' patter for hours on end.

             --v.  3 chatter, prattle, prate, babble, gabble, cackle,
             palaver, jabber, rattle (on), chit-chat, chaffer, gossip,
             blather or blether, gibber, Chiefly Brit natter, witter (on),
             Colloq gab, Slang gas, yackety-yack, yack, jibber-jabber:  They
             just patter on about nothing in particular.

   pattern   n.  1 model, original, archetype, prototype, exemplar, paragon,
             ideal, standard, yardstick, criterion, gauge, measure:  Their
             life together could serve as a pattern for any couple.  2
             figure, motif, design, device, decoration, ornament:  The
             pattern of the wallpaper clashes with that of the curtains.  3
             system, order, arrangement, plan, theme; repetition,
             consistency, orderliness, regularity, sequence, cycle:  By
             carefully noting the movements of the heavenly bodies, ancient
             observers were able to detect a pattern. 4 blueprint, diagram,
             plan, layout, design, draft, guide, template or templet,
             stencil, mould, matrix:  These new lighting fixtures are made to
             a 19th-century pattern.  5 sample, example, instance, specimen,
             representation:  Were you able to match up your fabric pattern
             with one of those in the tailor's book? 6 layout, configuration,
             figure, formation, composition:  The geese often flew in a
             V-shaped pattern.

             --v.  7 Often, pattern on. model on, imitate, copy, mimic,
             duplicate, follow, emulate, simulate:  She tried to pattern her
             behaviour on that of her older sister.  8 decorate, figure,
             ornament:  Cynthia's gifts were wrapped in a beautifully
             patterned paper.

   paunch    n.  belly, pot-belly, Colloq corporation, US bay window, Slang
             beer-belly:  Capitalism is often conventionalized as a
             top-hatted older man, in tails, with a huge paunch and a cigar.

   pauper    n.  have-not, indigent, down-and-out(er), bankrupt, insolvent;
             beggar, mendicant; tramp, hobo, vagrant, US bum:  The mortgage
             payments on such a lavish house soon made him a pauper.

   pause     v.  1 hesitate, interrupt, delay, hold up, discontinue, break,
             wait, mark time, suspend, intermit, falter, rest:  He paused for
             a moment to allow late-comers to take their seats.

             --n.  2 hesitation, interruption, delay, lull, lapse,
             moratorium, hold-up, wait, break, breather, breathing-space,
             discontinuity, lacuna, hiatus, abeyance, discontinuation,
             discontinuance, Prosody caesura, Music fermata, Colloq let-up:
             There was a brief pause, then the altercation in the
             neighbouring flat resumed.

   pave      v.  1 macadamize, tarmac, asphalt, tile, flag, concrete, cover,
             surface:  Europeans thought that the streets of America were
             paved with gold. 2 pave the way for or to. prepare or smooth the
             way for, open the door for, make easy or easier for; facilitate,
             ease:  If I talk to him first, perhaps I can pave the way for
             you to make your proposal.

   pawn°     v.  1 pledge, mortgage, hypothecate, plight, deposit, Formal
             pignorate, Archaic gage, Colloq Brit pop, Chiefly US and
             Canadian hock:  I had to pawn my watch to get enough money to
             eat.  2 venture, stake, risk, gamble, hazard, chance,
             jeopardize:  By agreeing to donate one of his kidneys, he pawned
             his life to save hers.

             --n.  3 collateral, guaranty or guarantee, pledge, surety,
             security, assurance, bond, bail, deposit:  She gave her jewels
             as pawn for the safe return of the children.

   pawnэ     n.  tool, cat's-paw, puppet, instrument, dummy, dupe, Colloq
             stooge:  He's not important: he's just being used as a pawn by
             the powerful interests involved.

   pay       v.  1 recompense, compensate, remunerate, reward, indemnify;
             repay, refund, reimburse; pay off, pay out, pay up, satisfy,
             clear, remit, discharge, liquidate, settle, honour, meet:  Do
             you think that nurses are poorly paid? You have 30 days to pay
             this invoice. 2 reward, benefit, recompense, requite,
             compensate:  Thurlew has been amply paid by having his name
             engraved on the roll of honour. 3 extend, bestow, transmit, pass
             on, give, deliver:  Please pay my respects to your wife.  4
             benefit, profit, avail, (turn out to) be or prove profitable or
             worthwhile, yield a return, be advantageous, produce results,
             pay off:  It no longer pays to complain about the service in the
             shops.  Honesty pays. 5 pay back, repay, retaliate, settle
             (accounts) (with), even the score or a score, reciprocate,
             requite, take or get revenge on, avenge oneself for or on, treat
             in kind, hit or strike or get back (at), settle or pay off or
             even a score or the score (with), exact one's pound of flesh
             (from), make (someone) pay (for), punish, chastise, castigate,
             Brit pay out, Colloq get even (with):  If I catch him, I'll pay
             him for turning informer.  6 suffer (the consequences), answer
             (for), make amends (for), atone (for), get one's (just) deserts,
             undergo punishment (for), be punished (for):  If I catch him,
             I'll make him pay. Society requires that he pay for his crime. 7
             produce or make or generate or earn money, yield a return, pay
             off:  His vending-machine business certainly pays well.  8 pay
             back.  a recompense, compensate, remunerate, reward, indemnify;
             repay, pay off, refund, reimburse:  I paid back every penny I
             borrowed from the bank. I'll pay her back if it's the last thing
             I do. b See 5, above.  9 pay for. See 6, above.  10 pay off.  a
             See 4 and 7, and 8(a), above.  b bribe, suborn, buy off, grease
             (someone's) palm, give (someone) a bribe or a rebate, Colloq
             give (someone) a kickback, slip (someone) something:  Did he
             really pay off the judges to select his daughter as Miss
             Tyneside? 11 pay out.  a distribute, deal out, give out,
             disperse, disburse:  The managing director paid out bonuses to
             the entire staff.  b disburse, expend, spend, contribute, Colloq
             shell out, lay out, US and Canadian and Australian and New
             Zealand kick in with, Slang cough up, fork out or over or up:
             In the office, we are forever paying out for leaving presents.
             c release, loosen, let out, slack or slacken off (on):  Pay out
             more rope so that he can reach it.  d See 5, above:  We'll pay
             him out for everything he's done to you, never fear!

             --n.  12 payment, compensation, recompense, settlement, return;
             remuneration, consideration, reward, money, wages, salary, fee,
             honorarium, remittance, stipend, income, takings, take-home
             (pay), gain, profit, Colloq US take:  His sole pay for painting
             the kitchen was a big hug and a kiss.  The work is tedious, but
             the pay isn't bad.

   payable   adj.  due, owed, owing, outstanding, unpaid, receivable, mature:
             This bill is payable at the end of the month.

   payment   n.  1 See pay, 12, above.  2 expenditure, disbursement,
             distribution, outlay, fee, contribution, charge, expense,
             payout:  You are not authorized to make payment of any amount
             over њ100.

   pay-off   n.  1 See pay, 12, above.  2 result, outcome, upshot,
             conclusion, wind-up, settlement, final reckoning, Colloq
             punch-line, crunch, grand finale, Slang US and Canadian kicker:
             The pay-off was that permission to march on Sunday was denied.
             3 bribe, graft, rebate; ransom, blood-money, Colloq kickback,
             hush money, Chiefly US payola, US plugola:  The pay-off was
             always made in cash, in used notes.

16.2 peace...
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   peace     n.  1 serenity, tranquillity, calm, calmness, placidity or
             placidness, peace of mind, quiet, peacefulness, peaceableness,
             stillness:  For a summer holiday, we enjoy the peace of the
             Lakes.  2 harmony, accord, harmoniousness, concord, amity,
             peacefulness, peacetime; cease-fire, armistice, truce:  Since
             the Second World War, Europe has enjoyed more than 45 years of
             relative peace.

   peaceable adj.  1 See peaceful, 1, below.  2 pacific, inoffensive, dovish,
             peace-loving, mild, non-violent, non-belligerent, unbelligerent,
             unwarlike, non-warring, non-combative, temperate, agreeable,
             compatible, congenial, genial, friendly, amiable, amicable,
             cordial, civil:  Despite cultural differences, the two countries
             maintained peaceable relations.

   peaceful  adj.  1 peaceable, serene, placid, calm, quiet, quiescent,
             gentle, restful, tranquil, untroubled, undisturbed, unruffled:
             After our week-end guests left, the house was again peaceful.  2
             See peaceable, 2, above.

   peacemaker
             n.  conciliator, pacifier, reconciler, propitiator, placater,
             pacificator, mediator, arbitrator, intermediator, intermediary,
             diplomat, appeaser, interceder, go-between, referee, umpire,
             adjudicator; peacemonger:  The ambassador was called upon to act
             as peacemaker between the warring nations.

   peak      n.  1 top, pinnacle, crest, ridge, tor, mountain top, summit,
             mountain, eminence, elevation, hill:  We were just able to make
             out the snow-capped peaks in the distance.  2 top, tip, tiptop,
             apex, acme, culmination, apogee, zenith, high point, crown,
             extreme, utmost, uttermost, perfection, ne plus ultra,
             consummation, climax:  Irene has brought the office to a peak of
             efficiency.  3 visor, brim, US bill, nib:  The peak of the
             fisherman's cap serves as an eyeshade.

             --v.  4 rise, crest, culminate, (reach a) climax, top (out):
             Prices peaked during the Christmas shopping season.

   peaky     adj.  peakish, pinched, unhealthy, sickly, ailing, ill, unwell,
             infirm, unwholesome, pale, pallid, wan, waxen, anaemic, pasty,
             sallow, whey-faced, ashen, washed out, drained, emaciated,
             wasted, gaunt, hollow-eyed, haggard, drawn, weak, feeble, US
             peaked:  Paul has been looking a bit peaky of late.

   peal      n.  1 ringing, ring, carillon, chime, chiming, toll, tolling,
             clang, clangour, tintinnabulation, clamour, reverberation;
             knell; clap, crash, roar, rumble, thunder:  The constant peal of
             the bells nearly drove him mad. The doleful peal rang out for
             yet another fisherman lost at sea. A resounding peal of thunder
             shook the house.

             --v.  2 ring, toll, chime, clang, tintinnabulate, reverberate,
             resonate, resound; knell; boom, crash, roar, roll, rumble,
             thunder:  The cowbells pealed plaintively, reminding me of my
             youth in the Alps. Lightning flashed, and the echoing thunder
             pealed through the valley.

   pearl     n.  gem, treasure, prize, cream, flower, wonder, nonpareil:
             Wasn't Cuba once called the Pearl of the Antilles?

   pearly    adj.  nacreous, pearl-like, perlaceous, lustrous,
             mother-of-pearl:  The dress was trimmed with pink lace and
             little pearly buttons.

   peasant   n.  rustic, countryman, countrywoman, farmer, provincial, (farm)
             worker, (country) bumpkin, bucolic; peon, fellah, muzhik or
             mouzhik or mujik; Historical esne, serf, Archaic swain, hind,
             churl, Derogatory yokel, hill-billy, bog-trotter, oaf, lump,
             lout, boor, churl, clod, clodhopper; Colloq US and Canadian
             hick, galoot or galloot, Derogatory hayseed, rube, Derogatory
             and offensive US poor white (trash):  Regimes came and went, but
             the life of the medieval peasant endured.

   peccadillo
             n.  slip, error, lapse, mistake, infraction, violation, misdeed,
             shortcoming, misstep, blunder, faux pas, indiscretion, gaffe,
             botch, stumble, fault, petty sin, (minor) transgression,
             trespass, Colloq slip-up, goof:  We have to forgive the
             occasional peccadillo.

   peculiar  adj.  1 odd, curious, strange, queer, bizarre, weird, unusual,
             abnormal, anomalous, aberrant, deviant or deviate, eccentric,
             uncommon, outlandish, exceptional, extraordinary, out of the
             ordinary, offbeat, unorthodox, atypical, idiosyncratic,
             unconventional, out-of-the-way, quaint, unique, singular, one of
             a kind, sui generis, distinct, distinguished, special,
             particular, quirky, funny, freakish, Slang far-out, freaky, Brit
             rum:  Don't you agree that anyone who by choice goes barefoot in
             winter is a bit peculiar? She enjoys a peculiar immunity to
             colds. 2 Usually, peculiar to. typical of, characteristic of,
             characterized by, natural to, symptomatic of, appropriate to or
             for, distinctive of, restricted to, specific to, indicative of,
             denotative of, limited to, individual to, personal to, special
             to, unique to; seen or observed (only) in, local to, native to,
             indigenous to:  Such behaviour is peculiar to those who have
             served long prison sentences.

             --n.  3 Typography arbitrary, sort:  Characters with diacritical
             marks are called 'peculiars' in the printing trades.

   peculiarity
             n.  1 idiosyncrasy, oddity, eccentricity, abnormality,
             irregularity, quirk, kink, crotchet, caprice:  Keeping
             alligators was only one of Jess's peculiarities.  2 feature,
             characteristic, property, quality, trait, attribute, earmark,
             hallmark, mark, particularity, singularity, Brit speciality, US
             specialty:  One of the peculiarities of the books is their wide
             margins.

   pedantic  adj.  1 didactic, doctrinaire, donnish, pedagogic, pedantical,
             preachy, professorial, bookish, ostentatious, pretentious,
             sententious, pompous, vain, stuffy, stilted, stiff, dry:  A
             pedantic approach to marketing may be all right in the
             classroom, but it doesn't sell products. 2 perfectionist,
             scrupulous, overscrupulous, finicky or finical, fussy,
             punctilious, fastidious, meticulous, exact, chop-logic,
             hair-splitting, quibbling, Colloq nit-picking:  His secretary
             left because of his pedantic criticisms of her work.

   peddle    v.  sell, hawk, market, vend, huckster, Colloq push, flog:  He
             is a publishing tycoon today, but he started by peddling books
             door-to-door.

   pedestal  n.  1 foundation, base, platform, stand, substructure, mounting,
             pier, foot, mounting, support, Technical plinth, socle, dado:
             The statue crumbled away and only its pedestal remained.  2 put
             or place or set on a pedestal. glorify, exalt, worship, deify,
             revere, idolize, dignify, apotheosize, ennoble, elevate, raise:
             No woman is worth putting on a pedestal.

   pedestrian
             n.  1 walker, stroller, ambler, rambler, footslogger; itinerant,
             peripatetic:  A special crossing has been installed for
             pedestrians.

             --adj.  2 boring, dull, banal, tiresome, commonplace, mundane,
             tedious, unimaginative, uninteresting, monotonous,
             run-of-the-mill, humdrum, stock, prosaic, insipid, dry, flat,
             jejune, colourless, dreary, pale, ordinary, hackneyed, trite,
             (as) dull as ditch-water or US also dishwater, vapid, stale,
             uninspired, uninspiring, spiritless, lifeless, dead:  The dean
             delivered his customary pedestrian lecture to the new students.
             3 walking, strolling, ambulatory, on foot, rambling,
             peripatetic:  We were exhausted after taking a pedestrian tour
             of London.

   pedigree  n.  (line of) descent, ancestry, genealogy, blood, bloodline,
             line, extraction, lineage, stock, heritage, family, derivation,
             birth, parentage, strain, roots:  His pedigree is all right, but
             does he have brains as well as money?

   pedlar    n.  hawker, (door-to-door) salesman or saleswoman or
             salesperson, vendor, huckster, seller, colporteur, US peddler,
             drummer, Archaic chapman, Colloq cheapjack:  How can you expect
             the watch to work if you bought it from a street pedlar?

   peek      v.  1 peer, peep, glimpse, look, squint (at), squinny (at),
             Scots keek, Colloq take or have a gander (at), Brit take a dekko
             (at):  A small boy peeked out from under the blanket.

             --n.  2 look, glimpse, peep, glance, Scots keek, Colloq gander,
             look-see:  I've had a peek at what Father hid in the cupboard.

   peel      v.  1 Sometimes, peel off. skin, strip (off), pare, flay, flake
             off, descale, decorticate; shuck, hull, bark, scale; desquamate:
             Beulah, peel me a grape.  2 strip, undress, disrobe; do a
             striptease:  In the last act, everyone peels to the bare skin.
             3 peel off. take off or doff, strip off:  I peeled off my coat
             and dived into the canal to save her.

             --n.  4 skin, rind, coating, peeling:  Don't you like candied
             orange peel?

   peep      v.  1 chirp, tweet, cheep, squeak, twitter, pipe, chirrup:  The
             birds peeped excitedly when they saw the cat.

             --n.  2 chirp, tweet, cheep, squeak, twitter, pipe, chirrup,
             chirr or chirre or churr:  The night was filled with the peep of
             the frogs at the pond.  3 sound, complaint, outcry, protest,
             protestation, grumble, murmur:  The students didn't let out a
             peep when ordered to remain after class.

   peer°     n.  1 noble, nobleman or noblewoman, lord or lady, aristocrat;
             duke or duchess, marquess or marchioness, earl or countess,
             viscount or viscountess, baron or baroness:  As a peer of the
             realm, she had certain rights.  2 equal, coequal, compeer, like,
             match, confrЉre, associate, colleague:  Under law, he is
             entitled to trial by a jury of his peers.

   peerэ     v.  1 peep, peek, squint (at), squinny (at), look, examine; spy:
             Scrooge peered closely at the accounts ledger.  2 appear, peep
             through or out, break through, show, become visible, emerge:
             Now and then, the moon peered through the clouds.

   peerless  adj.  without equal, unequalled, matchless, unmatched,
             unrivalled, unique, incomparable, beyond compare, unparalleled,
             nonpareil, inimitable, unexcelled, unsurpassed, superior,
             superb, excellent, supreme, superlative, finest, best, ne plus
             ultra, sovereign, consummate, pre-eminent, paramount:  James's
             mother was a peerless beauty and the toast of her generation.

   peevish   adj.  irritable, testy, touchy, fretful, ill-humoured, waspish,
             petulant, crabbed, churlish, querulous, short-tempered,
             ill-natured, tetchy, cross, bad-tempered, ill-tempered,
             fault-finding, captious, carping, cavilling, crusty,
             curmudgeonly, crotchety, cantankerous, grumpy or grumpish,
             pettish, acrimonious, splenetic, Colloq bilious, US and Canadian
             and Irish cranky:  He's very peevish today, so don't get on his
             wrong side.

   peg       v.  1 pin, dowel, rod, stick, bolt; thole or thole-pin;
             clothes-peg, hook:  Pegs and glue are often used for fastening
             good furniture together.  Hang your coat on the peg. 2 off the
             peg. ready-made, ready-to-wear, stock:  As bespoke clothing is
             so dear, I buy mine off the peg.  3 take down a peg (or two).
             humble, diminish, lower, subdue, suppress, downgrade, dishonour,
             mortify, humiliate, put down, abase, debase, devalue or
             devaluate:  He was acting a bit high and mighty, so she took him
             down a peg or two.

             --v.  4 fasten, secure, make fast, fix, attach, pin:  They
             pegged the tent firmly to the ground.  5 fix, attach, pin, set
             (by), control by, limit by, restrict, confine, freeze, bind,
             regulate, govern:  In indexing, the rate of inflation is often
             used for pegging wages.  6 toss, throw, shy, flip, sling, cast:
             I'll bet a fiver you can't peg that stone across the river.  7
             peg away or US also along. work (away) (at), persevere (at),
             apply oneself (to), persist (in or at), go to or at (it), keep
             at (it), stick to or with or at (it), stay with or at (it),
             carry on (with or at), Colloq plug away (at), beaver away (at),
             hammer or bang or peck away (at):  Trevor pegs away at his
             homework every evening.

   pell-mell adv.  1 helter-skelter, slapdash, rashly, feverishly,
             incautiously, confusedly, chaotically, wildly, impulsively,
             recklessly, slap-bang, impetuously, hastily, hurriedly,
             precipitately, spontaneously:  The ice-cream vendor pedalled
             down the street with the children running pell-mell after him.

             --adj.  2 helter-skelter, slapdash, rash, feverish, incautious,
             confused, disordered, disorderly, disorganized, wild, mad,
             chaotic, tumultuous, panicky, impulsive, reckless, precipitate,
             impetuous, hasty, hurried:  Quick action by the soldiers was
             responsible for the pell-mell rout of the attackers.

             --n.  3 confusion, disorder, chaos, tumult, pandemonium,
             turmoil, m€l‚e or melee, furore or US furor, commotion, bedlam,
             brouhaha, hubbub, excitement:  In the pell-mell that followed,
             several bystanders were injured.

   pelt°     v.  1 bombard, shower, bomb, pepper, strafe, batter, shell,
             assail, assault, attack, US pummel or pommel, belabour, pound,
             Old-fashioned lay about, Slang US clobber, wallop, paste, work
             over:  The hooligans pelted the crowd with sticks and stones.  2
             Often, pelt down. beat, dash, pound, hit; come down, teem, pour,
             Colloq rain cats and dogs, bucket down, US rain pitchforks:  The
             rain came pelting down just as we were ready to go out.  3 pelt
             along or over. hurry, rush, run, dash, shoot, scoot, scurry:
             The constables pelted along after the escaping thief.

             --n.  4 stroke, blow, whack, hit, smack, slap, thwack, bang,
             thump, Colloq wallop, belt:  Chris received a pelt on the head
             from a rock.

   peltэ     n.  skin, hide, coat, fur, fleece:  The trappers traded the fox
             pelts for supplies.

   pen°      n.  1 writing instrument, fountain-pen, ball-point (pen), Brit
             trade mark Biro, Old-fashioned quill:  Dearest, I have finally
             found time to put pen to paper. I prefer a pen with a fine
             point.

             --v.  2 write (down or up or out), jot down, (make a) note (of),
             draft, draw up, compose, put on paper, commit to paper, commit
             to writing, put in writing, scribble, scrawl, scratch, Formal
             indite:  While he was in prison, he penned letters to many men
             of influence.

   penэ      n.  1 coop, enclosure, hutch, (pig)sty, pound, fold, stall,
             confine, US and Canadian corral:  We kept the geese in a pen by
             the barn.

             --v.  2 Often, pen up. enclose, confine, coop up, shut up,
             impound, round up, US and Canadian corral:  It took three of us
             to pen the sheep. During the blockade, the ships remained penned
             up at Gibraltar.

   penal     adj.  correctional, punitive, disciplinary:  Crime and its
             punishment are covered in the penal code. He was sent to a penal
             colony for life.

   penalize  v.  punish, discipline, mulct, amerce, fine, handicap, impose or
             invoke a penalty against, impose a penalty on, Formal amerce;
             sentence:  This judge penalizes speeders mercilessly.

   penalty   n.  punishment, discipline, penance, sentence; forfeit, fine,
             handicap, price, mulct, Formal amercement; imprisonment,
             incarceration:  The prosecution demanded the maximum penalty
             allowable under law for the crimes.

   penance   n.  1 punishment, penalty, reparation, amends, atonement,
             self-punishment, self-mortification, regret, repentance,
             contrition, suffering, penitence:  A year of public service was
             fair penance for the offence.  2 do penance. pay, suffer, make
             amends or reparation(s), atone, wear sackcloth and ashes or a
             hair-shirt:  She has done penance enough for her crime.

   penchant  n.  inclination, bent, proclivity, leaning, bias,
             predisposition, predilection, partiality, proneness, propensity,
             tendency, affinity, liking, preference, fondness, taste:  Agnes
             has a penchant for tennis and for men who play tennis.

   pendant   n.  ornament, tassel, lavaliere or lavaliЉre, medallion, locket,
             necklace, riviЉre, ear-drop, tear-drop, drop, Old-fashioned
             carcanet:  I recognized the pendant she wore at her neck as my
             mother's.

   pending   prep.  1 awaiting, waiting (for), depending on, till, until,
             'til, till such time as; while, during:  Pending the outcome of
             the trial, he was remanded in custody.

             --adj.  2 unsettled, undetermined, undecided, unconfirmed,
             unfinished, inconclusive, up in the air, hanging fire, in the
             balance, in abeyance; forthcoming, imminent, impending, in the
             offing, Colloq US in a holding pattern, on hold:  The pending
             negotiations on the rent will determine whether we stay or move
             house. While the matter is pending, we can do nothing.

   pendulous adj.  1 pendent, hanging, drooping, sagging, dangling,
             suspended, pensile:  The weaver-bird's pendulous nest is a
             marvel of engineering.  2 swinging, swaying, waving, undulating,
             undulatory, oscillating, oscillatory:  I was hypnotized by the
             pendulous motion of the bell.

   penetrate v.  1 enter, go or pass through or into, pierce, bore (into),
             lance, spear, go through or into, probe, stab, puncture,
             perforate, drill:  The shell penetrated the tank's heavy armour.
             2 permeate, diffuse, suffuse, pervade, filter or seep through,
             percolate through:  The soothing balm penetrated my aching body
             and I relaxed into a deep sleep. 3 reach, get to, get at, touch,
             affect, hit, strike:  Her cruel words penetrated the darkest
             recesses of my soul.  4 sink in, be absorbed, be understood,
             register, come or get through, become clear, come across, be
             realized, Colloq soak in, seep in:  It took a while for it to
             penetrate that she did not wish to see him again. 5 understand,
             sense, become aware or conscious of, see (through), gain insight
             (in)to, discern, uncover, discover, find (out), comprehend,
             grasp, work out, unravel, fathom, perceive, Colloq get, figure
             out, dig, Brit suss out:  Will we ever penetrate all of nature's
             secrets?

   penetrating
             adj.  1 incisive, trenchant, keen, searching, deep, acute,
             sharp, perceptive, perspicuous, percipient, quick,
             discriminating, intelligent, sensitive, clever, smart,
             discerning:  This is a penetrating analysis of the situation
             which clarifies many of the issues. 2 piercing, shrill,
             strident, ear-splitting, ear-shattering, pervasive; pungent,
             harsh, biting, mordant, strong, stinging:  I was awakened by a
             penetrating scream. The penetrating odour of ammonia assailed my
             nostrils.

   penetration
             n.  1 piercing, perforation, puncturing, incision, puncture,
             penetrating; inroad, entry, entrance:  Penetration of the skull
             required great effort on the part of the surgeon. Tentatively we
             attempted the penetration of the jungle. 2 insight, keenness,
             perception, percipience, intelligence, perspicacity,
             perspicuity, perspicaciousness, perceptiveness, acuteness,
             incisiveness, sensitivity, sentience, understanding, acuteness,
             discernment, discrimination, cleverness, shrewdness, wit,
             quick-wittedness:  We all admired the penetration that was shown
             by the examiner in the questions she asked.

   penitence n.  penance, contrition, regret, repentance, regretfulness,
             compunction, remorse, sorrow, sorrowfulness, ruefulness, grief,
             sadness, shame, self-reproach:  Brendan's penitence for his
             former misdeeds was shown by his selfless devotion to good
             causes.

   penitent  adj.  contrite, regretful, repentant, remorseful, sorrowful,
             sorry, rueful, grief-stricken, sad, shame-faced,
             self-reproachful, apologetic, conscience-stricken:  He said that
             he was truly penitent for all the heinous crimes of his youth.

   penmanship
             n.  calligraphy, hand, fine Italian or Italic hand, handwriting,
             script, writing, longhand, chirography:  One must admire the
             penmanship of the medieval scribes.

   pennant   n.  flag, banner, pennon, streamer, banderole, gonfalon, ensign,
             colours, standard, labarum, Chiefly nautical jack, Nautical and
             yachting burgee, Technical vexillum:  We saw from her pennant
             that she was a Spanish frigate.

   pension   n.  1 benefit, allowance, annuity, subsistence, superannuation,
             allotment, old-age pension, US social security, Colloq golden
             handshake:  She finds that her pension is not enough to live on.

             --v.  2 Usually, pension off. (cause to) retire, superannuate;
             dismiss; Colloq shelve, put out to pasture:  The company cut
             back on staff by pensioning off everyone over 60.

   pensioner n.  retiree, veteran, senior citizen, Brit OAP (= 'old-age
             pensioner'), US golden-ager, Colloq Brit wrinkly:  The housing
             units were specially designed for pensioners' needs.

   pensive   adj.  thoughtful, meditative, musing, in a brown study,
             cogitative, contemplative, reflective, preoccupied, ruminative,
             wistful, day-dreaming, in a trance, in a reverie, brooding,
             sober, serious, grave:  I found the professor in a pensive mood,
             staring out the window.

   pent-up   adj.  restrained, constrained, repressed, stifled, bottled-up,
             corked-up, held in, checked, held back, curbed, inhibited,
             restricted:  After weeks of frustration, he wanted to release
             his pent-up emotions in a scream. They went jogging to try to
             work off their pent-up energy.

   penurious adj.  1 stingy, mean, penny-pinching, miserly, tight,
             tight-fisted, close-fisted, cheese-paring, niggardly, cheap,
             ungenerous, parsimonious, skinflinty, thrifty, begrudging,
             grudging, Scrooge-like, Colloq near, Brit mingy, US chintzy:
             Even today, he is so penurious that he gives his children an
             allowance of only 50 pence a week. 2 poor, poverty-stricken,
             destitute, impoverished, penniless, indigent, needy,
             impecunious, necessitous, beggarly, bankrupt, Colloq (dead or
             flat) broke, stony-broke, hard up:  They lived in penurious
             circumstances.

   people    n.pl.  1 persons, individuals, men and women, ladies and
             gentlemen, males and females, living souls; mortals; bodies:
             How many people can this aeroplane carry?  2 relations,
             relatives, kin, kinsmen, kinsfolk or US and Canadian kinfolk,
             family, kith and kin; ancestors, forebears:  His people left
             Russia in 1917.  3 masses, (general) public, hoi polloi,
             consumers, multitude, populace, common people, common man,
             commoners, subjects, citizenry, plebeians, grass roots,
             proletariat, rank and file, the crowd, commonalty or
             commonality, mobile vulgus, bourgeoisie; man or woman in the
             street, Everyman, Everywoman, Mr or Mrs Average, Brit A. N.
             Other, Joe Bloggs, man or woman on the Clapham omnibus, US John
             Doe, Mary Doe, Richard Roe, John Q. Public; Colloq and often
             derogatory proles, the rabble, ragtag and bobtail, silent
             majority, common herd, Brit plebs, admass:  Politicians unable
             to communicate with the people are seldom elected.

             --n.sing.  4 race, community, clan, tribe, folk, nation,
             population, society:  On the subject of religion, they were a
             people divided. The anthropologists were studying the peoples
             south of the Sahara.

             --v.  5 populate, colonize, settle, occupy:  The area was once
             peopled with Berber tribesmen.

   pep       n.  1 vigour, vim (and vigour), spirit, animation, vivacity,
             energy, verve, zest, fire, sprightliness, life, effervescence,
             sparkle, ebullience, dash, enthusiasm, brio, ‚lan, Colloq zip,
             zing:  He certainly has a lot of pep for an octogenarian.

             --v.  2 pep up. stimulate, invigorate, animate, enliven,
             vitalize, vivify, energize, exhilarate, quicken, arouse, breathe
             (some) life into, inspire, activate, actuate, fire, cheer up,
             Colloq buck up, spark, work or fire up, US wind up:  After those
             defeats, the team needed to be pepped up.

   pepper    v.  sprinkle, scatter, dot, speckle, fleck, spot, spray,
             bespeckle, speckle, spatter, stipple, mottle:  The letter was
             peppered with ink-spots. Their speech was peppered with
             swear-words.

   perceive  v.  1 see, make out, discern, catch sight of, glimpse, spot,
             espy, apprehend, take in, notice, note, discover, descry,
             observe, mark, remark, identify, distinguish, detect:  I
             perceived his hesitation when a solo flight was suggested. She
             perceived a strange odour emanating from the cupboard. 2
             appreciate, grasp, feel, sense, apprehend, understand, gather,
             comprehend, deduce, infer, figure out, ascertain, determine,
             conclude, decipher, Colloq dig, catch on:  She perceived that he
             was going to renege on his promise to take her to the Riviera. 3
             Often, perceive of. regard, view, look on, consider,
             contemplate, judge, deem, believe, think:  Calthorpe perceives
             of himself as a great actor, but he is dreadful.  This gesture
             is often perceived as threatening.

   percentage
             n.  share, part, portion, proportion, interest, piece, Colloq
             cut:  We are to get a percentage of the profits in return for
             our investment.

   perceptible
             adj.  discernible, detectable, observable, perceivable,
             noticeable, distinguishable, recognizable, apparent, evident,
             notable, obvious, patent, manifest, palpable, plain, clear,
             prominent, unmistakable or unmistakeable:  There are perceptible
             differences between your playing and Heifetz's.

   perception
             n.  1 appreciation, grasp, apprehension, understanding,
             comprehension, knowledge, perspective, view:  Mrs Hart's
             perception of the situation is quite different from mine. 2
             intuition, insight, instinct, feel, feeling, sense, impression,
             awareness, idea, notion, consciousness, realization:  Norton
             hasn't the slightest perception of what is going on behind his
             back at the office.

   perceptive
             adj.  astute, alert, attentive, quick, alive, quick-witted,
             intelligent, acute, sharp, sensitive, sensible, percipient,
             discerning, observant, perspicacious; on the qui vive; Colloq on
             the ball:  No one was sufficiently perceptive to predict the
             full extent of the recession. She is perhaps the most perceptive
             journalist writing on French politics today.

   perch     n.  1 roost, rest, seat; spot, location, position, place, site,
             vantage point, perspective:  From his perch at the top of the
             cliff, Martin had a clear view of the cave entrance.

             --v.  2 roost, rest, sit, nest; place, put, set, situate,
             locate, position, site:  The owl was perched in the tree,
             waiting for the vole to appear from its burrow.

   percolate v.  seep, steep, transfuse, leach, drip, drain, strain, filter,
             pervade, infuse, ooze, transude, filtrate, trickle, permeate,
             suffuse, penetrate:  The earth is too hard for the rainwater to
             percolate to the roots below. It slowly percolated through to me
             that Clare had told the police where I was hiding.

   perdition n.  damnation, hell, hell-fire, doom, ruin, condemnation,
             destruction, ruination, downfall:  If what divines call lust be
             punished with perdition, who is pure?

   peremptory
             adj.  1 commanding, imperative, compelling, obligatory,
             mandatory, irrefutable, incontrovertible, decretal:  After the
             sound of marching came a peremptory knock at the door.  2
             decisive, final, preclusive, arbitrary, categorical,
             unequivocal, dogmatic, unconditional, unreserved, flat,
             out-and-out, outright, unqualified, unmitigated:  The juror was
             subject to peremptory dismissal because he was the defendant's
             cousin. 3 imperious, authoritative, tyrannical, despotic,
             dictatorial, autocratic, emphatic, positive, firm, insistent,
             Colloq bossy:  How dare you take such a peremptory tone when
             speaking to your father!

   perennial adj.  1 durable, lasting, continuing, enduring, constant,
             stable, lifelong, persistent, incessant, uninterrupted,
             continual, continuous, chronic:  Once we expected our rivers to
             yield a perennial supply of fresh water. Bing Crosby has been a
             perennial favourite since the 1930s. 2 permanent, unfailing,
             never-failing, endless, unending, ceaseless, unceasing,
             imperishable, undying, perpetual, everlasting, timeless,
             eternal, immortal, Literary sempiternal:  The artificial flowers
             at her grave symbolize Ingrid's perennial youth.

   perfect   adj.  1 complete, absolute, finished, (fully) realized,
             fulfilled, consummate, pure, entire, whole, perfected, best,
             ideal:  Many have called the building a perfect example of the
             Palladian style. 2 sublime, ideal, superb, supreme, superlative,
             best, flawless, faultless, pre-eminent, excellent, exquisite,
             unexcelled, unrivalled, unequalled, unmatched, matchless,
             incomparable, nonpareil, peerless, inimitable:  At her throat
             she wore the most perfect emerald I had ever seen.  3 blameless,
             righteous, holy, faultless, flawless, spotless, immaculate:
             Nobody's perfect.  4 fitting, appropriate, (just) right, apt,
             suitable, correct, proper, made-to-order, best, Brit spot on:
             Arthur would be perfect for the role of Quasimodo.  5 precise,
             exact, accurate, correct, unerring, true, authentic, lifelike,
             right on, excellent, superlative, superb, reliable, Brit spot
             on:  These copies are perfect replicas of the original.  6
             utter, absolute, complete, mere, thorough, out-and-out,
             through-and-through; 24-carat, categorical, unqualified,
             unalloyed, unmitigated:  We were perfect strangers at the time.
             Once again, he's shown himself to be a perfect idiot. 7 expert,
             proficient, accomplished, experienced, practised, skilful,
             skilled, gifted, talented, adept, deft, adroit, polished,
             professional, masterly, masterful:  The admirable Crichton was
             the perfect butler.

             --v.  8 complete, finish, realize, fulfil, consummate,
             accomplish, achieve, effect, execute, carry out or through,
             bring (to perfection):  The design of the bicycle was not to be
             perfected for several years. 9 rectify, correct, emend, (put or
             set) right, improve, refine, polish, cultivate, better,
             ameliorate:  Viniculture has been perfected in the Bordeaux
             region of France.

   perfection
             n.  1 purity, flawlessness, faultlessness, sublimity,
             superiority, excellence, pre-eminence, transcendence:  Though we
             strive for perfection, we never can achieve it.  2 completion,
             completeness, achievement, fulfilment, realization,
             consummation, accomplishment, attainment:  The building doesn't
             reach perfection till the last roof-tile is in place. 3 ideal,
             paragon, model, archetype, pattern, mould, standard,
             idealization, essence, quintessence, acme, pinnacle, summit:
             Machiavelli probably achieved the perfection of political
             cunning.

   perfectionist
             n.  1 purist, pedant, precisian, precisionist, stickler, Colloq
             fusspot, US fuss-budget:  The foreman is such a perfectionist
             that there's no satisfying him.

             --adj.  2 meticulous, precise, punctilious, scrupulous,
             exacting, particular, demanding, fastidious, fussy; obsessive;
             Colloq picky, nit-picking:  She takes a perfectionist attitude
             towards everything she does.

   perfectly adv.  1 completely, purely, entirely, absolutely, utterly,
             totally, wholly, consummately, thoroughly, quite, definitely,
             positively, unambiguously, unequivocally, unmistakably or
             unmistakeably, explicitly, truly, very, extremely,
             extraordinarily, remarkably:  Your instructions for finding the
             house were perfectly clear.  2 superbly, superlatively,
             flawlessly, faultlessly, impeccably, inimitably, incomparably,
             sublimely, exquisitely, marvellously, admirably, wonderfully:
             Sally plays that Chopin ‚tude perfectly.  3 exactly, precisely,
             flawlessly, faultlessly, accurately, literally, line for line,
             word for word, verbatim, letter for letter, to the letter,
             literatim:  He knows the entire Koran perfectly.  4 very, full,
             quite, Dialect right, Brit jolly, Slang damned, bloody:  You
             know perfectly well that I hate cauliflower.

   perfidious
             adj.  treacherous, deceitful, traitorous, treasonous,
             treasonable, disloyal, faithless, false, unfaithful, untrue,
             insidious, hypocritical, two-faced, Janus-faced, corrupt,
             dishonest:  His perfidious brother betrayed him to his enemies.

   perfidy   n.  perfidiousness, treachery, deceit, traitorousness, treason,
             disloyalty, faithlessness, falseness, falsity, unfaithfulness,
             infidelity, insidiousness, hypocrisy, betrayal:  The name of
             Judas is a byword for perfidy.

   perforate v.  riddle, puncture, pierce, honeycomb, drill, bore, punch;
             enter, penetrate, pass into:  A perforated metal screen let
             through a pattern of light. The bullet perforated his lung but
             he survived.

   perform   v.  1 execute, complete, bring off or about, accomplish, effect,
             carry out, discharge, dispatch, conduct, carry on, do, fulfil,
             Colloq pull off, knock off, polish off; put up or shut up:
             Postmen perform their duties despite hazards such as vicious
             dogs.  2 do, act, behave, operate, function, run, work, go,
             respond:  How does your new car perform?  3 present, stage,
             produce, put on, mount, do; act, depict, take, play, appear as:
             The repertory group performs six shows weekly. He is performing
             the role of Scrooge.

   performance
             n.  1 execution, completion, bringing off or about,
             accomplishment, effectuation, carrying out, discharge, dispatch,
             conduct, carrying-on, doing, fulfilment:  The soldiers acquitted
             themselves nobly in the performance of their duties. 2 show,
             exhibition, exhibit, play, playing, engagement, act, appearance,
             Colloq gig:  She does three performances nightly at the Blue
             Angel.  3 playing, acting, interpretation, presentation,
             portrayal:  His performance in the courtroom scene was
             outstanding.  4 behaviour, conduct, deportment, demeanour:  Her
             performance in the pub last night was outrageous.  5 scene,
             show, exhibition, display:  The lad put on quite a performance
             till threatened with punishment by the headmaster.

   performer n.  actor or actress, artiste, Thespian, trouper, player:  They
             received their training as performers in a repertory company.

   perfume   n.  1 essence, extract, parfum, eau-de-Cologne, toilet water,
             scent, fragrance; aroma, odour, smell, bouquet, nose:  What is
             that wonderful perfume you're wearing? The perfume of the wine
             wafted over to me.

             --v.  2 scent:  Orange blossoms perfumed the air.

   perfunctory
             adj.  1 routine, mechanical, automatic, robot-like, unthinking,
             businesslike, unspontaneous, formal, dismissive, inattentive,
             uninvolved, apathetic, indifferent, unconcerned, removed,
             distant, d‚gag‚, offhand, heedless, uninterested, hasty,
             hurried, superficial, cursory, fleeting, rushed:  I don't care
             for the perfunctory service in those fast-food restaurants.  2
             careless, slipshod, slovenly, negligent, sketchy, spotty:  The
             bill, made out in a perfunctory fashion, was incorrect.

   perhaps   adv.  maybe, possibly, it is possible that, conceivably, as the
             case may be, it may be, Archaic or literary perchance,
             peradventure, Archaic or dialect mayhap:  Perhaps she'll be on
             the next train.

   peril     n.  danger, threat, risk, jeopardy, exposure, vulnerability,
             susceptibility, uncertainty, insecurity:  You enter there at
             your peril. It was a time of peril for us all.  The child's life
             was in peril.

   perilous  adj.  dangerous, risky, hazardous, vulnerable, susceptible,
             uncertain, insecure, unsafe, unsure:  Why undertake such a
             perilous journey alone?

   perimeter n.  boundary, border, borderline, margin, periphery, limit(s),
             bounds, ambit, circumference, edge, verge, fringe(s), Archaic or
             literary bourn or bourne:  The perimeter of the military base is
             patrolled by sentry dogs.

   period    n.  1 interval, time, term, span, duration, spell, space,
             stretch; while; Colloq chiefly Brit patch:  During the period of
             his absence, his children had grown up. I waited a short period,
             then phoned again. We went through a bad period last year. 2
             era, days, epoch, aeon, age, years:  During the Old English
             period, very little was written down.  3 full stop:  Place
             periods at the ends of sentences.

   periodic  adj.  periodical, intermittent, regular, recurrent, repetitive,
             iterative, cyclic(al), repeated; episodic, sporadic, occasional:
             We called in the plumber because of the periodic hammering in
             the pipes. The next periodic return of Halley's comet is
             expected in 2061-62.

   periodical
             n.  magazine, journal, paper, publication, newsletter, organ,
             serial, weekly, fortnightly, semi-monthly, monthly, bi-monthly,
             quarterly, semi-annual, annual, yearbook, almanac, Rare
             hebdomadal or hebdomadary:  Nicole's story will soon be
             published in an important literary periodical.

   peripheral
             adj.  1 incidental, unimportant, minor, secondary, inessential
             or unessential, non-essential, unnecessary, superficial,
             tangential, irrelevant, beside the point:  Let's ignore the
             peripheral issues for the time being and concentrate on the
             important ones. 2 circumferential, external, perimetric,
             outside, outer:  The peripheral measurement of the figure is
             seven inches.

   periphery n.  1 perimeter, circumference, border, edge, rim, brim, ambit,
             boundary, bound, margin:  Trees will be planted along the
             periphery of the car park.  2 surface, edge, superficies:  Your
             analysis deals with the periphery, not the core, of the problem.

   perish    v.  die, expire, lose (one's) life, be killed, be lost, meet
             (one's) death, be destroyed:  Three gnus perished in the fire at
             the zoo.

   perjury   n.  lying, mendacity, mendaciousness, forswearing,
             prevarication, bearing false witness:  The defendant was
             acquitted and the prosecution witnesses charged with perjury.

   perk      n.  See perquisite, below.

   perk up   v.  cheer up, become jaunty, brighten, liven up, invigorate,
             smarten up, quicken, (re)vitalize, pep up, revive, inspirit,
             Colloq buck up:  The old lady perks up when her grandchildren
             come to visit. To perk up the party, Peter suggested we should
             all play a game.

   perky     adj.  lively, cheery, cheerful, jaunty, bouncy, bright,
             invigorated, vigorous, vitalized, peppy, spirited, sprightly,
             frisky, animated, vivacious, effervescent, bubbly, buoyant, gay,
             Colloq bright-eyed and bushy-tailed, full of pep:  Sue's been
             quite perky since she started going with Trevor.

   permanence
             n.  permanency, stability, durability, fixedness,
             changelessness, lasting quality, longevity, endurance,
             persistence, dependability, reliability, survival:  The new
             roofing material is being tested for permanence.

   permanent adj.  1 everlasting, eternal, unending, endless, perpetual,
             unceasing, constant, undying, imperishable, indestructible,
             stable, abiding, long-lasting, lasting, enduring, perennial,
             long-lived, durable:  The satellite is in permanent orbit around
             the earth.  2 unchanging, invariable, changeless, fixed,
             unchangeable, immutable, unalterable, stable, persistent:  This
             stain is permanent and will not come out in the wash. Bonham is
             a permanent member of the executive committee.

   permanently
             adv.  forever, for good, once and for all, forevermore, always,
             eternally, everlastingly; perpetually, constantly, incessantly,
             non-stop, continuously, endlessly, ceaselessly, unendingly,
             interminably:  Is the boy permanently disabled? According to one
             theory the universe will not continue to expand permanently.

   permeate  v.  imbue, diffuse, penetrate, pervade, infiltrate, enter,
             spread through(out), saturate, seep through(out), percolate
             through, soak through:  He felt the warmth permeate every limb.
             Greed seemed to permeate every level of society.

   permissible
             adj.  allowable, admissible, acceptable, allowed, permitted,
             tolerable, legal, licit, lawful, legitimate, authorized, proper,
             (all) right; pardonable, excusable, venial, Colloq OK or okay,
             kosher, legit:  Some things that are permissible are not
             necessarily honourable.

   permission
             n.  consent, assent, leave, acquiescence, sufferance, tolerance,
             laxity, leniency or lenience, leave, licence, sanction,
             acceptance, authorization, approval, approbation, countenance,
             allowance, liberty, indulgence, sufferance; franchise,
             enfranchisement:  Have you permission to watch television? She
             eats anything she likes with the doctor's permission.

   permissive
             adj.  assenting, consenting, indulgent, lenient, latitudinarian,
             acquiescent, lax, easygoing, liberal, tolerant,
             non-constraining, non-restrictive, libertarian:  Allison grew up
             in the permissive society of the 1960s.

   permit    v.  1 Often, permit to. allow, agree (to), consent (to), give
             permission or leave (to), authorize, sanction, license,
             tolerate, countenance, suffer, brook, admit, grant, enable,
             empower, franchise, enfranchise; let:  He permitted me to use
             his name as a reference. Do they permit smoking here?

             --n.  2 licence, authority, authorization, franchise, warrant;
             pass, passport, visa:  Your parking permit expired last week.
             Shirley has a permit to visit Tibet.

   perpendicular
             adj.  1 erect, upright, vertical, plumb, straight (up and down):
             The plumb-line shows that the wall isn't perpendicular.  2
             Often, perpendicular to. at right angles (to), at 90 degrees
             (to):  The two paths are perpendicular to one another.

   perpetrate
             v.  commit, execute, perform, carry out or through, effect,
             effectuate, accomplish, do, be responsible for, practise, Colloq
             pull (off):  Atrocities were perpetrated on both sides in the
             war.

   perpetual adj.  1 eternal, infinite, everlasting, never-ending, unending,
             perennial, ageless, timeless, long-lived, permanent, unceasing,
             lasting, enduring, unvarying, unchanging, immutable, invariable,
             undeviating, Literary sempiternal:  They declared their
             perpetual love for each other.  2 constant, uninterrupted,
             continuous, unfailing, incessant, persistent, unremitting,
             unending, non-stop, endless, recurrent, continual, repetitive:
             Why should we have to listen to the neighbours' perpetual
             bickering?

   perpetuate
             v.  continue, maintain, extend, keep (on or up), keep going,
             preserve, memorialize, immortalize, eternalize:  Thoughtless
             jokes can perpetuate damaging stereotypes.

   perpetuity
             n.  permanence, constancy, timelessness; eternity:  The estate
             was bequeathed to the townspeople in perpetuity.

   perplex   v.  confuse, bewilder, puzzle, mystify, distract, baffle,
             befuddle, confound, muddle, disconcert, stump, nonplus, stymie,
             stupefy, stun, daze, dumbfound or dumfound, flabbergast, Colloq
             bamboozle, hornswoggle, Chiefly US and Canadian discombobulate,
             throw for a loop:  The more I tried to understand bathymetric
             semiotics, the more perplexed I became. Anne-Marie's reticence
             perplexed us all.

   perplexing
             adj.  confusing, bewildering, puzzling, mystifying, baffling,
             confounding, disconcerting, stupefying, flabbergasting,
             enigmatic, paradoxical, incomprehensible, unfathomable,
             impenetrable, recondite, arcane, labyrinthine, complex,
             complicated, Byzantine, intricate, involved, convoluted,
             twisted, knotty, Gordian:  The writing is filled with perplexing
             references to the author's personal experiences, of which the
             reader is told nothing.

   perplexity
             n.  1 confusion, bewilderment, bafflement, distress, doubt,
             difficulty:  My perplexity grew as he related his version of the
             event.  2 intricacy, complexity, complicatedness, arcaneness,
             reconditeness, impenetrability, impenetrableness, involvement,
             unfathomability, obscurity, difficulty:  The more deeply the
             enigma was probed, the greater its perplexity.  3 puzzle,
             enigma, mystery, dilemma, problem, paradox, catch-22, quandary,
             predicament, bind:  Because of the interlocking directorships of
             the companies, we faced many perplexities in trying to sort out
             what had happened to the funds.

   perquisite
             n.  consideration, emolument, bonus, (fringe) benefit, extra,
             bonus, dividend, gratuity, tip, douceur, baksheesh, token (of
             appreciation), US lagniappe or lagnappe, Colloq perk:  It was
             traditional to provide each director with a company car as a
             perquisite.

   persecute v.  1 oppress, suppress, subjugate, maltreat, ill-treat, abuse,
             outrage, molest, victimize, tyrannize, afflict, punish, martyr,
             torment, torture:  For years black people had been persecuted.
             2 bother, annoy, pester, plague, hector, bully, badger, harry,
             harass, irritate, worry, vex, trouble, worry, importune, hound:
             Her lawyers continually persecuted him for non-payment of
             alimony.

   persecution
             n.  1 oppression, suppression, subjugation, maltreatment,
             ill-treatment, abuse, outrage, molestation, victimization,
             tyranny, affliction, punishment, torment, torture:  They
             suffered persecution because of their difference of religion.  2
             bother, annoyance, hectoring, bullying, badgering, harrying,
             harassing, irritation, worry, vexation, trouble:  The press is
             often guilty of the persecution of famous people.

   perseverance
             n.  persistence, steadfastness, determination, resolution,
             resolve, decisiveness, decision, firmness, purposefulness,
             pertinacity, staying power, stamina, sedulousness, assiduity,
             grit, pluck, tirelessness, indefatigableness, indefatigability,
             patience, endurance, diligence, devotion, tenacity, doggedness,
             stubbornness, inflexibility, obstinacy, obstinateness,
             obdurateness, Colloq guts, US stick-to-it-iveness:  Perseverance
             is essential for success in the theatre.

   persevere v.  Often, persevere in or with or at. persist, resolve, decide,
             endure, continue, carry on or through, keep at or on or up, be
             steadfast or staunch or constant, keep going, stand fast or
             firm, see through, be or remain determined or resolved or
             resolute or stalwart or purposeful or uncompromising, be
             tenacious or persistent or constant or pertinacious or assiduous
             or sedulous, be tireless or untiring or indefatigable, show
             determination or pluck or grit, be plucky, be patient or
             diligent or stubborn or inflexible or adamant or obstinate or
             obdurate, show or exhibit or demonstrate patience or diligence
             or stubbornness or inflexibility or obstinacy or obduracy,
             remain dogged, pursue doggedly, be intransigent or intractable,
             cling to, stick to, support, stop at nothing, sustain, Colloq
             stick with, stick (it) out:  We must persevere if we are to win.
             I shall persevere in my loyalty.

   persist   v.  1 Often, persist in or at. persevere, be persistent, insist
             (on), stand firm or fast, be steadfast or staunch, strive, toil,
             labour, work (hard) (at):  She persists in arguing her
             innocence. Only those who persist will succeed. 2 remain,
             continue, endure, carry on, keep up or on, last, linger, stay:
             The bad weather persisted through the weekend.

   persistence
             n.  perseverance, resolve, determination, resolution,
             steadfastness, tenacity, constancy, assiduity, stamina,
             tirelessness, indefatigability, indefatigableness, tirelessness,
             pluck, grit, patience, diligence, pertinacity, doggedness,
             stubbornness, obstinacy, obduracy:  By sheer persistence he got
             his own way.

   persistent
             adj.  1 persisting, persevering, tenacious, steadfast, firm,
             fast, fixed, staunch, resolute, resolved, determined,
             unfaltering, unswerving, undeviating, unflagging, tireless,
             untiring, indefatigable, dogged, unwavering, stubborn,
             obstinate, obdurate, inflexible, rigid:  He was persistent in
             his demands for justice. The inspector never gave up his
             persistent pursuit of criminals. 2 continuing, constant,
             continuous, continual, unending, interminable, unremitting,
             unrelenting, perpetual, incessant, unceasing, non-stop:  The
             persistent rainy weather began to depress us. At last he gave in
             to her persistent complaints and bought a washing machine.

   person    n.  1 individual, human (being), being, man or woman or child,
             (living) soul; mortal:  Not a single person knew the answer to
             my question.  2 in person. physically, personally, bodily,
             actually, myself or yourself or himself or herself or ourselves
             or yourselves, or themselves, Colloq in the flesh:  The
             correspondent visited the battlefield in person to see for
             himself the extent of the carnage. I know their records, but I
             have never seen them in person.

   persona   n.  face, front, fa‡ade, mask, guise, exterior, role, part,
             character, identity, self:  Her office persona is quite
             different from the one she displays at home.

   personage n.  celebrity, luminary, VIP, name, notable, somebody,
             personality, star, superstar, magnate, mogul, Colloq big-shot,
             big wheel, hotshot, hot stuff, Brit big noise, Theatre US
             headliner:  My cousin is fast becoming a personage in the
             financial world.

   personal  adj.  1 individual, physical, bodily, actual, live; in person,
             in the flesh:  The star is scheduled to make a personal
             appearance on tonight's chat show. 2 intimate, exclusive,
             private, special, particular:  Would you do me a personal
             favour? I hear they are having personal problems. 3 intimate,
             close, dear, bosom, familiar, special:  Wendy happens to be a
             personal friend of ours.  4 intimate, individual; disparaging,
             slighting, offensive, derogatory, critical, deprecating,
             belittling, adverse, unfriendly, insulting:  He should confine
             his criticism to her acting and avoid personal remarks.

   personality
             n.  1 character, nature, temperament, disposition, make-up,
             persona; identity, psyche:  Miles has an extremely abrasive
             personality that has upset many people. 2 celebrity, luminary,
             star, superstar, name, headliner, somebody:  Whom shall we get
             as a personality to attract the crowds?

   personalized
             adj.  monogrammed, initialled, individualized; signed:  They
             ordered personalized stationery with their new address on it.

   personally
             adv.  1 in person, alone, by oneself, on one's own, myself or
             yourself or himself or herself or ourselves or yourselves or
             themselves, Colloq in the flesh:  She has not met them
             personally, but we have. They will see to the matter personally.
             2 in one's own view or opinion, for one's part, for oneself, as
             far as one is concerned, from one's own viewpoint, from where
             one stands, as one sees it or things, as for oneself:
             Personally, I wasn't sure I would make it.  3 as an individual,
             as a person, privately, in private:  I like him personally but
             would never have him as my dentist.

   personify v.  1 embody, typify, exemplify, epitomize, be the embodiment
             of, manifest, represent, stand for, symbolize, Archaic
             impersonate, personate:  In my view, he personifies everything
             that is evil.  2 humanize, personalize:  In literature,
             personifying inanimate things in nature with human attributes is
             called the pathetic fallacy.

   perspective
             n.  1 (point of) view, viewpoint, standpoint, prospect, vantage
             point, position, angle, Colloq where one is coming from:  I can
             see that my view would be illogical from his perspective.  2
             attitude, position, angle, approach, sentiment, outlook,
             lookout:  Management has a different perspective on what is good
             for the company.

   perspiration
             n.  sweat, dampness, wetness; sweating; Technical sudor;
             diaphoresis:  I could feel the perspiration stand out on my
             forehead. They say that perspiration makes one cooler on a hot
             day.

   persuade  v.  1 urge, induce, prevail upon, influence, exhort, importune,
             dispose, incline, prompt, sway, press:  The officer persuaded
             him to surrender.  2 bring round, convince, win over, talk or
             argue into, convert:  We persuaded her to open the door. He was
             persuaded to vote Labour.

   persuasion
             n.  1 inducement, inducing, influence, influencing, exhortation,
             exhorting, persuading:  At the bank's persuasion, the company
             tightened up its cashflow management. She has extraordinary
             powers of persuasion at her command. 2 opinion, belief, creed,
             faith, set of beliefs, faith, religion, (religious) conviction;
             sect, denomination, faction, school (of thought), affiliation:
             Till he met Maggie, he had always been of the Baptist
             persuasion.

   persuasive
             adj.  convincing, telling, influential, effective, productive,
             impressive, efficacious, cogent, weighty, compelling, forceful,
             valid, winning, authoritative, dynamic:  His most persuasive
             argument for our leaving was that if we stayed we'd be shot.

   pert      adj.  1 forward, brash, brazen, cheeky, insolent, impertinent,
             flippant, saucy, bold, presumptuous, impudent, disrespectful,
             audacious, rude, impolite, uncivil, ill-mannered, unmannerly,
             Archaic malapert, Colloq fresh, flip, out of line, brassy,
             big-mouthed, wise-guy, Slang Brit smart-arsed, US smart-ass(ed),
             wise-ass(ed):  He's a clever child, but I don't like his pert
             manner.  2 lively, jaunty, ebullient, vivacious, enthusiastic,
             bouncy, sprightly, brisk, cheerful, jolly, bright, perky,
             animated, nimble:  She is usually quite pert in the morning,
             becoming depressed as the day wears on.

   pertain   v.  Often, pertain to. concern, refer to, regard, have reference
             or relation (to), apply (to), relate (to), include, cover,
             affect, appertain (to), be appropriate (to), be fitting (for),
             befit, bear on, have bearing (on):  The sign, 'Keep Off the
             Grass', does not pertain to the people who mow the lawn, Morris.

   pertinent adj.  pertaining, appropriate, fitting, suitable, apt, relevant,
             germane, apropos, apposite:  Try to keep your comments pertinent
             to the subject under discussion.

   perturb   v.  upset, disturb, fluster, ruffle, unsettle, disconcert, make
             uneasy, discomfit, vex, worry, agitate, shake up, alarm,
             disquiet, confuse, discompose, unnerve, addle, disorganize:  He
             became quite perturbed when the police asked him to help with
             their inquiries.

   perusal   n.  reading, scrutiny, check, examination, study, inspection,
             scanning, review:  I saw nothing blasphemous in my perusal of
             the text.

   peruse    v.  read, study, scan, scrutinize, examine, inspect, review,
             browse, run one's eye over:  As Gregory was perusing the ancient
             manuscript, a sudden draught blew out the candle.

   pervasive adj.  penetrating, pervading, omnipresent, general, inescapable,
             prevalent, universal, widespread, ubiquitous, permeating,
             permeative:  A pervasive sense of doom in the castle made
             everyone feel uneasy.

   perverse  adj.  1 wrong, wrong-headed, awry, contrary, wayward, incorrect,
             irregular, unfair, improper, contradictory:  It was most
             perverse of you to change your mind after all the arrangements
             had been made. 2 cantankerous, testy, curmudgeonly, churlish,
             crusty, bad-tempered, petulant, captious, cross, cross-grained,
             peevish, waspish, snappish, bilious, splenetic, fractious,
             ill-tempered, quarrelsome, irascible, sullen, contentious,
             touchy, obstreperous, crabby, crabbed, irritable, surly, Colloq
             grouchy, Brit stroppy, US and Canadian cranky:  With everything
             going wrong, Catherine feels particularly perverse today. 3
             stubborn, self-willed, wrong-headed, intractable, wilful,
             obdurate, obstinate, pigheaded, adamant, inflexible, unbending,
             refractory, unyielding:  I refuse to give in to a perverse child
             just because he has a tantrum.

   perversion
             n.  1 deviation, irregularity, misdirection, corruption,
             subversion, distortion, twisting, falsification,
             misrepresentation, diversion, sidetracking:  The conduct of this
             trial has been a perversion of the course of true justice. 2
             unnatural act, deviation, deviance or deviancy, abnormality,
             depravity, vice, aberration, debauchery, Colloq kinkiness, Brit
             kink:  Every kind of perversion flourished in ancient Rome.

   pervert   v.  1 deflect, divert, sidetrack, turn aside or away, subvert,
             misdirect, distort, twist, abuse, falsify, misapply,
             misconstrue, misrepresent, corrupt:  By withholding evidence,
             you have perverted the course of justice.  2 seduce, lead
             astray, debauch, degrade, corrupt, demoralize, subvert:  He was
             accused of perverting young girls.  3 deviant, degenerate,
             debauchee, US deviate, Colloq weirdo:  I worry about your being
             out late, when there are so many perverts about.

   perverted adj.  deviant, deviate, abnormal, amoral, unmoral, immoral, bad,
             depraved, unnatural, warped, twisted, profligate, dissolute,
             delinquent, degenerate, evil, wicked, malign, malicious,
             malefic, malevolent, evil-minded, sinful, iniquitous, base,
             foul, corrupt, unprincipled:  Members of the Hell-Fire Club
             yielded themselves up to the most perverted, abandoned
             behaviour.

   pessimistic
             n.  gloomy, negative, despairing, hopeless, inauspicious,
             depressed, despondent, dejected, melancholy, downhearted,
             heavy-hearted, defeatist, glum, sad, blue, unhappy, cheerless,
             joyless, cynical, bleak, forlorn:  The bears in the Stock
             Exchange take a pessimistic view of share prices.

   pest      n.  nuisance, annoyance, nag, irritant, bother, gadfly, bane,
             trial, heckler, vexation, curse, thorn in one's flesh, Colloq
             pain (in the neck), Slang US (Yiddish) nudge or noodge or nudzh,
             nudnik, Taboo slang pain in the Brit arse or US ass:  That man
             is such a pest, I wish he'd leave me alone.

   pester    v.  annoy, nag, irritate, irk, bother, get at or to, badger,
             plague, vex, fret, hector, harass, harry, heckle, nettle, chafe,
             peeve, pique, provoke, exasperate, bedevil, get or grate on
             (someone's) nerves, get under (someone's) skin, get in
             (someone's) hair, try (someone's patience), torment, persecute,
             Brit chivvy, Colloq drive (someone) up the wall, needle, give
             (someone) the needle, hassle, ride, give (someone) a hard or bad
             time, bug:  Please stop pestering me about going to the football
             game.

   pestilence
             n.  1 plague, epidemic, pandemic, Black Death, Rare pest:  The
             pestilence raged throughout all Europe, killing 50 million
             people. 2 scourge, blight, curse, cancer, canker, bane,
             affliction:  How are we to overcome the pestilence of greed?

   pet°      n.  1 darling, favourite, idol, apple of (one's) eye, Colloq
             Brit blue-eyed boy, US fair-haired boy:  You know that you were
             always Father's pet.

             --adj.  2 tame, trained, domesticated:  Doesn't the landlord
             take a dim view of your keeping a pet alligator in the bath? 3
             favourite, favoured, preferred, cherished, special, particular;
             indulged, prized, treasured, precious, dearest, adored, darling:
             Building the summer-house was Desmond's pet project. Elizabeth's
             pet pupil is Anne.

             --v.  4 caress, fondle, stroke, pat; cuddle, nuzzle, nestle,
             snuggle, Colloq neck, smooch or Australian and New Zealand also
             smoodge or smooge, Chiefly US and Canadian make out:  Small
             children need to be petted a lot. Two teenagers were petting in
             the back seat of the car. 5 humour, pamper, favour, baby,
             coddle, cosset, mollycoddle, cocker, spoil, indulge, dote on:
             His mother pets him far too much.

   petэ      n.  (bad or ill) temper, pique, sulk, (bad) mood, fume, Colloq
             Brit paddy or paddywhack or paddywack:  He's in a terrible pet
             because they forgot to cancel the milk when they went on
             holiday.

   peter out v.  diminish, evaporate, wane, come to nothing or naught or US
             also nought, die out, disappear, fail, fade (out or away),
             dwindle (into nothing), run out, give out, flag, melt away:  The
             path petered out after a mile or so and they realized that they
             had lost their bearings.

   petite    adj.  delicate, dainty, mignon(ne), diminutive, small, little,
             slight, tiny, small-boned, Colloq Brit dinky:  It was
             incongruous to see the basketball player with a petite blonde.

   petition  n.  1 request, application, solicitation, suit, entreaty,
             supplication, plea, appeal:  An anti-pollution petition, signed
             by thousands of people, was delivered to the Department of the
             Environment.

             --v.  2 request, ask, apply to, apply for, solicit, sue, call
             upon, entreat, supplicate, plead, appeal (to), appeal (for),
             beseech, implore, importune, Rare obsecrate:  The shopkeepers
             petitioned the council for better police protection.

   petrified adj.  1 horrified, horror-stricken, terrified, terror-stricken,
             panic-stricken, frightened, afraid, paralysed, numbed, benumbed,
             frozen:  The maiden stood petrified as the dragon, breathing
             fire, approached.  2 shocked, speechless, dumbfounded or
             dumfounded, dumbstruck, stunned, thunderstruck, astonished,
             astounded, confounded, stupefied, appalled, aghast, Colloq
             flabbergasted:  The firemen rescued three petrified children who
             were huddled in a corner. 3 ossified, fossilized:  These were
             not stones but the petrified remains of ancient trees.

   petrify   v.  1 frighten, scare, horrify, terrify, paralyse, numb, benumb:
             I was petrified by the noise of the explosion.  2 shock,
             dumbfound or dumfound, stun, astonish, astound, amaze, confound,
             disconcert, stupefy, appal, Colloq flabbergast:  The sight of so
             much destruction petrified even hardened reporters.  3 ossify,
             fossilize, turn to stone:  Over thousands of years the desert
             conditions petrify the wood.

   petty     adj.  1 insignificant, trivial, paltry, minor, inferior,
             niggling, trifling, negligible, puny, inessential,
             non-essential, inconsequential, unimportant, slight, nugatory,
             of no account, US dinky, Colloq piddling, measly, no great
             shakes, no big deal, small-time, Brit twopenny-halfpenny or
             tuppenny-halfpenny, US and Canadian picayune:  He has been
             convicted only of petty crimes.  2 miserly, mean, mingy, stingy,
             cheese-paring, grudging, small-minded, cheap, niggardly,
             parsimonious, tight, tight-fisted, close, close-fisted:  It was
             very petty of you to refuse the beggar a few pence.

   petulant  adj.  peevish, pettish, impatient, ill-humoured, testy, waspish,
             irascible, choleric, cross, captious, ill-tempered,
             bad-tempered, splenetic, moody, sour, bilious, crabby, crabbed,
             irritable, huffish, huffy, perverse, snappish, crotchety,
             cantankerous, curmudgeonly, grouchy, grumpy:  With a petulant
             gesture she hurled the rose away.

16.3 phantom...
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   phantom   n.  1 apparition, spectre, ghost, spirit, phantasm, shade,
             wraith, revenant, vision, Formal eidolon, phantasma, Colloq
             spook:  The so-called phantom of the opera turned out to be a
             real person.  2 figment (of the imagination), illusion,
             delusion, chimera or chimaera, hallucination, fancy, mirage:
             She was a phantom of delight When first she gleamed upon my
             sight.

   Pharisaic adj.  Pharisaical, hypocritical, insincere, self-righteous,
             pretentious, holier-than-thou, sanctimonious, pietistic(al),
             formalistic, canting, unctuous, oily, slimy, Literary
             Tartuffian, Pecksniffian, Colloq goody-goody , Chiefly Brit
             smarmy:  I cannot tolerate his Pharisaic preaching.

   Pharisee  n.  hypocrite, pretender, dissembler, humbug, fraud, whited
             sepulchre, pietist, formalist, canter, Literary Tartuffe,
             Pecksniff, Colloq phoney or US also phony:  She is such a
             Pharisee with her pious little anecdotes.

   pharmacist
             n.  pharmacologist, Rather old-fashioned or formal apothecary,
             Brit (pharmaceutical) chemist, US and Canadian druggist, Formal
             posologist, Colloq pill pusher, US pill roller:  The pharmacist
             said that those pills have bad side-effects.

   pharmacy  n.  1 dispensary, Rather formal or old-fashioned apothecary,
             Brit chemist's (shop), US and Canadian drugstore, druggist's:
             Stop off at the pharmacy and get me something for this headache,
             please. 2 pharmaceutics, pharmacopoeia:  Research has vastly
             expanded modern pharmacy.

   phase     n.  1 stage, period, development, step:  The boy is just going
             through a phase.  2 time, moment, juncture, occasion:  At this
             phase of the discussion, I should like to introduce a new
             subject. 3 state, form, shape, configuration, aspect,
             appearance, look, condition, status:  Here is a diagram of the
             phases of the moon at various points in its orbit. 4 facet,
             side, angle, viewpoint, point of view, Colloq slant:  Only one
             phase of the argument has so far been presented.

             --v.  5 phase in. (gradually) introduce, usher in, work in,
             inject, insert, insinuate, include, incorporate:  The new work
             schedules will be phased in over the next month.  6 phase out.
             ease out or off, taper off, wind up, put a stop to, (gradually)
             eliminate, remove, withdraw, discontinue, end:  The use of
             non-biodegradable and non-recyclable packaging is being phased
             out.

   phenomenal
             adj.  outstanding, remarkable, exceptional, extraordinary,
             unusual, freakish, rare, uncommon, singular, unorthodox,
             unprecedented, unheard-of, unparalleled, unbelievable,
             incredible, marvellous, wonderful, amazing, astonishing,
             astounding, staggering, stunning, prodigious, miraculous,
             fantastic, Colloq mind-boggling, mind-blowing,:  She made a
             phenomenal recovery and can walk again.

   phenomenon
             n.  1 event, happening, occurrence, incident, occasion,
             experience, fact:  Everyone knows the phenomenon of the souring
             of milk.  2 wonder, curiosity, spectacle, sight, sensation,
             marvel, rarity, exception, miracle, Slang stunner:  An
             eight-year-old chess champion is truly a phenomenon, even in
             Russia.

   philanderer
             n.  flirt, gallant, rou‚, rake, Casanova, Lothario, Don Juan,
             Romeo, lover, playboy, gay dog, Colloq lady-killer, womanizer,
             Old-fashioned wolf, Slang stud:  In his memoirs it emerged what
             a philanderer he had been, often dallying with six women at
             once.

   philanthropic
             adj.  charitable, eleemosynary, generous, magnanimous,
             munificent, benevolent, open-handed, ungrudging, unstinting,
             beneficent, humanitarian, altruistic, humane:  Finlay was always
             philanthropic, and spent much of his fortune on worthy causes.

   philanthropist
             n.  contributor, donor, benefactor or benefactress, patron or
             patroness, sponsor, Maecenas, Good Samaritan, humanitarian,
             altruist:  Some anonymous philanthropist provided the funds for
             the new school swimming-pool.

   philanthropy
             n.  1 generosity, benevolence, charity, patronage, magnanimity,
             charitableness, public-spiritedness, big-heartedness,
             thoughtfulness, alms-giving, kind-heartedness, beneficence,
             benignity, liberality, open-handedness:  Carnegie's philanthropy
             was focused on libraries and education.  2 donation,
             contribution, largesse, aid, grant, assistance, help:  Mrs
             Ander's recent philanthropy allows us to offer six new
             scholarships.

   philistine
             n.  1 boor, barbarian, yahoo, lowbrow, Boeotian, vulgarian,
             ignoramus, bourgeois, US Babbitt:  Charlotte never could abide
             the philistines who put love of money above love of culture.

             --adj.  2 uncultured, uncultivated, tasteless, commonplace,
             unenlightened, unrefined, unread, unlettered, uneducated,
             untutored, unlearned, narrow-minded, anti-intellectual, boorish,
             lowbrow, dull, prosaic, boring, bourgeois, crass, commercial,
             materialistic:  The television companies were accused of
             pandering to the basest appetites of the philistine viewer.

   philosophical
             adj.  1 philosophic, abstract, esoteric, learned, scholarly,
             erudite, theoretical, rational, logical, impractical:  The
             person who is out of a job cares nothing about philosophical
             reasons for unemployment. 2 detached, unconcerned, unemotional,
             unimpassioned, composed, thoughtful, reflective, meditative,
             cogitative, contemplative, judicious, sober, level-headed,
             realistic, practical, pragmatic(al), down-to-earth, cool, calm,
             serene, placid, stoical, patient, unruffled, cool-headed,
             tranquil, unperturbed, even-tempered, temperate, moderate,
             equable, equanimous, imperturbable:  Over the years, Evelyn had
             learned to take a philosophical attitude towards her husband's
             shortcomings.

   philosophy
             n.  1 metaphysics, epistemology, logic, natural or moral or
             metaphysical philosophy, rationalism, thinking, aesthetics:  He
             views philosophy as the attempt to describe and codify universal
             truths. 2 viewpoint, (point of) view, outlook, opinion,
             attitude, feeling, sentiment, idea, notion, ideology, (set of)
             beliefs or values, tenets, Weltanschauung, world-view:  Harold's
             philosophy of life is 'Live and let live'.  3 stoicism,
             sang-froid, control, self-control, restraint, coolness,
             composure, calmness, serenity, placidity, cool-headedness,
             equanimity, thoughtfulness, imperturbability, self-possession,
             aplomb, dispassion, patience, resignation:  You may be sure that
             Paul allows nothing to disturb his philosophy.

   phlegmatic
             adj.  1 phlegmatical, stoic(al), unemotional, unenthusiastic,
             unanimated, sluggish, apathetic, uninvolved, lethargic,
             unfeeling, uncaring, cold, unresponsive, stolid, unmoved,
             insensitive, unaffected, insensible, indifferent, unconcerned,
             uninterested, listless, torpid, indolent, inactive, passive,
             Rare hebetudinous:  Hutton is far too phlegmatic to be stirred
             by the fervour of the revolutionaries. 2 phlegmatical,
             self-possessed, self-controlled, controlled, restrained,
             composed, calm, serene, tranquil, placid, cool-headed,
             equanimous, cool, undisturbed, unperturbed, unruffled,
             imperturbable, even-tempered, philosophical, temperate,
             moderate:  One has to learn to be phlegmatic about things going
             wrong at the office.

   phobia    n.  fear, horror, terror, dread, hatred, detestation,
             abhorrence, loathing, execration, aversion, revulsion,
             repugnance, dislike, distaste, antipathy; disquiet, nervousness,
             qualm, distrust, suspicion, apprehension, worry:  He suffers
             from claustrophobia, which means that he has a phobia for
             enclosed places, and he avoids lifts and telephone booths.

   phoney    adj.  1 unreal, fake, synthetic, artificial, factitious, false,
             fraudulent, imitation, bogus, spurious, counterfeit, mock,
             ersatz, paste, trumped up; sham, pretended, insincere,
             hypocritical, dissimulating, deceitful, dishonest; US also
             phony, Colloq pseudo or Brit pseud:  They were caught trying to
             collect insurance on the theft of a string of phoney pearls.
             Every time she wanted something, she'd turn on the phoney charm.

             --n.  2 fake, fraud, imitation, counterfeit, forgery, hoax,
             sham, US also phony:  The diamond she's wearing is a phoney.  3
             trickster, faker, humbug, impostor, pretender, charlatan,
             mountebank, double-dealer, counterfeiter, quack, deceiver, US
             also phony, Colloq Brit pseud, Slang US paper-hanger:  Madame
             Tatiana claims to be able to communicate with the dead, but I
             think she's a phoney.

   photograph
             n.  1 snapshot, print, picture, slide, transparency; negative,
             positive, Colloq photo, snap, shot, pic (pl. pix):  Heinrich has
             taken some marvellous photographs of the children.

             --v.  2 take a picture (of), shoot, film, take, Colloq snap:  He
             photographed Jennifer holding her kitten.

   photographer
             n.  lensman, lenswoman, cameraman, camerawoman, cinematographer,
             paparazzo (pl., paparazzi), Old-fashioned photographist:  The
             photographers clustered round the prime minister.

   photographic
             adj.  1 vivid, natural, realistic, graphic, accurate, exact,
             precise, faithful, detailed, lifelike, true to life:  Many such
             neo-realist paintings are virtually photographic.  2 cinematic,
             filmic, pictorial:  Uncannily, a photographic image appeared on
             the Shroud under certain light.

   phrase    n.  1 clause, noun phrase, verb phrase, prepositional phrase,
             adverbial phrase, adjectival phrase:  When asked for an example
             of a verb phrase, the student responded, 'Shut up'. 2
             expression, word-group, collocation, locution, idiom, idiomatic
             expression, collocution, proverb, motto, slogan, saying,
             catch-phrase, adage, maxim, axiom, saw, colloquialism, clich‚,
             platitude, commonplace, Colloq chestnut:  Do you know the source
             of Churchill's famous phrase, 'Blood, sweat, and tears'? 3
             phraseology, phrasing, wording, language, usage, way or manner
             of speaking, diction, parlance, fa‡on de parler, modus loquendi,
             modus scribendi, speech habit, style, choice of words, word
             choice, syntax, vocabulary:  He was to 'let slip', to use
             Shakespeare's phrase, 'the dogs of war'.

             --v.  4 express, term, word, put, frame, formulate, couch, put
             into words, put or set forth, verbalize, articulate, voice,
             utter, say, write; describe, delineate:  I am pondering over the
             best way to phrase this example.

   physical  adj.  bodily, corporeal, corporal, fleshly, incarnate, carnal,
             mortal, earthly, natural, somatic; material, tangible, palpable,
             real, actual, true, concrete, manifest, solid:  Curtis doesn't
             have the physical strength to lift that weight.  As a chemist,
             James deals with the physical, not the spiritual universe.

   physician n.  doctor, medical doctor, M.D., doctor of medicine, medical
             practitioner, general practitioner, G.P., medical man or woman,
             specialist, diplomate, Brit navy surgeon, Colloq doc, medico,
             medic, US man, Slang sawbones, bones:  You ought to see a
             physician if the pain persists.

   physique  n.  build, figure, body, frame, shape, bodily structure, form,
             Slang chassis, US bod, built:  She has the physique of an Amazon
             but the disposition of a lamb.

16.4 pick...
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   pick      v.  1 Often, pick out. select, choose, cull, sort out,
             hand-pick, single out, opt for, fix or decide upon or on, elect,
             settle upon or on, screen (out), sift (out):  Melanie was picked
             to succeed Hubert as president.  2 pluck, gather, collect,
             harvest, bring or take in, garner:  Scores of extra workers were
             brought in to pick apples.  3 provoke, foment, incite, start,
             initiate, work or stir up:  He tried to pick an argument with me
             about who is taller.  4 pick at.  a criticize, carp at, find
             fault with, cavil (at or about), quibble (at or about), pick on,
             nag (at), niggle (at), harass, pester, annoy, irritate, bother:
             Stop picking at your brother!  b nibble (at), peck at:  We can't
             get him to eat a thing, he just picks at his food.  5 pick off.
             shoot (down), kill:  We picked them off one by one as they
             emerged from the trench.  6 pick on. bully, ride, intimidate,
             abuse, browbeat, badger, harry, hector, harass, tease, taunt,
             needle, torment:  Robert must learn not to pick on the smaller
             boys.  7 pick out.  a See 1, above.  b discern, distinguish,
             tell apart, make out, recognize, separate, discriminate:  I was
             able to pick out a distant rider, approaching swiftly. From
             amongst the forest sounds she picked out the song of the
             nightingale. 8 pick up.  a raise (up), lift (up), heft, hoist,
             take up:  The stone is too heavy to pick up. Please pick up that
             piece of paper. b gather, collect, glean, take up:  I wish you
             would pick up your clothes.  c tidy (up), neaten, straighten up
             or out, clean (up):  She refuses to continue to pick up after
             him.  d acquire, learn, become acquainted with; master; Colloq
             get the hang of:  We picked up a little Spanish on our holiday.
             e acquire, find, come by, get hold of, obtain; buy, purchase,
             get:  Basil picked up a few bad habits in the army. Let's pick
             up a bottle of wine on the way. f improve, get better, gain,
             make headway, recover, perk up, rally, recoup, (make) progress,
             move ahead, increase, Colloq make a comeback:  Business usually
             picks up before Christmas.  g accelerate, speed up:  The pace
             picked up as they approached the finish line.  h arrest,
             apprehend, take into custody, Colloq pinch, collar, nab, bust,
             run in, pull in, Brit nick:  Two men were picked up trying to
             break into the bank.  i call for, give a lift or ride to,
             collect, go for or US also after, go to get:  I'll pick you up
             at the railway station at noon.  j meet, introduce oneself to,
             strike up an acquaintance with, accost, make advances to:  I
             think she picked him up in a wine bar.  k catch, come down with,
             contract, get:  He picked up a mystery virus in the Tropics.

             --n.  9 selection, choice, option, preference:  She could have
             had the pick of any man in the place. Take your pick. 10
             choicest, best, crЉme de la crЉme, cream:  The early shoppers
             had already taken the pick of the crop.

   picket    n.  1 stake, pale, post, peg, stanchion, upright, vertical,
             palisade, paling:  The walls of the fort were of strong pickets
             tapered to a point at the top. 2 demonstrator, protester,
             striker:  The police prevented the pickets from attacking
             workers who entered the factory. 3 picquet, sentinel, watchman,
             guard, observer, patrol, vedette or vidette or vedette boat:
             The picket reported no unusual activity.

             --v.  4 enclose, shut in, wall in, fence (in), hem in, box in:
             We picketed the camp for the night.  5 protest, demonstrate,
             blockade:  Strikers picketed the factory 24 hours a day.

   picnic    n.  1 garden party, f€te champ€tre, meal alfresco, barbecue, US
             clam-bake, US and Canadian cookout:  The clouds had gone, and it
             was a great day for a picnic.  2 child's play, Colloq pushover,
             snap, cinch, piece of cake, walk-over, US and Canadian breeze,
             lead-pipe cinch:  Sailing home with a quartering wind - it was a
             picnic all the way. 3 no picnic. difficult, arduous, torture,
             torturous, agony, agonizing, painful, disagreeable,
             discomfiting, misfortune, Colloq tough, tough luck, tough going,
             rough, a pain in the neck, US tough sledding, Taboo slang pain
             in the Brit arse or US ass:  Being marooned on a desert island
             for a month was no picnic, I assure you.

   pictorial adj.  1 graphic, picturesque, vivid, telling, striking,
             expressive, plain, explicit, clear, lucid:  Many of the poet's
             images are amazingly pictorial.  2 illustrated:  They published
             a pictorial history of biblical lands just for children.

   picture   n.  1 drawing, painting, representation, portrait, depiction,
             artwork, illustration, sketch, photograph:  Here is a picture of
             our cottage in the Cotswolds.  2 image, (perfect or exact)
             likeness, (carbon) copy, double, duplicate, twin, (exact)
             replica, look-alike, facsimile, Colloq spitting image or spit
             and image, Slang (dead) ringer:  Isn't she just the picture of
             her mother?  3 impression, idea, notion, understanding, image:
             I think I have a pretty good picture of the situation.  4 model,
             prototype, epitome, essence, embodiment, incarnation,
             personification, perfect example:  From her autobiography, you
             might believe her to be the picture of sweet innocence. 5 put
             (someone) in or into the picture. inform or advise fully, Colloq
             fill (someone) in:  Put me into the picture about what went on
             here last night.

             --v.  6 envision, envisage, visualize, imagine, fancy, conceive
             of, see in the mind's eye:  Picture yourself lying on a beach in
             the Bahamas.  7 depict, draw, portray, paint, represent, show,
             illustrate, display:  In this fresco, Salome is pictured dancing
             before Herod Antipas.

   picturesque
             adj.  1 colourful, interesting, intriguing, unusual, unique,
             original, charming, idyllic, fetching, attractive, pretty,
             lovely, quaint, delightful, pleasing, scenic:  We came upon a
             picturesque village in which all the houses were half-timbered
             Tudor style with thatched roofs. 2 colourful, graphic,
             realistic, vivid, striking:  Bernard has written a picturesque
             account of a walking trip through Bavaria.

   piece     n.  1 bit, morsel, scrap, chunk, hunk, sliver, lump, portion,
             particle, fragment, shred, shard or sherd, remnant, quantity:
             All the beggar wanted was a piece of bread. A piece of shrapnel
             is still embedded in my arm. 2 wedge, slice, serving, helping,
             portion:  You may not have a piece of pie till you've eaten your
             vegetables.  3 share, portion, fraction, part, division,
             segment, section, interest, holding, percentage, proportion:  It
             turned out that a piece of the company had been sold without
             shareholders' approval. 4 (short) story, article, essay, report,
             theme, draft; poem; music, opus, (musical) number, composition,
             arrangement, tune, melody, song, air, jingle, ditty; production,
             play, drama, sketch, show:  I read that piece about cholesterol
             in yesterday's paper. He wrote a piece for the flute. Which
             piece by Strindberg will you put on next? 5 man, token,
             chessman, chess-piece, chequer, Brit draughtsman:  Once you have
             touched a piece you must move it.  6 go to pieces. fall apart,
             disintegrate, crumble, shatter; be shattered, be upset, be
             disturbed, have a nervous breakdown, go out of or lose control,
             break down, Colloq crack up:  Another earthquake and this wall
             will go to pieces. At the news of his son's death, Joe simply
             went to pieces. 7 in pieces. smashed, destroyed, ruined,
             shattered, broken, in smithereens, smashed:  The vase lay in
             pieces at my feet. Though I had won the case, my life was in
             pieces. 8 of a piece (with). similar, similarly constituted,
             alike, of the same sort or kind or type, uniform, the same, part
             and parcel (of the same thing), identical; in harmony, in
             agreement, harmonious, in keeping:  This book is of a piece with
             the others in the same series. All his paintings are of a piece.
             9 piece of cake.  Colloq snap, cinch, US and Canadian lead-pipe
             cinch, breeze:  The French exam was a piece of cake.  10 piece
             of (one's) mind.  Colloq scolding, rebuke, lecture, reprimand,
             tongue-lashing, chiding, rap over or on the knuckles, Colloq
             hell, what for, dressing-down, US bawling-out, chewing-out:  She
             gave him a piece of her mind about the amount of time he spent
             in the pub. 11 piece of the action. share, portion, interest,
             stake, percentage, holding, quota:  For њ1000 you can have a
             piece of the action.  12 speak (one's) piece. have (one's) say,
             express (one's) opinion, say what is on (one's) mind; vent
             (one's) spleen, Colloq get a load off (one's) mind or chest:
             All were given a chance to speak their piece.

             --v.  13 piece together. assemble, put together, connect,
             gather, compose; fix, unite, restore, mend:  We pieced together
             what happened from the witnesses' accounts.  You'll never be
             able to piece together the bits of that lamp.

   piЉce de r‚sistance
             n.  highlight, (special or main) feature or attraction,
             sp‚cialit‚ (de la maison), masterpiece, chef-d'oeuvre, Brit
             speciality, US specialty:  The piЉce de r‚sistance of the meal
             was a magnificent gateau.

   piecemeal adv.  1 piece by piece, little by little, inch by inch, bit by
             bit, inchmeal, gradually, by degrees, slowly, in bits and
             pieces, by fits and starts, fitfully, intermittently,
             sporadically, disjointedly:  The ministry insisted that the
             plans should remain as one package and not be introduced
             piecemeal over the next two years. 2 into fragments or shreds or
             pieces:  He angrily took the cheque and tore it up piecemeal.

             --adj.  3 fragmentary, bit by bit, inchmeal, gradual,
             disjointed, sporadic:  The South-east could become one huge
             traffic jam unless the Government drops its piecemeal approach
             to planning.

   pier      n.  1 wharf, landing (stage or place), jetty, quay, floating
             dock, Technically inaccurate dock:  The ship is tied up at the
             pier.  2 pile, piling, post, upright, column, support, buttress:
             Owing to lack of maintenance, the piers supporting the building
             have crumbled.

   pierce    v.  1 stab, puncture, penetrate, thrust or poke into, lance,
             spear, spit, run through or into, skewer, impale, fix, transfix:
             The arrow pierced his heart and he dropped down dead.  2 bore
             into or through, penetrate, drill, perforate, riddle, punch
             through, hole, tunnel into:  The wall is pierced to provide
             ventilation.  3 penetrate, fathom, see, understand, comprehend,,
             grasp, discover, realize:  His keen analytical mind allowed him
             to pierce the mysteries of nature. 4 affect (keenly), touch,
             move, melt, stir, rouse, pain, cut to the quick, wound, strike:
             It pierced my heart to hear the child weep.

   piercing  adj.  1 strident, shrill, harsh, ear-splitting, ear-shattering,
             high-pitched, screaming, shrieking, screeching, loud, blaring:
             The piercing sound of the police siren made me sit bolt-upright
             in bed. 2 probing, searching, penetrating, sharp, keen;
             arresting, gripping, spellbinding, enthralling, fascinating,
             entrancing:  I was completely transfixed by her piercing green
             eyes.  3 penetrating, icy, frosty, frigid, chilling, freezing,
             cold, numbing, keen, wintry, arctic, raw, bitter, fierce,
             biting, nipping, nippy:  Shivering in that piercing wind I
             thought I'd never be warm again.  4 stabbing, shooting,
             excruciating, exquisite, acute, sharp, severe, agonizing,
             fierce, intense, painful, racking:  I suddenly felt a piercing
             pain in my left ear.

   piety     n.  1 devotion, devotedness, respect, deference, dedication,
             dutifulness, loyalty, affection:  In filial piety he hung the
             painting of his parents prominently over the mantelpiece. 2
             piousness, reverence, veneration, devoutness, holiness,
             godliness, pietism, devotedness, devotion, observance,
             religiousness, grace, sanctity:  His life of piety had marked
             him out as a likely candidate for sainthood.

   pile°     n.  1 heap, mound, stack, accumulation, stockpile, mass, supply,
             deposit, collection, assemblage, batch, hoard, aggregation,
             congeries, conglomeration, assortment, agglomeration,
             concentration, amassment:  A huge pile of gravel was delivered
             today for the builders.  2 money, fortune, wealth, holdings,
             Colloq bundle, loot, mint, Slang packet, tidy sum, US bankroll,
             roll, wad:  She made her pile selling arms to terrorists.  3
             Usually, piles. abundance, over-abundance, superabundance,
             plenty, great deal, quantity, ocean(s), lot(s), stack(s),
             plethora, Colloq oodles, ton(s), bag(s), heap(s), bundle(s):  He
             made piles of money in the black market.  4 See pier, 2, above.

             --v.  5 Often, pile up. stack (up), heap (up), mound,
             accumulate, stockpile, amass, collect, assemble, hoard,
             aggregate, cumulate:  Please pile the cartons in the corner.  6
             pile in or into. enter, get in or into, crowd in or into, pack
             in or into, flood in or into, jam in or into, crush in or into,
             Colloq jump in or into:  All of us piled into my car to go to
             the cinema.  7 pile it on. exaggerate:  Ronnie was really piling
             it on about how much his new job pays.  8 pile on or onto.  a
             get in or into or on or onto, crowd on or onto, jump on or onto:
             We piled on the train after the game. They piled onto the hay
             wagon for a ride home. b attack, assault, jump on, overwhelm:
             They all piled on me and I had to give up.  9 pile out. leave,
             get out (of) or down (from), exit:  When we arrived, we all
             piled out of the bus. Hordes of people piled out of the theatre.
             10 pile up. accumulate, amass, collect:  The rubbish kept piling
             up during the strike.

   pileэ     n.  nap, shag, plush; fuzz, bristles, fleece:  The feet of the
             chairs have left marks in the carpet pile.

   piles     n.pl.  haemorrhoids.

   pile-up   n.  1 (road) accident, smash, crash, (multiple) (rear-end)
             collision, Colloq smash-up:  Thirty cars were involved in that
             pile-up on the motorway.  2 accumulation, heap, stack, mass,
             Colloq mountain:  How will you ever get through that pile-up of
             work on your desk?

   pilfer    v.  steal, rob, plunder, thieve, filch, embezzle,
             misappropriate, purloin, take, walk off with, palm, Colloq
             appropriate, pinch, snatch, grab, lift, borrow, Brit nick,
             snaffle, US boost, Slang hook, snitch, swipe, rip off:  The
             auditors found that he had pilfered small sums from the company
             for years.

   pilgrim   n.  hajji or hadji or haji, Medieval history palmer; crusader:
             The pilgrims visited holy places in and near Jerusalem.

   pilgrimage
             n.  hajj or hadj, holy expedition, crusade; expedition, journey,
             trek, voyage, tour, trip, excursion:  Every year the entire
             family made a pilgrimage to grandfather's grave.

   pill      n.  1 tablet, capsule, bolus, pellet, pilule; medicine,
             medication, medicament, drug, pharmaceutical, remedy, cure;
             cough drop, pastille, lozenge, troche:  Doctor, can't you give
             me some kind of pill for this headache?  2 nuisance, bore, pest,
             Colloq pain (in the neck), crank, drag:  I don't understand what
             she sees in Leonard - he's such a pill.

   pillage   v.  1 plunder, raid, ravage, sack, despoil, rob, loot, ransack,
             rifle, maraud, depredate, devastate, vandalize, ruin, demolish,
             raze, level, strip:  The Goths pillaged every community they
             conquered and carried off the booty.

             --n.  2 plunder, rapine, despoliation, looting, robbery, sack,
             sacking, ransacking, marauding, brigandage, piracy, freebooting,
             buccaneering, banditry, depredation, devastation, vandalization,
             defilement, destruction, laying waste, destruction, razing,
             demolition, levelling, ruin, stripping:  Pirates from Tripoli
             were responsible for the pillage of one coastal town after
             another. 3 plunder, loot, booty, spoils:  In the cave Ali Baba
             found the pillage from a thousand robberies.

   pillar    n.  1 column, pilaster, pile, piling, pier, upright, post,
             shaft, prop; atlas, caryatid:  The roof is supported by a single
             pillar. Lot's wife was turned into a pillar of salt. 2 mainstay,
             supporter, worthy, upholder, backbone, (tower of) strength,
             leader:  Cummings has been a pillar of strength in our
             community.

   pilot     n.  1 aviator, aviatrix, flier, airman, airwoman, aeronaut,
             captain:  The pilot announced that we would land in five
             minutes.  2 steersman, helmsman, navigator, US wheelman or
             wheelsman; guide, leader, cicerone, conductor:  The pilot knows
             his way through the shoals. A student acted as our pilot in our
             tour of Oxford.

             --v.  3 guide, steer, run, direct, shepherd, control, lead,
             navigate, drive; fly:  Only someone with local knowledge can
             pilot the ship into that harbour. The chairman piloted the
             company through turbulent times.

   pimp      n.  1 procurer, panderer or pander, White slaver, whoremonger,
             Slang US hustler:  The police rounded up the pimps and
             prostitutes for questioning.

             --v.  2 procure, pander, solicit, Slang US hustle:  He was well
             known as having pimped for three generations of the nobility.

   pimple    n.  pustule, papula, boil, swelling, eruption, blackhead or
             technical comedo, excrescence, Brit spot, Scots plouk or plook,
             US whitehead, Old-fashioned US hickey:  The old witch had a
             pimple at the end of her nose.

   pin       n.  1 peg, dowel, bolt, thole, thole-pin, spike, rivet; Brit
             drawing-pin, US push-pin:  The table is held together by wooden
             pins. We need some more pins for the notice-board. 2 brooch,
             clip; stickpin, tie-pin, scarf-pin, US tie tack:  She is wearing
             the cameo pin that her mother gave her. I had George's pin made
             into a brooch.

             --v.  3 attach, fix, affix, fasten, secure, tack; hold, staple,
             clip:  Let's play 'Pin the tail on the donkey'. Pin these papers
             together.  4 pin down.  a force, make, compel, coerce,
             constrain, press, Brit pressurize, US pressure:  We must pin him
             down to give his decision by tomorrow.  b define, specify,
             pinpoint, name, identify, determine, name, put or lay one's
             finger on, home or zero in on, focus on:  The doctor was unable
             to pin down what is wrong with her.  c confine, hold (down),
             fix, immobilize, tie down, constrain:  We were pinned down by
             enemy fire.  5 pin on. blame, hold responsible or accountable,
             point the finger at, accuse; lay at (someone's) door:  They'll
             never be able to pin the murder on Drayton.

   pincers   n.pl.  pliers, nippers, tweezers:  Can you get the nail out with
             these pincers?

   pinch     v.  1 squeeze, nip, tweak, press, compress, grip, grasp:  I
             pinched my finger in the drawer.  2 squeeze, cramp, confine,
             crush, hurt:  These shoes really pinch badly.  3 steal, thieve,
             rob, take, shoplift, filch, pilfer, purloin, Colloq lift, Brit
             nick, US boost, Slang swipe, knock off:  I think it was Andrew
             who pinched my book.  4 arrest, apprehend, take into custody,
             Colloq nab, run in, collar, bust, run in, Brit nick:  She was
             pinched for driving while under the influence.  5 pinch pennies.
             scrimp, save, skimp, economize:  We're pinching pennies now so
             that we can afford a nice holiday later.

             --n.  6 squeeze, nip, tweak, twinge:  Montrose gave the girl's
             cheek an affectionate pinch.  7 touch, (tiny or wee) bit,
             soup‡on, jot, mite, taste, Colloq US tad, smidgen or smidgin:
             Add a pinch of salt to the boiling water.  8 predicament,
             emergency, crisis, difficulty, dilemma, (ticklish or delicate)
             situation, complication, Colloq pickle, jam, scrape, Chiefly
             Brit crunch:  Sue will help me out in a pinch.

   pink°     n.  1 in the pink. at one's best, healthy, hearty, in the best
             of health, in top form, in good shape, Colloq US up:  I saw Rob
             the other day, and he's in the pink.

             --adj.  2 rosy, rose, rose-coloured, pinkish, flesh-colour(ed),
             salmon(-colour(ed)):  The designer suggests pink curtains for
             the bedroom.

   pinkэ     v.  serrate, notch, scallop; perforate, puncture, prick:  Pink
             the edge of the fabric to prevent fraying.

   pinnacle  n.  top, peak, apex, acme, summit, zenith, maximum, climax,
             crowning point, consummation, utmost, extreme, perfection; tip,
             cap, crest, crown:  Being elected chairman was the pinnacle of
             Mark's career. The climbers reached the pinnacle, where they
             will rest overnight.

   pioneer   n.  1 pathfinder, frontiersman, frontierswoman, trail-blazer,
             explorer, colonist, (early) settler; ground-breaker, forerunner,
             precursor, predecessor, innovator, leader, trend-setter,
             pacemaker, pace-setter:  The pioneers who explored and settled
             the American west were daring men and women. Marconi was a
             pioneer in the development of radio.

             --v.  2 create, originate, invent, initiate, take the first
             step, introduce, institute, actuate, trigger, set off,
             inaugurate, start, begin, launch, establish, found, set up,
             develop, lay the groundwork or foundation, set or put in motion,
             take the lead, lead or show the way, blaze the trail, be a prime
             mover, open up, Colloq kick off, get the ball rolling:  Our
             company has pioneered systems for automatic typesetting.

   pious     adj.  1 devout, religious, reverent, reverential, worshipful,
             dutiful, God-fearing, godly, faithful, holy, dedicated, devoted,
             spiritual, moral, good, virtuous, right-minded, saintly, holy,
             angelic, seraphic, Christ-like, godlike:  Francis is a pious boy
             who attends church regularly.  2 hypocritical, sanctimonious,
             pietistic, self-righteous, Pharisaic, mealy-mouthed, pretended,
             fraudulent, goody-goody, unctuous, oily, Colloq Brit smarmy:
             You are rationalizing your bad behaviour with a lot of pious
             cant.

   pipe      n.  1 pipeline, tube, duct, hose, line, main, conduit, passage,
             conveyor, channel:  The pipes are inspected regularly for
             corrosion.  2 briar, meerschaum, corn-cob, calabash, clay pipe,
             water-pipe, hookah, narghile, chibouk or chibouque, peace-pipe
             or pipe of peace or calumet, Colloq Irish briar, Brit
             hubble-bubble, US bong:  He slowly tamped down the tobacco in
             his pipe, then lit it.  3 pan-pipe, whistle, boatswain's pipe,
             tooter, horn, wind, wind instrument, woodwind, brass:  They play
             the pipes in the London Symphony.

             --v.  4 tootle, tweet, skirl, warble, whistle, peep, cheep:  One
             was piping away on a flute, the other was dancing a jig.  5
             transmit, deliver, channel, conduct, convey, supply:  The gas is
             piped directly into our homes.  6 US look at, notice, spot,
             note, look at, Colloq get a load of:  Pipe the guy trying to
             climb up the outside of that building.  7 pipe down. become
             quieter, quieten down, make less noise, hush (up), shush (up),
             whisper, Colloq belt up, shut up:  I wish they'd pipe down, I
             can't sleep.  8 pipe up. speak (up), say, raise one's voice,
             make oneself heard, offer, volunteer:  Sally piped up with the
             correct answer from the back of the classroom.

   pipeline  n.  1 pipe, tube, duct, hose, line, main, conduit, passage,
             conveyor, channel:  Pipelines carry gas from the North Sea
             throughout Britain. Very little information was flowing through
             the pipeline from Beirut. 2 in the pipeline. on the way, under
             way, in the offing, ready, imminent, coming, Colloq in the
             works, cooking, US in work:  They said that the contract was in
             the pipeline and should arrive soon.

   pirate    n.  1 buccaneer, sea rover, corsair, privateer, freebooter,
             sea-robber, filibuster, Archaic picaroon:  Captain Kidd and
             Blackbeard were actual pirates who looted shipping in the
             Americas in the 17th century. 2 plagiarist, plagiarizer,
             infringer:  Some of these pirates offer unauthorized cheap
             reprints of expensive textbooks.

             --v.  3 plagiarize, infringe, copy, reproduce, steal,
             appropriate, poach, Colloq lift, pinch, crib:  Our government
             has no jurisdiction over those who pirate books in countries
             with which we have no treaty.

   pirouette n.  1 spin, whirl, twirl, turn, revolution, pivoting:
             Antoinette did a beautiful pirouette followed by a pas de chat.

             --v.  2 spin, whirl, turn (round), revolve, pivot:  He was so
             happy that he fairly pirouetted round the room.

   pistol    n.  gun, handgun, revolver, automatic, Slang rod, piece,
             shooting-iron, Chiefly US gat, US Saturday-night special,
             heater, roscoe:  In the United States, law enforcement officers
             are required to carry a pistol.

   piston    n.  plunger:  The piston in a bicycle pump is worked by hand.

   pit°      n.  1 hole, excavation, shaft, cavity, mine, mine-shaft, quarry,
             working, ditch, trench, trough:  Pits had been dug for the
             extraction of gravel.  2 pothole, hollow, depression, dent,
             indentation, dimple, pock-mark:  His face was disfigured by the
             pits left by teenage acne.  3 abyss, chasm, well, crevasse,
             crater:  We found a bottomless pit that led to the centre of the
             earth.  4 the pits. awful, terrible, the worst, Slang lousy:
             That TV show last night was the pits. He thought that going to
             school was the pits.

             --v.  5 dent, pock-mark, dig, scar, hollow out, gouge:  The salt
             air has pitted the metal parts of my car.  6 Often, pit against.
             match, oppose, set against; contrast:  Shirley doesn't stand a
             chance if they pit her against Maria.

   pitэ      n.  stone, seed, pip:  I prefer seedless grapes, the ones
             without pits.

   pitch°    v.  1 toss, throw, cast, fling, hurl, heave, sling, fire,
             launch, shoot, send, let fly, Cricket bowl, Colloq chuck, peg,
             lob, Brit bung:  He rolled the paper into a ball and pitched it
             into the basket.  2 erect, raise, set or put up, position, fix,
             place:  We ought to pitch the tent in a level area.  3 plunge,
             fall (headlong), dive, drop, plummet, (take a) nosedive:  I
             caught my toe on the kerb and pitched forward onto the pavement.
             4 Chiefly nautical toss about, lurch, plunge, flounder, go head
             over heels, go keel over truck, US pitchpole or pitchpoll:  The
             wind reached force ten as we pitched and rolled and yawed in the
             heavy seas. 5 pitch in. contribute, cooperate, help, assist,
             Colloq chip in:  Everyone pitched in to make the church fair a
             success.  6 pitch into.  a attack, lay into, assail, lash out
             at, abuse, rail against, Colloq lace into, tear into, jump down
             (someone's) throat, jump on:  Reggie's wife really pitched into
             him about going out with other women. b attack, assault, set
             upon, belabour, Colloq light into, sail into, tear into:  They
             pitched into each other and fought like Kilkenny cats.  7 pitch
             on or upon. determine, decide on, select, pick, choose, opt for,
             elect, nominate, name, Colloq light on:  They pitched on Carrie
             to be the best candidate for treasurer.

   pitchэ    n.  tar, bitumen, asphalt:  Peter patched potholes with pitch.

   pitch-black
             adj.  black, dark, ebon(y), Stygian, inky(-black), unlit,
             unlighted, pitch-dark, coal-black, jet-black; raven, sable:  The
             cellar was pitch-black. Her pale complexion was in stark
             contrast to her pitch-black hair.

   pitched   adj.  organized, planned, deliberate, coordinated, arranged,
             systematized:  The two armies fought a pitched battle on the
             plain.

   piteous   adj.  pitiable, pathetic, pitiful, plaintive, miserable,
             heart-rending, poignant, distressing, grievous, heart-breaking,
             mournful, sad, doleful, dolorous, tearful, lamentable,
             deplorable, regrettable, rueful, woeful, moving, emotional:  We
             heard the piteous wailing of the mothers who had lost children
             in the disaster.

   pitfall   n.  1 trap, pit:  Pitfalls were often used in Burma for trapping
             tigers.  2 danger, peril, hazard, catch, difficulty, snag:  You
             might well encounter pitfalls, but don't be discouraged.

   pith      n.  1 core, heart, kernel, nucleus, crux, gist, focus, focal
             point, essence, meat, marrow, nub, point, spirit, substance,
             quintessence:  As usual, Randolph came immediately to the pith
             of the argument.  2 weight, burden, gravamen, gravity, force,
             moment, import, importance, significance, substance, depth,
             matter:  I have something of great pith to tell you about.

   pitiable  adj.  See piteous, above.

   pitiful   adj.  1 See piteous, above.  2 small, little, insignificant,
             trifling, unimportant, beggarly, sorry, mean, contemptible:
             Does Hodges seriously expect us to praise him for that pitiful
             contribution of his?

   pittance  n.  mite, shoestring, Slang peanuts, chicken-feed, small
             potatoes:  The miserable pittance that she receives does not
             even cover the necessities of life. He's trying to run that
             business on a pittance.

   pitted    adj.  eaten away, corroded, eroded, pock-marked, defaced,
             marred, pierced, perforated:  The chrome plating is all pitted
             where the acid splashed.

   pity      n.  1 sympathy, commiseration, sorrow, condolence, compassion,
             tenderness, Archaic ruth:  I really feel pity for Betty, being
             married to such a brute.  2 (crying or damned) shame, sad thing,
             disgrace, misfortune, sin, sacrilege, Colloq crime:  It's a pity
             that no one can do anything.

             --v.  3 sympathize, feel for, commiserate with, feel sorry for,
             feel or have compassion or tenderness for, bleed for, weep for:
             I pity any mother whose son goes off to war.

   pivot     n.  1 pintle, gudgeon, hinge, swivel, pin, kingpin, spindle,
             fulcrum:  Use this stone as a pivot for the lever to lift the
             rock.  2 centre, heart, focal point, hub, nave, crux:  The
             finance minister regards the interest rate as the pivot on which
             the economy turns.

             --v.  3 rotate, revolve, turn, spin, twirl, whirl, swivel:  The
             flywheel pivots on a bearing that requires constant lubrication.
             4 hinge, depend, hang, be contingent, revolve around, rely:  The
             whole deal pivots on the cooperation of the banks.

   pivotal   adj.  critical, central, focal, crucial, significant, important,
             essential, vital, pressing, urgent, radical:  The attitude of
             the judge is pivotal in the jury's decision.

16.5 place...
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   place     n.  1 location, site, position, point, spot, locus, area,
             locale, scene, setting:  This looks like a nice place for a
             picnic. She likes to see a place for everything and everything
             in its place. 2 locale, area, neighbourhood, vicinity, district,
             section, part of the country, quarter, region; city, town,
             village, hamlet:  She comes from some place near Glasgow.  3
             status, station, standing, grade, rank, position, niche, slot,
             situation, estate, state, circumstance(s):  Angela was just
             saying how difficult it is today to find a servant who knows his
             place. 4 function, role, part, purpose, duty, obligation, task,
             responsibility, charge, chore, burden, concern, mission:  It is
             scarcely my place to remind you of your appointments with the
             dentist. 5 position, job, post, berth, appointment, livelihood;
             employment, occupation, Colloq billet:  Is there a chance of my
             earning a place in your new company?  6 home, house, flat,
             apartment, room(s), quarters, lodgings, Rather formal residence,
             domicile, dwelling, abode, Colloq digs or diggings, pad:  Why
             not stop by my place for tea on Sunday?  7 stead; lieu:  As I
             cannot go, would you go in place of me?  8 position, situation,
             circumstances, condition:  Put yourself in my place and I think
             you would have done exactly the same. 9 seat, chair, position:
             Kevin, please take your place at the head of the table.  10 go
             places. succeed, become successful, get ahead, advance, prosper,
             thrive, flourish, go up in the world, make good, strike it rich,
             Colloq arrive, make a splash, US and Canadian hit pay dirt, luck
             out:  That boy will go places one day.  11 in place.  a fitting,
             suitable, appropriate, right, proper, correct, good form:  I
             don't think it in place for you to tell me what to do.  b in
             situ, in (the right or proper or correct) position, ready, all
             set, set up, in order, all right, Colloq OK or okay:  Is
             everything in place for tonight's party?  12 out of place.
             awkward, uncomfortable, unsuitable, inappropriate, wrong,
             improper, misplaced:  Compassion is out of place when dealing
             with war criminals.  13 put (someone) in his or her or their
             place. humble, mortify, bring down, embarrass, squelch, Colloq
             cut down to size, take down a peg (or two):  Aunt Agatha used to
             put Uncle Wilfred in his place by reminding him who held the
             purse-strings. 14 take place. happen, occur, go on, come about;
             arise, Colloq transpire:  We shall never know what took place
             behind those locked doors.

             --v.  15 put (out), position, situate, locate, dispose, arrange,
             order, set (out), lay, deposit; station, post, spot, pinpoint,
             Colloq stick, Brit bung:  Place the forks on the left and the
             knives on the right. They placed guards at the door of my room.
             16 class, classify, sort, order, arrange, rank, group,
             categorize, bracket, grade; regard, view, see, consider:  She
             places love of family above love of country. Critics place him
             among the best writers of the century. 17 identify, put one's
             finger on, recall, remember, recognize; associate:  I just can't
             place her for the moment. He finally placed me with those who
             had ragged him at school. 18 put, set, assign, give:  People
             place too much importance on material things.

   placement n.  1 arrangement, placing, position, distribution, array,
             disposition, deployment, positioning, stationing, organization,
             order, ordering, location, locating, arraying, emplacement,
             emplacing:  The placement of the chairs is all wrong for
             tonight's meeting.  2 employment, appointment, engagement,
             hiring:  Placement of qualified engineers has not been a
             problem.

   plagiarism
             n.  plagiarizing, plagiary, piracy, pirating, theft, purloining,
             stealing, copying, appropriating, appropriation, thievery,
             usurpation, infringing, infringement, imitation, Euphemistic
             borrowing, Colloq lifting, cribbing:  The similarities between
             the two books could only be explained by plagiarism.

   plague    n.  1 scourge, epidemic, pestilence, affliction, pandemic,
             calamity, curse, evil, bane, blight, visitation:  The
             inhabitants turned a plague of locusts to advantage by eating
             them. 2 irritation, annoyance, nuisance, pest, vexation, bother,
             thorn in one's side or flesh, torment, torture, Colloq pain (in
             the neck), headache, aggravation, Slang drag, bitch, hassle,
             Taboo slang pain in the Brit arse or US ass:  It's a plague
             trying to find a place to park the car.

             --v.  3 badger, harry, hound, pester, annoy, vex, irritate,
             bother, harass, nag, nettle, exasperate, gall, annoy, irk,
             torment, torture, anguish, distress, Brit chivvy or chivy or
             chevy:  I wish the police would stop plaguing me with questions
             about Jonathan's whereabouts.

   plain     adj.  1 flat, smooth, even, featureless, level, plane:  I'd
             rather have a paper with a plain surface, not an embossed one,
             for the bedroom walls. 2 clear, evident, simple, distinct,
             crystal clear, lucid, vivid, transparent, apparent, obvious,
             patent, self-evident, manifest, distinct, unmistakable or
             unmistakeable, unequivocal, unambiguous, understandable,
             intelligible, graphic, direct, in black and white:  His
             intentions regarding my daughter are plain enough. The plain
             fact is that she despises him. 3 open, honest, straightforward,
             forthright, direct, frank, candid, blunt, outspoken, ingenuous,
             sincere, guileless, artless, unreserved:  I want to see some
             plain talk between the two of us.  4 simple, unadorned,
             undecorated, unembellished, basic, austere, stark,
             unostentatious, colourless, drab, bare, unvarnished, Spartan:
             Don't you find the average business suit a very plain affair?  5
             homely, unattractive, ordinary-looking, unlovely, ugly:  Who
             would believe that such a plain child could become such a
             beautiful woman?

             --n.  6 prairie, grassland, pasture, meadow-land, veld or veldt,
             pampas, campo, llano, savannah or savanna, steppe, tundra,
             champaign or campagna; heath; moor, moorland; plateau, flatland;
             down, downland, Literary wold, Archaic or literary mead:  The
             plain stretched out before us as far as the eye could see.

   plan      n.  1 design, layout, blueprint, scheme, method, procedure,
             system, arrangement, programme, project, formula, pattern,
             Colloq script, scenario:  The plan called for monthly progress
             meetings. The best laid plans of mice and men gang aft agley. 2
             drawing, sketch, design, layout, blueprint, chart, map, diagram,
             representation:  This plan shows where the furniture will be
             placed.

             --v.  3 lay out or down, design, arrange, devise, outline,
             organize, plot, map out, delineate, develop:  She has been
             invited to plan the new shopping mall.  4 intend, expect,
             envisage, envision, foresee, aim, contemplate, propose:  Were
             you planning to go to the cinema tonight?

   plane     n.  1 flat or level (surface):  The lines meet in the same
             plane.  2 aeroplane, aircraft, airliner, jet (plane):  I caught
             the next plane for Marrakesh.

             --adj.  3 flat, even, level, smooth, plain, regular, unbroken,
             uninterrupted, uniform, horizontal:  We landed on the plane
             surface of the glacier.

             --v.  4 glide, skim, skate, skid, slip, slide:  I swiftly planed
             along on my sailboard.

   plank     n.  board, timber, slab:  The flooring was made up of wide
             planks laid side by side.

   plant     n.  1 flower, vegetable, herb, bush, shrub, tree, vine, weed:
             Because of all the rain, the plants are flourishing this summer.
             2 factory, mill, shop, works, workshop, foundry:  The new plant
             in Crawley is hiring lathe operators.  3 equipment, machinery,
             apparatus; gear, fixtures:  The plant includes heavy cranes,
             JCBs, earth movers, and bulldozers.  4 spy, (undercover or
             secret) agent, informer, informant:  The new assistant is a
             plant, sent in by management to report on union activities.

             --v.  5 bed (out), sow, seed, set (out), transplant:  We planted
             a herbaceous border along the south wall of the garden.  6
             implant, establish, root, fix, ingrain, lodge, instil,
             insinuate, inject, introduce, impress, imprint:  Who planted the
             idea in your mind that you were a gifted writer?  7 place, put,
             position, station, assign, situate:  Watch-towers are planted at
             50-foot intervals around the prison.  8 hide, secrete, conceal:
             The company has planted detectives in the store to watch out for
             shoplifters.

   planter   n.  flowerpot, cache-pot:  He poured the drugged wine into a
             nearby planter.

   plaque    n.  1 tablet, medallion, plate, panel, marker, slab, plaquette:
             The plaque on the house marks it as the birthplace of Thomas
             Carlyle.  2 badge, brooch, pin, patch, medallion, medal,
             insignia or insigne:  The plaque shows him to be a member of the
             Royal Yacht Squadron.  3 prize, honour, award, trophy:  At the
             annual dinner, she was presented with a plaque to mark her many
             years of service.

   plaster   v.  smear, daub, bedaub, spread, coat, cover, overlay,
             superimpose:  The mud was plastered all over my boots. They
             plastered the walls with posters.

   plastic   adj.  1 mouldable, shapable or shapeable, fictile, soft,
             malleable, workable, ductile, flexible, soft, pliant, supple,
             pliable, clayey, waxy:  The clay must be worked into the desired
             form while it is still plastic. 2 impressionable, receptive,
             open, persuadable or persuasible, susceptible, tractable,
             compliant, responsive, manageable, unformed, inexperienced:  One
             encounters the children at an age when their minds and
             personalities are still plastic enough to be influenced. 3
             artificial, synthetic, imitation, fake, counterfeit, ersatz,
             paste, bogus, meretricious, sham; cheap, pinchbeck, shoddy;
             Colloq phoney or US also phony, crummy, US chintzy:  She was
             wearing a tawdry plastic brooch.

   plate     n.  1 platter, dish, Archaic trencher, charger:  I left the cold
             mashed potato on my plate.  2 course, serving, portion, dish,
             platter:  I ordered their speciality, a plate of spaghetti.  3
             layer, leaf, sheet, pane, panel, lamina, slab:  In the
             condenser, insulation separates the thin metal plates.  4
             coating, coat, plating, layer, lamination:  The plate on our
             cutlery is wearing thin.  5 illustration, picture, print, US
             cut:  The book contains many beautiful colour plates of flowers.

             --v.  6 cover, coat, overlay, face, laminate:  All the serving
             dishes were plated with gold.

   plateau   n.  1 tableland, upland, highland, mesa:  We climbed till we
             reached a grassy plateau.  2 level, lull, pause, levelling off:
             At 39, Julia seemed to have reached a plateau in her career.

   platform  n.  1 stand, dais, stage, podium, rostrum:  After the
             introduction, the speaker mounted the platform.  2 policy, party
             line, principle(s), tenet(s), programme, plank:  The main
             elements of our platform will be revealed at the party
             conference.

   platonic  adj.  non-physical, asexual, non-sexual, celibate, chaste,
             dispassionate, detached, spiritual, ideal, intellectual:  Some
             say that their relationship has not always been purely platonic.

   platoon   n.  company, squad, squadron, group, patrol, team, cadre, body,
             formation, unit, Colloq outfit:  A platoon of soldiers was
             marched to the barracks in close-order drill.

   platter   n.  serving dish, server, salver, tray, plate, dish:  Waiters
             walked among the guests with platters of hot hors-d'oeuvres.

   plausible adj.  1 likely, believable, reasonable, credible, tenable,
             conceivable, thinkable, probable, imaginable, admissible, sound,
             sensible, rational, logical, acceptable, trustworthy,
             presentable:  The police regarded our alibi as plausible.  2
             specious, deceptive, meretricious, misleading, deceitful,
             casuistic, sophistical, Jesuitical, smooth, empty:  He was a
             cunning, plausible sort of fellow.

   play      v.  1 amuse oneself, frolic, frisk, cavort, gambol, caper,
             sport, have fun, have a good time, enjoy oneself, disport
             (oneself), carouse:  Ken's mother won't let him go out and play.
             2 participate (in), take part (in), join (in), be occupied (in
             or with); engage in, contend in, take up, take part in, occupy
             oneself in or with, undertake:  He was invited for a game of
             poker, but he refused to play. I understand that you play
             bridge. 3 engage, contend with, compete with or against,
             challenge, vie with, pit oneself against, take on, rival:  The
             stranger played me at snooker, and I lost three games out of
             three. 4 portray, depict, perform, act or take the role or part
             of, act:  In the new production of Othello she plays Desdemona.
             5 perform (upon or on); put on:  Play 'Misty' for me. She plays
             the piccolo very well. Could you play that Caruso record? 6
             operate:  I wish they wouldn't play their hi-fi so loud.  7
             gamble, bet, wager, stake, place, put:  He played his last chip
             on number 14.  8 play along.  a Often, play along with.
             cooperate, participate, go along (with), do or play one's part,
             be a party to:  I agreed to play along with her charade.  b
             manipulate, jolly along:  She played him along till he bought
             her a car.  9 play around.  a fool around, tease, Colloq monkey
             about or around, horse around or about:  Stop playing around and
             get to work.  b dally, flirt, be unfaithful; philander,
             womanize; Colloq fool around, run around, sleep around, play the
             field:  She found out about his playing around and filed for
             divorce.  10 play at. pretend, make believe, fake, feign,
             simulate, affect:  She's merely playing at enjoying skiing to
             please you.  11 play ball. cooperate, agree, work together, work
             hand in glove, play along:  They want him to smuggle diamonds,
             but he won't play ball.  12 play by ear. improvise, extemporize,
             ad lib , Colloq wing it:  She can't read music and just plays by
             ear. With no definite plan of action, I'll just play it by ear.
             13 play down. belittle, minimize, diminish, disparage, make
             light of, deprecate, decry, de-emphasize:  He has always played
             down his role in the affair.  14 play for time. delay,
             procrastinate, stall (for time), temporize, hesitate, Colloq
             drag one's feet:  They don't yet have the money to pay, so they
             are playing for time. 15 play on or upon. use, misuse, abuse,
             trade on, exploit, take advantage of, impose on:  He plays on
             women's affections then persuades them to give him money. 16
             play the game. behave, conduct oneself, deport oneself, act:  It
             makes no difference whether you win or lose, it's how you play
             the game. 17 play up.  a stress, emphasize, underscore,
             underline, accentuate, call attention to, highlight, spotlight,
             dramatize, build up:  Always try to play up your assets and play
             down your liabilities.  b act up, misbehave, give or cause
             trouble, malfunction, Colloq go on the blink or US fritz, Brit
             be wonky:  The bloody engine started playing up again, right in
             the middle of a rainstorm. 18 play up to. curry favour with,
             flatter, toady to, ingratiate oneself with, butter up, truckle
             to, court, Colloq soft-soap, suck up to, boot-lick, US
             apple-polish, Taboo slang brown-nose:  Ray is always playing up
             to the teacher, trying to get a better mark. 19 play with.  a
             toy with, trifle with, treat cavalierly or lightly, make light
             of, think nothing of, dally with, amuse oneself with:  He's just
             playing with her till he gets what he's after.  b consider,
             think about, toy with, not treat seriously:  We were playing
             with the idea of a winter holiday this year.  c mess with,
             fiddle with, toy with, fidget with:  Stop playing with your
             food!

             --n.  20 drama, stage play, show, piece, production,
             entertainment:  We have tickets to a different play for every
             night this week.  21 behaviour, actions, deportment, conduct,
             demeanour:  In the game of life, many have no regard for the
             rules of fair play. The police suspect foul play. 22 amusement,
             frivolity, entertainment, recreation, fun, pleasure, sport,
             merrymaking, revelry, tomfoolery, Colloq horseplay, skylarking,
             monkey business, Brit monkey tricks or US monkeyshines:  The
             time for play is past, and we must get down to serious business.
             23 move, manoeuvre, action:  That last play might have won you
             the game.  24 flexibility, looseness, freedom, leeway, margin,
             room, space, movement, motion, Colloq give:  There's too much
             play in this gear lever.  25 treatment, coverage, attention:
             The newspapers gave Connie's new book a big play.

   playboy   n.  man about town, rou‚, rake, debauchee, gay dog, womanizer,
             Don Juan, Casanova, Lothario, Romeo, Colloq wolf, lady-killer:
             He fancies himself as a playboy, but no women seem to agree.

   player    n.  1 contestant, participant, competitor, contender; athlete,
             sportswoman, sportsman, Colloq US jock:  Chess players from all
             over the world came together for the championship.  The referee
             sent three players off. 2 actor or actress, performer,
             entertainer, trouper, Thespian:  The local drama group is the
             Allen Arts Players.  3 gambler, better or especially US bettor,
             gamester, speculator, Brit punter:  J.B. is a big player in the
             commodities market.  4 musician, instrumentalist, performer,
             virtuoso:  Gladys is one of the best tuba players in the band.

   playful   adj.  1 (high-)spirited, cheerful, frisky, frolicsome,
             kittenish, sprightly, fun-loving, sportive, coltish,
             mischievous, puckish, impish, elfish, devilish:  The cat didn't
             mean to scratch you, she was just being playful.  2 joking,
             facetious, teasing, roguish, waggish, jesting, humorous,
             tongue-in-cheek:  Cleo's in a playful mood today, isn't she?

   playmate  n.  playfellow, friend, comrade, Colloq pal, chum, US and
             Canadian buddy:  Some of Molly's playmates are asking if she can
             come out to play.

   plaything n.  1 toy, game, knick-knack, pastime:  Please pick up your
             playthings before supper.  2 tool, cat's-paw, dupe, pigeon,
             pawn, Colloq US and Canadian fall guy:  She had no use for Gerry
             except as a plaything.

   playwright
             n.  dramatist, dramaturge or dramaturgist, scriptwriter,
             screenwriter, scenarist:  The playwright has deftly caught the
             way people talk to each other.

   plea      n.  1 request, entreaty, appeal, petition, supplication, suit,
             cry, solicitation:  Teenagers' mischievous behaviour is an
             earnest plea for attention.  2 answer, defence, argument:  She
             entered a plea of 'not guilty' to the charge.  3 excuse, reason,
             explanation, justification; pretext:  His plea was that he had
             not received the bill and therefore couldn't pay it.

   plead     v.  1 Often, plead for. request, appeal (for), cry (for), ask
             (for), seek, beg (for), pray (for), supplicate (for):  It was a
             hot day and the children were pleading for ice-creams every half
             hour. 2 Usually, plead with. request (of), entreat, appeal to,
             petition, ask, apply to, implore, beseech, beg, importune,
             solicit; demand:  Bryan pleaded with us to let him go to the
             rock concert.  3 assert, say, aver, allege, argue, maintain,
             offer, put forward, declare, affirm, avow, swear:  She pleaded
             that she was unaware that the goods she was selling had been
             stolen.

   pleasant  adj.  1 pleasing, pleasurable, nice, enjoyable, satisfying,
             good, lovely, attractive, inviting, enjoyable, gratifying,
             delightful, charming, agreeable, suitable, fitting, appropriate;
             harmonious, euphonious, melodic, mellifluous; delicious,
             delectable, palatable, savoury, toothsome:  Travelling on the
             Orient Express was a most pleasant experience.  The bedroom is
             decorated in a combination of pleasant colours. He simply
             doesn't find sunbathing particularly pleasant. That sauce has a
             very pleasant taste. 2 friendly, affable, amiable, amicable,
             gregarious, companionable, sociable, engaging, attractive,
             winning, open, approachable, outgoing, welcoming, hospitable,
             agreeable, gracious, charming, congenial, genial, nice,
             likeable, urbane, cultivated, genteel, polite, courteous,
             well-mannered, suave, debonair, polished, well-bred, cultured:
             Murray always has a pleasant expression on his face. He is quite
             a pleasant fellow, once you get to know him. 3 fair, sunny,
             clear, bright, cloudless, balmy, nice, fine:  What a pleasant
             day for an outing in the country!

   please    v.  1 delight, gratify, satisfy, suit, humour, content, cheer,
             gladden, amuse, divert, interest, entertain:  I cannot tell you
             how much it pleases me to see you again.  2 like, prefer,
             choose, desire, want, see fit, wish, will, elect, opt:  She may
             have her birthday party wherever she pleases.

   pleased   adj.  happy, delighted, glad, gratified, satisfied, contented,
             thrilled; Colloq tickled pink, pleased as Punch, on cloud nine,
             in seventh heaven, on top of the world, walking on air, Brit
             over the moon, chuffed:  His pleased look comes from his having
             won first prize.

   pleasing  adj.  1 See pleasant, 1, above.  2 See pleasant, 2, above.

   pleasurable
             adj.  See pleasant, 1, above.

   pleasure  n.  1 enjoyment, happiness, delight, joy, satisfaction,
             fulfilment, contentment, gratification; comfort, recreation,
             amusement, entertainment, diversion:  It is a pleasure to meet
             you at last. Fred derives so much pleasure from tinkering with
             his model railways. 2 choice, option, desire, wish, preference,
             fancy, inclination, discretion:  Feel free to come and go at
             your pleasure.

   plebeian  adj.  1 proletarian, working-class, blue-collar, low-class,
             lower-class, lowly, low-born, common, mean, humble, inferior,
             peasant-like, Colloq non-U:  What would you expect from someone
             with such a plebeian background?  2 unrefined, coarse, vulgar,
             ignoble, lowbrow, unpolished, uncouth, crass, brutish, gauche,
             provincial, rustic, popular, commonplace, undistinguished:  The
             entertainment caters to the most plebeian tastes.

             --n.  3 proletarian, common man or woman, commoner, man or woman
             in the street, (any or every) Tom, Dick, or Harry, Brit man or
             woman on the Clapham omnibus, Colloq pleb, prole:  This art
             exhibition is not going to mean very much to the plebeians.

   plebiscite
             n.  popular vote or ballot, referendum, poll:  The plebiscite
             revealed that the people were in favour of joining the Common
             Market.

   pledge    n.  1 promise, oath, vow, word (of honour), covenant, assurance,
             guaranty, guarantee, warrant, warranty:  They have our solemn
             pledge that we will return within the hour.  2 bail, surety,
             collateral, security, deposit, earnest (money), pawn, gage,
             bond, guaranty, guarantee:  They wanted something besides my
             signature as a pledge for the money. 3 toast, tribute, cheer,
             health:  They drank a pledge to the success of the voyage.

             --v.  4 swear, vow, promise, give one's word (of honour),
             contract, undertake, agree, vouch, vouchsafe:  I pledge
             allegiance to the nation.  5 deposit, pawn, mortgage, Archaic
             gage, Colloq US and Canadian hock:  He pledged his gold watch to
             pay for her birthday present.  6 toast, drink (to), drink
             (someone's) health:  Drink to me only with thine eyes And I will
             pledge with mine.

   plentiful adj.  1 ample, abundant, profuse, copious, lavish, plenteous,
             bountiful, generous, bounteous:  We found a plentiful supply of
             food in the markets.  2 fertile, fruitful, productive, bumper,
             luxuriant, thriving, prolific:  We thanked the Lord for a
             plentiful harvest.

   plenty    n.  1 abundance, more than enough, great deal, mass(es),
             quantity or quantities, multitude(s), number(s), load(s), mess,
             scores, Colloq lot(s), mountain(s), heap(s), stack(s), pile(s),
             load(s), ton(s), ocean(s), oodles, US and Canadian slew(s):
             There is plenty of food, so it is just as well that plenty of
             people are coming. There's plenty of time before your bus
             arrives. 2 plentifulness, fertility, copiousness, abundance,
             plenteousness, wealth, profusion, lavishness, prodigality,
             plenitude, bountifulness:  It was a land of plenty, a land of
             milk and honey.

   pliable   adj.  1 flexible, pliant, elastic, plastic, fictile, malleable,
             workable, bendable, bendy, ductile, flexuous, supple; lithe,
             limber:  This substance remains pliable only while it is warm.
             2 tractable, adaptable, flexible, pliant, compliant, persuadable
             or persuasible, impressionable, susceptible, responsive,
             receptive, docile, manageable, yielding:  The other directors
             may not be as pliable when it comes to improving employee
             benefits.

   plight    n.  condition, state, circumstances, situation, case;
             difficulty, predicament, quandary, dilemma, catch-22, straits,
             trouble, extremity, Colloq hole, jam, pickle, spot, scrape, fix,
             bind, hot water, mess, fine kettle of fish, fine state of
             affairs:  As soon as Elliott's sorry plight became known, we all
             rallied round to help.

   plod      v.  1 Often, plod along. trudge (along), tramp, slog, drag,
             tread, lumber, labour, Colloq stomp, galumph:  We plodded
             wearily up the road carrying our heavy packs.  2 Often, plod
             along or away. labour, work, drudge, toil, moil, slave (away),
             grind (away or along), grub (on or along), plug (along or away),
             Brit peg away (at) or along:  Plodding through the compilation
             of the Oxford Thesaurus, he was only halfway through the letter
             P.

   plot°     n.  1 scheme, plan, intrigue, machination, cabal; conspiracy:
             The plot to blow up the Houses of Parliament was uncovered at a
             late stage. 2 story (line), chain of events, theme, outline,
             scenario, thread, skeleton:  Most operas have weak plots, but
             the music can be sublime.

             --v.  3 scheme, plan, intrigue, machinate, cabal, collude,
             conspire, hatch, devise, design, arrange, organize, concoct,
             dream up, conceive, Colloq cook up:  Martin's wife had been
             plotting to murder him since their wedding night. 4 draw, plan,
             diagram, lay down, outline, calculate, compute, figure, chart,
             map (out), find, determine, depict, show:  The navigator plotted
             our position as being in the Strait of Malacca.

   plotэ     n.  lot, plat, patch or parcel (of land), tract, acreage, area,
             Brit allotment:  I have a small plot by the canal which is ideal
             for growing potatoes.

   plough    v.  1 till, cultivate, furrow, harrow, Literary delve:  They
             ought to finish ploughing the south field by tomorrow.  2 drive,
             plunge, push, bulldoze, lunge, dive, shove, hurtle, crash:  Out
             of control, a bus ploughed through the fence and into my garden.

   pluck     n.  1 courage, spirit, bravery, grit, boldness, intrepidity,
             backbone, mettle, determination, gameness, resolve, resolution,
             steadfastness, hardiness, sturdiness, stout-heartedness,
             stoutness, fortitude, nerve, Colloq guts, spunk, US sand, Slang
             Brit bottle, US moxie:  She certainly showed pluck standing up
             to the boss like that.

             --v.  2 pick, remove, withdraw, draw out, extract:  The children
             plucked flowers in the garden and made posies.  3 snatch, grab,
             yank, jerk, tear (away):  She was plucked from the jaws of death
             by Tarzan, who happened to be swinging by on a vine. 4 tug (at),
             pull (at), catch (at), clutch (at); vellicate:  An ancient crone
             plucked at his sleeve as he passed.

   plug      n.  1 stopper, stopple, bung, cork:  If you pull the plug out,
             the water will run out.  2 chew, twist, quid, wad, pigtail,
             cavendish:  As they forbade smoking, he would take snuff or chew
             a plug of tobacco. 3 publicity, mention, promotion,
             recommendation, puff, blurb, PR; advertisement, Colloq advert,
             hype:  His book was given a plug on yesterday's evening news.

             --v.  4 Often, plug up. stop (up), close (up or off), seal (off
             or up), cork, stopper, bung, block, jam, stuff, clog, obstruct,
             dam (up):  A piece of soap has plugged the drain.  5 publicize,
             mention, promote, push, advertise, puff, commend, Colloq boost,
             beat the drum for:  It wasn't right to plug her brother's
             company in her article on double glazing. 6 See plod, 2, above.

   plum      n.  find, catch, coup, prize, treasure; bonus, cream:  Harvey's
             landed a plum job as overseas buyer.

   plumb     n.  1 weight, (plumb-)bob, plummet, lead, sinker:  The plumb
             holds the string taut and exactly vertical.

             --adj.  2 vertical, perpendicular, straight up and down:  Make
             sure the jamb is plumb before hanging the door.

             --adv.  3 vertically, perpendicularly, straight up and down:
             The cord doesn't hang plumb because the shelf is in the way.  4
             exactly, precisely, dead, right, accurately, Colloq slap, Brit
             bang, spot:  The navigator checked our position and we were
             plumb on course.

             --v.  5 sound, fathom, measure, probe, explore, measure, gauge,
             delve, penetrate:  The bathyscaphe has plumbed the deeps of the
             Indian Ocean. I plumb the depths of depression thinking of
             starving people everywhere.

   plummet   v.  See plunge, 1, below.

   plump°    adj.  1 chubby, stout, fleshy, ample, full-bodied, portly,
             tubby, rotund, squat, chunky, buxom, corpulent, roly-poly, fat,
             obese, overweight, steatopygous, Brit podgy or US pudgy, Colloq
             busty, beamy, hippy, beefy, well-upholstered:  They went on a
             diet because they were getting a bit plump.

             --v.  2 puff up or out:  When you get up, please plump up the
             pillows on the sofa.

   plumpэ    v.  1 drop, plummet, fall, plunge, dive, sink, collapse, flop:
             I was so tired that all I could do was plump down in an armchair
             and watch TV. 2 deposit, set or put (down), plunk, plop:  She
             plumped down the defective mixer on the counter and asked for a
             refund. 3 plump for. support, choose, select, back, side with,
             campaign for:  Given the choice, they plumped for a film rather
             than the circus.

             --n.  4 drop, plunk, flop, thump, clunk, clump, thud, bump:  He
             dropped the book on the floor with a plump.

             --adv.  5 abruptly, suddenly, directly, unhesitatingly, at once,
             unexpectedly, surprisingly, without warning, (all) of a sudden,
             plunk, bang:  As I came out of the bank, I ran plump into a
             policeman.

             --adj.  6 direct, unequivocal, unmistakable or unmistakeable,
             unambiguous, definite, definitive, blunt, simple, plain,
             forthright, downright, straight, matter-of-fact:  He asked her
             to marry him and she gave him a plump 'no'.

   plunder   v.  1 pillage, loot, rob, ravage, ransack, rifle, despoil,
             spoil, vandalize, sack, strip, maraud, devastate, desolate, lay
             waste:  The attacking army plundered the villages.  2 prey on or
             upon, pirate, capture, seize:  The buccaneers plunder the
             Spanish treasure ships on the high seas.

             --n.  3 pillage, looting, robbery, depredation, rapine,
             despoliation, spoliation, vandalization, sack, vandalism,
             vandalizing, sacking:  It is said that the plunder of Rome took
             no more than a fortnight.  4 booty, loot, spoils, prizes, Slang
             boodle:  The police displayed an Aladdin's cave of plunder
             recovered from the thieves.

   plunge    v.  1 descend, drop, plummet, dive, pitch, nosedive, fall
             (headlong):  They lost their footing, and both Holmes and
             Moriarty plunged into the abyss. 2 submerge, sink, immerse;
             engulf, overwhelm:  I plunged my hand in the icy water to
             retrieve the keys. She plunged herself into her work to try to
             forget him.

             --n.  3 dive, nosedive, fall, pitch, plummet, drop, descent;
             submersion, immersion:  After the scandal his career took a
             plunge from which it never recovered. Every winter they take a
             plunge into the icy waters of the Serpentine. 4 gamble, wager,
             bet, risk:  Are you taking the plunge with an investment in
             South America?

   plus      prep.  1 and, added to, increased by, with the addition of, with
             an increment of, (coupled) with, together with:  Two plus three
             equals five. Your initial deposit plus accumulated interest will
             make a substantial sum.

             --adj.  2 added, additional, supplementary, extra:  One must
             take into account the plus value of the good publicity.

             --n.  3 addition, bonus, extra, gain, benefit, asset, advantage,
             profit, return:  Improvements constitute a big plus in
             evaluating the building.

   plush     adj.  luxurious, posh, costly, (de) luxe, palatial, lavish,
             rich, opulent, sumptuous, regal, elegant, Colloq ritzy, classy,
             Old-fashioned swank(y):  I had no idea that you lived in such
             plush surroundings.

   ply       n.  layer, leaf, thickness, fold:  These seams are sewn through
             two plies of fabric.

16.6 pocket...
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   pocket    n.  1 pouch, sack, bag, receptacle, reticule, satchel:  You
             should always have a clean handkerchief in your pocket.  2
             cavity, pit, hollow, crater:  We found water that had collected
             in pockets in the surface of the rock. 3 area, island, camp,
             centre, cluster, concentration:  Leaders encountered pockets of
             resistance to the new policies among the farmers.

             --v.  4 take, appropriate, keep; filch, embezzle, steal,
             purloin, thieve, pilfer, help oneself to, palm, Colloq walk off
             or away with, pinch, swipe, rip off, hook, lift, snitch, Brit
             nick, snaffle:  While collecting for charity, Johnson was known
             to have pocketed occasional contributions.

   poem      n.  verse, lyric, rhyme or archaic rime, song, ode, rhapsody,
             jingle, ditty:  The anthology contains poems by politicians.

   poet      n.  poetess, versifier, metrist, lyricist or lyrist, versemaker,
             sonneteer, elegist, bard, minstrel; rhymester or rimester or
             rhymer or rimer, poetaster:  A widely published poet, Constance
             is often invited to give readings.

   poetic    adj.  1 poetical, lyric(al), metrical, musical, melodic;
             idyllic, elegiac, georgic, rhapsodic, epic, dithyrambic:  She
             bought a volume of the poetic works of John Keats.  2 artistic,
             aesthetic, Parnassian, Hippocrenian, melodious:  The novel
             contains some poetic passages of surpassing quality.

   poetry    n.  verse, versification, metrical composition, metrics, rhyme,
             Archaic poesy:  Modern poetry is often rather obscure.

   po-faced  adj.  stern-visaged, austere, dour, disapproving, frowning,
             grave, saturnine, solemn, sombre, humourless, grim, forbidding,
             severe, strait-laced, uncompromising, puritanical, prim,
             prudish, gruff, bluff, curmudgeonly:  Despite having a po-faced
             approach to his work, William has a keen sense of humour when
             off duty.

   poignant  adj.  1 distressing, upsetting, agonizing, grievous, painful,
             woeful, melancholy, blue, sad, sorrowful, tragic, disastrous,
             heart-rending, heart-breaking, excruciating, bitter, pathetic,
             pitiable, piteous, pitiful, miserable, moving, touching:  The
             biography also covers the poignant early years, spent largely in
             orphanages and foster homes. 2 keen, acute, intense, incisive,
             sharp, stinging, pointed, piercing, penetrating, barbed,
             cutting, caustic, acid, acerbic, bitter, biting, mordant,
             sarcastic, sardonic, severe:  The headmaster's poignant remarks
             about honesty and loyalty really hurt. 3 sincere, earnest,
             heartfelt, deep, profound, dramatic, deeply felt, stirring,
             moving, touching, emotional:  The reunion of the little boy and
             his dog was the most poignant moment in the film.

   point     n.  1 dot, mark, speck; (full) stop, period; decimal point:  The
             writing is smudged, but that looks like a point at the end of
             the line. 2 tip, peak, apex, spike, spur, prong, sharp end:  Be
             careful of the point of that knife.  3 spot, place, stage,
             position; site, station, location, locale:  We have reached the
             point of no return on that subject. I stopped at a few points
             along the way to admire the view. 4 time, moment, instant,
             juncture:  At that point, we were summoned by the dinner bell.
             5 focus, essence, meat, pith, quiddity, substance, heart,
             nucleus, crux, nub, core, bottom, details, Colloq guts,
             nitty-gritty:  I wish he would stop all the palaver and get to
             the point.  6 purpose, intent, intention, aim, goal, object,
             objective, sense:  What was the point of bringing that piece of
             gossip into the discussion?  7 thrust, drift, theme, purport,
             burden, import, implication, significance, signification, sense,
             meaning; application, applicability, relevancy, appropriateness:
             We found it difficult to see the point of the argument.  8
             promontory, projection, headland, cape, peninsula:  It may take
             us a day to sail round the point.  9 brink, verge:  We were on
             the point of leaving when the guest of honour finally arrived.
             10 detail, particular, item, element, nicety, aspect, facet,
             matter, issue, subject, question; specifics:  Some of the points
             in her speech need clarification.  11 pointer, hint, suggestion,
             piece of advice, tip:  The golf pro at the club gave me some
             good points on improving my swing. 12 thought, idea,
             consideration; notion, view, plan, tactic; something:  That's a
             point to keep in mind if you buy another sailing-boat.  13 unit,
             tally, score:  She made her point and went on to win the match.
             14 attribute, characteristic, feature, aspect, trait, quality,
             side, property:  I suppose he has his good points, too.  15
             beside the point. irrelevant, inapt, inappropriate, malapropos,
             incidental, immaterial, unimportant, pointless, inconsequential:
             The fact that she's my sister is beside the point.  16 in point
             of. in reference to, regarding, as regards, in the matter of,
             concerning, with respect to:  In point of date, the two events
             coincide perfectly.  17 make a point of or US also make (it) a
             point to. make an effort (to), put or place emphasis on, go out
             of one's way (to); emphasize, single out, stress:  He made a
             point of apologizing to the hostess for his behaviour.  She made
             a special point of forgiving him. 18 to the point. relevant,
             pertinent, appropriate, fitting, apropos, germane, apt,
             applicable, apposite:  The speech was short and to the point.

             --v.  19 Often, point to. indicate, call or direct attention to:
             Desir‚e pointed to the building and asked what it was.  20
             direct, level, aim, train:  I awoke to find her pointing a gun
             at my head.  21 point out.  a designate, call or direct
             attention to, show, exhibit, indicate, identify:  The taxi
             driver pointed out all the sights as we drove along.  b say,
             bring up, mention, allude to, bring up, emphasize, stress, point
             up, single out; allude to, call attention to, remind:  I'd like
             to point out that you have rarely won at bridge. She pointed out
             the fallacy in his argument. 22 point up. emphasize, stress,
             accentuate, underline, underscore, accent, spotlight:  Such
             errors point up the need to double-check everything.

   point-blank
             adj.  1 direct, straight, blunt, flat, straightforward, abrupt,
             categorical, explicit, uncompromising, unmitigated, unalloyed,
             downright, outright, to the point, straight from the shoulder,
             (open and) above-board, unreserved:  I asked her out to dinner
             and got a point-blank refusal.  2 close, short, nearby:  He was
             shot at point-blank range.

             --adv.  3 directly, straight (away), right away, bluntly, flat,
             flatly, abruptly, categorically, unqualifiedly, explicitly,
             uncompromisingly, unmitigatedly, outright,, unreservedly,
             plainly, frankly, openly, candidly:  He turned her down
             point-blank when she offered him the job.  4 directly, straight:
             He fired point-blank at the target.

   pointed   adj.  1 needle-shaped, sharp, acute, barbed, peaked, spiked,
             spiky, Technical acuminate, cuspidate, aciform, acicular,
             aciculiform, aculeous, apiculate, spiculate, serrate(d),
             acuminate, mucroniform, mucronulate, mucronate(d), muricate,
             hebetate:  The child was poking holes in the sand with a pointed
             stick.  2 incisive, piercing, cutting, sharp, pungent, keen,
             penetrating, telling, trenchant, biting, unmistakable or
             unmistakeable:  The critic made a few pointed remarks about the
             actors' reading of the lines.

   pointer   n.  1 indicator, rod, stick; index, sign, arrow, Typography
             fist:  The pointer is used to call attention to something
             important.  2 tip, advice, hint, suggestion, recommendation,
             piece of advice:  McLeod gave me a few pointers on how to
             improve the restaurant service.

   pointless adj.  purposeless, aimless, worthless, ineffective, meaningless,
             ineffectual, futile, unproductive, fruitless, bootless, useless,
             vain, senseless, absurd, silly, stupid, inane, asinine, fatuous,
             preposterous, nonsensical, ridiculous, empty, hollow:  After her
             paper, someone rose and wasted half an hour making pointless
             remarks.

   point of view
             n.  1 viewpoint, perspective, approach, position, angle, slant,
             orientation, outlook, stance, standpoint, vantage point:  From
             his point of view, I can see why Fred thinks the research is a
             waste of time. 2 opinion, view, belief, (way of) thinking,
             principle, doctrine:  Shouldn't everyone be entitled to express
             a point of view?

   poise     n.  1 balance, equilibrium, equipoise, equiponderance, parity,
             par:  The chariots of the gods in even poise, obeying the rein,
             glide rapidly. 2 composure, control, self-possession, aplomb,
             assurance, dignity, equanimity, sang-froid, cool-headedness,
             imperturbability, presence of mind, coolness, staidness,
             reserve, sedateness, calmness, serenity, tranquillity, Colloq
             cool:  Jane's poise is remarkable, despite the heckling by the
             audience.

             --v.  3 balance, be balanced, hover, hang, float; make or be or
             get ready, prepare:  The boulder was poised on the edge of the
             cliff.

   poised    adj.  1 composed, controlled, self-possessed, unflappable,
             (self-)confident, (self-)assured, dignified, cool-headed,
             imperturbable, unruffled, cool, staid, reserved, sedate, calm,
             serene, tranquil, Colloq together:  For a lad of eleven, Richard
             is quite poised.  2 ready, standing by, waiting, prepared:  Our
             commando unit is poised to attack at your signal.  3 teetering,
             hovering, tottering, wavering, suspended, trembling, wobbling,
             balanced:  In the present business climate, the company is
             poised on the brink of bankruptcy.

   poison    n.  1 toxin, venom, bane; miasma, mephitis:  The chemical plant
             was found to be releasing poisons into the atmosphere. He kills
             rats using poison. 2 virus, bane, cancer, canker, corrupt or
             evil influence, pestilence, plague, blight:  The drug barons
             continue to spread their poison throughout the world.

             --v.  3 defile, adulterate, infect, taint, pollute; contaminate,
             debase, pervert, vitiate, subvert, warp, envenom:  Chemicals
             from the nearby plant have poisoned the drinking-water.  Why
             have you poisoned the child's mind against eating spinach? 4
             murder, kill, do away with, destroy, dispatch or despatch:
             Lucrezia Borgia poisoned her enemies in ingenious ways.

   poisonous adj.  1 lethal, deadly, fatal, mortal, toxic, septic, virulent,
             noxious or rare nocuous, venomous, malignant, pernicious,
             miasmic, mephitic:  Poisonous effluents were leaked into the
             rivers by the chemical plant. 2 malicious, malevolent,
             malignant, corruptive, vicious, baleful, evil, foul,
             diabolic(al), defamatory, libellous, slanderous, dangerous,
             deleterious,:  They have been spreading poisonous gossip about
             him again.

   poke      v.  1 jab, stick, prod, dig, goad, stab, thrust, push, elbow,
             nudge, jog, jostle, butt, shove:  Be careful not to poke someone
             in the eye with your umbrella.  He tells a joke, then pokes me
             in the ribs to make sure I've got it. 2 punch, hit, strike, box,
             cuff, smite, smack:  I made a suggestive remark and she poked me
             in the jaw.  3 pry, nose (about or around), stick one's nose
             into, intrude, dig, probe, investigate; meddle, interfere, butt
             in, tamper; Colloq snoop:  I wish they would stop poking into my
             affairs.  4 poke fun (at). tease, ridicule, mock, make fun of,
             jeer (at), chaff, taunt, twit, make sport of, needle, Colloq
             kid, rib, Brit send up, take the mickey out of:  People who
             don't understand something often poke fun at it. Stop poking fun
             at my hat.

             --n.  5 jab, prod, dig, stab, thrust, push, elbow, finger,
             nudge, jog, jostle, butt, shove:  Every time Rodney wants to
             emphasize a point, he gives you a poke.  6 punch, hit, box, jab,
             cuff, smack, blow:  If anyone says anything bad about you, I'll
             give him a poke in the nose.

   polar     adj.  1 Arctic, Antarctic, frigid, icy, glacial, freezing,
             frozen, numbing, Siberian, hibernal, hyperborean, brumal,
             wintry:  It is positively polar in the house without the heat
             turned on.  2 opposite, opposed, antithetical, contrary,
             contradictory, diametric, antipodal, antagonistic, hostile:
             Dante felt Good and Evil to be the two polar elements of the
             Creation, on which it all turns.

   pole°     n.  rod, stick, staff, spar, shaft, mast, standard, upright;
             flag-pole, flagstaff, jackstaff; beanpole, hop-pole:  We had to
             use a long pole to get the kite down from the tree.

   poleэ     n.  1 extremity, end, limit, extreme:  Their views are at
             opposite poles and they cannot agree.  2 from pole to pole.
             everywhere, all over, far and wide, high and low, leaving no
             stone unturned, throughout the world or the length and breadth
             of the land, Colloq US everyplace:  He searched for her from
             pole to pole.  3 poles apart. (very or completely) different,
             worlds apart, at opposite extremes, at opposite ends of the
             earth, at odds, irreconcilable:  I'm afraid that the union and
             management remain poles apart on the issue of working hours.

   police    n.  1 constabulary, policemen, policewomen, police officers,
             Colloq boys in blue, the (long arm of the) law, the cops, the
             gendarmes, Slang the coppers, the fuzz, Brit the (Old) Bill, US
             the heat:  There was a bit of an argument, so we called the
             police.

             --v.  2 patrol, guard, watch, protect:  Additional officers were
             assigned to police the neighbourhood.  3 enforce, regulate,
             administer, oversee, control, observe, supervise, monitor:  A
             unit was established to police the terms of the agreement.

   police officer
             n.  officer, policeman, policewoman, constable, Brit police
             constable, PC, WPC, Chiefly US peace officer, patrolman,
             patrolwoman, Colloq cop, gendarme, Brit bobby; Slang copper,
             fuzz, flatfoot, Brit rozzer, Old Bill, Offensive and derogatory
             pig, Historical peeler, US bull, fuzz ball:  The police officers
             then asked if I wouldn't mind helping with their inquiries.

   policy    n.  approach, procedure, (game) plan, design, scheme, programme,
             method, system, management, conduct, behaviour, strategy,
             tactic(s), principle(s), protocol, regulation, rule, custom,
             way, practice, ways and means, action:  What policy should we
             follow regarding interest rates?

   polish    v.  1 shine, brighten, burnish, buff, furbish, wax, clean,
             smooth, rub, gloss:  He polished up the handles so carefully
             That now he is the ruler of the Queen's navy. 2 Often, polish
             up. refine, improve, perfect, finish, cultivate, ameliorate,
             enhance; correct, emend:  If you polish up the article we might
             consider it for publication.  3 polish off.  a conclude, end,
             terminate, finish:  Ned polished off his homework in less than
             an hour.  b kill, slay, murder, dispatch or despatch, destroy,
             dispose of, do away with, liquidate, eliminate, Slang bump off,
             rub out, do in, take for a ride:  Three platoons were polished
             off quickly.  c dispose of, put away, eat, consume, wolf (down):
             In a few minutes, MacGregor had polished off the entire meal.  4
             polish up. study, review, learn, Archaic con, Colloq bone up
             (on), Slang Brit swot up (on):  If you're going to M laga, you'd
             better polish up your Spanish.

             --n.  5 gloss, shine, lustre, sheen, glaze, smoothness,
             brilliance, sparkle, gleam, glow, brightness, radiance:  You
             cannot imagine what a fine polish she put on that old table.  6
             wax, oil:  The new polish really put a shine on the desk.

   polished  adj.  1 accomplished, adept, proficient, expert, fine,
             outstanding, skilful, gifted, masterful, masterly, virtuoso,
             excellent, superior, superb, superlative; flawless, faultless,
             perfect, impeccable:  Edna is quite a polished cellist. She gave
             a polished performance.  2 refined, elegant, cultivated,
             graceful, debonair, sophisticated, urbane, soign‚(e), courtly,
             genteel, cultured, civilized, well-bred, well-mannered, polite:
             Under her guidance, James has become a polished gentleman.

   polite    adj.  1 civil, respectful, well-mannered, mannerly, courteous,
             deferential, diplomatic, tactful, formal, proper, cordial:  We
             asked our new neighbours to tea but were met with a polite
             refusal. 2 See polished, 2, above.

   politic   adj.  1 ingenious, shrewd, crafty, canny, cunning, designing,
             scheming, clever, wily, foxy, tricky, artful, Macchiavellian,
             evasive, shifty, Colloq cagey:  Daniel is politic enough to know
             how to manoeuvre situations to his benefit. 2 tactful,
             diplomatic, discreet, prudent, judicious, wise, sage, sagacious,
             sensible, intelligent, percipient, discriminating, far-sighted,
             expedient, perceptive:  It was politic of the winner to share
             the prize with those who had helped him most.

   political adj.  1 governmental, civic, civil, public, state, national,
             federal; administrative, bureaucratic:  The movement began as an
             attempt to gain political freedom.  2 partisan, factious,
             factional:  A coalition government was formed by the major
             political parties.

   politician
             n.  legislator, lawmaker, statesman, stateswoman; minister, Brit
             Member of Parliament, MP, US public or civil servant,
             administrator, official, bureaucrat, office-bearer, senator,
             congressman, congresswoman, representative, assembly-man,
             assembly-woman, selectman; Colloq US derogatory politico,
             (political) boss or hack, machine politician, ward-heeler,
             wirepuller:  Some politicians have given a bad name to the art
             of politics.

   politics  n.  1 public affairs, political science, civics, civil affairs,
             government, statecraft, diplomacy, statesmanship:  Hume viewed
             politics as people united in society and dependent on each
             other. 2 manoeuvring, manipulation, wirepulling, machination:
             Office politics are such that they wouldn't dare dismiss that
             department head.

   poll      n.  1 voting, vote, returns, tally, figures:  The poll shows
             that the incumbents are not as secure as they thought.  2
             opinion poll, survey, canvass, census, ballot, count:  A poll of
             home-owners shows that most would like to own washing machines.

             --v.  3 sample, survey, question, canvass, ballot, ask,
             interview; count, enumerate, tally, register, record:  We polled
             teenagers to determine their reaction to a youth centre; those
             in favour polled 73 per cent. 4 receive, get, win, register,
             tally:  Cavendish polled more than 60 per cent of the votes
             cast.

   pollute   v.  1 contaminate, adulterate, befoul, foul, soil, spoil, taint,
             stain, dirty, sully, blight, poison:  These factories must be
             prevented from continuing to pollute the atmosphere. 2 corrupt,
             desecrate, profane, defile, violate:  The altar was polluted
             because it had been touched by a non-believer.

   pollution n.  contamination, adulteration, corruption, polluting, fouling,
             befouling, soiling, spoiling, tainting, staining, dirtying,
             sullying, blighting, poisoning, vitiation:  Laws were passed to
             prosecute those responsible for the pollution of the
             environment.

   pomp      n.  glory, grandeur, magnificence, splendour, show,
             extravaganza, pageantry, ceremony, spectacle, brilliance,
             ceremoniousness:  The Chinese court's pomp and display of wealth
             had never before been seen by a westerner.

   pompous   adj.  1 vain, vainglorious, proud, arrogant, pretentious,
             ostentatious, showy, grandiose, haughty, overbearing, conceited,
             egotistical, self-important, boastful, braggart, inflated,
             snobbish, magisterial, imperious, pontifical, affected,
             exhibitionist, Colloq uppity, highfalutin or hifalutin,
             hoity-toity, high-hat, Slang snooty, snotty:  Don't you despise
             the pompous way Marshall struts about in that ridiculous
             uniform? 2 bombastic, flowery, grandiloquent, pedantic, stuffy,
             fustian, orotund, ornate, embroidered, flatulent, windy, turgid,
             inflated, high-flown, euphuistic:  He's always making
             long-winded, pompous speeches because he loves the sound of his
             own voice.

   ponder    v.  consider, muse (over or on), brood (over or upon or on),
             mull over, deliberate (over), meditate (upon or on), think (over
             or on or about), weigh, ruminate (over), chew over, cogitate,
             excogitate, reflect (on or over), contemplate:  I shall need a
             while to ponder the answer to that question. Give me a little
             more time to ponder.

   ponderous adj.  1 weighty, unwieldy, heavy, massive, huge, big, large,
             awkward, clumsy, cumbersome or cumbrous:  A ponderous juggernaut
             bore down on us, completely out of control.  2 dull, tedious,
             laboured, laborious, tiresome, turgid, boring, dreary,
             pedestrian, stilted, windy, inflated, long-winded, wordy,
             verbose, prolix, elephantine, pompous, grandiloquent, overdone:
             Many students faced with textbooks written in ponderous prose
             become disenchanted with learning.

   pool      n.  1 pond, lake, tarn, mere, lagoon; swimming-pool, leisure
             pool, wading pool, Brit paddling pool, US wading pool, Formal
             natatorium:  We found an icy mountain pool where we went for a
             swim.  2 collection, fund(s), purse, stakes, reserve(s), bank,
             Colloq pot, jackpot, kitty:  So far we have too little money in
             the pool for an office party at Christmas. 3 syndicate, trust,
             group, consortium, cartel, combine:  The object of the pool was
             the private regulation of market prices, which is illegal.

             --v.  4 accumulate, collect, gather, combine, merge,
             consolidate, amalgamate, league, bring or come or band or get
             together, team (up) with:  We would do better if we pooled our
             resources.

   poor      adj.  1 needy, destitute, indigent, in want, in need, penniless,
             poverty-stricken, impoverished, badly off, necessitous, poor as
             a church-mouse, straitened, pinched, in reduced circumstances,
             impecunious, financially embarrassed, down and out, out of
             pocket, ruined, insolvent, bankrupt, Colloq broke, hard up, on
             one's uppers, short, US wiped out, Brit in Queer Street, Slang
             Brit skint:  They were poor and didn't know where their next
             meal was coming from. 2 low, bad, skimpy, meagre, scant, scanty,
             inadequate, deficient, insufficient, sparse:  How can a family
             of five survive on such a poor salary? These days, 3 per cent
             would be considered a poor return on investment. 3 barren,
             unproductive, unfruitful, fruitless, infertile, sterile;
             depleted, exhausted, impoverished:  This is poor soil, and no
             amount of cultivation is likely to make it productive. 4 bad,
             awful, inadequate, unsatisfactory, unacceptable, bumbling,
             inefficient, amateurish, unprofessional, inferior, second-rate,
             third-rate, low-grade, shabby, shoddy, mediocre, defective,
             faulty, flawed, substandard, sorry, not up to par or snuff,
             slipshod, below or under par, Colloq rotten, lousy:  They did a
             poor job repairing my car. Her latest recital was pretty poor. 5
             insignificant, slight, paltry, inconsequential, mean, modest,
             trivial, trifling:  They made only a poor attempt to correct the
             problem.  6 unfortunate, unlucky, pathetic, luckless, pitiful,
             pitiable, ill-fated, miserable, wretched, ill-starred,
             star-crossed, jinxed, hapless:  The poor chap lost his entire
             family in the disaster.  7 bad, ill:  Aunt Theresa has been in
             poor health lately.

   poorly    adv.  1 badly, inadequately, unsatisfactorily, incompetently,
             inexpertly, improperly, crudely, unprofessionally, amateurishly:
             The decorators you recommended have done their work very poorly
             indeed.

             --adj.  Colloq 2 unwell, indisposed, ailing, sick, below par,
             Colloq rotten, under the weather:  Charles is rather poorly, I'm
             afraid.

   pop       v.  1 burst, explode, bang, go off:  The balloon popped, making
             me jump.  2 Often, pop in or out or by. visit, stop, call,
             appear, Colloq drop in, Brit nip in:  Guess who popped in to see
             me on his way to the airport.  3 bulge, protrude, stick out, US
             bug out:  The little boy's eyes popped when they brought in the
             birthday cake.

             --n.  4 explosion, bang, report, crack:  The Christmas cracker
             went off with a loud pop.  5 soft drink, soda (water); cola,
             Brit fizzy drink, lemonade, US soda (pop):  A bottle of pop for
             my daughter and a pint of bitter for me, please.

   populace  n.  people, masses, commonalty, (general) public, commoners,
             multitude, hoi polloi, crowd, throng, rabble, peasantry,
             proletariat, common folk, rank and file, working class,
             bourgeoisie, mob, Derogatory great unwashed, riff-raff, rabble,
             canaille, ragtag and bobtail:  Some MPs act on behalf of their
             own constituencies rather than the populace at large.

   popular   adj.  1 favourite, favoured, in favour, accepted, well-received,
             approved, (well-)liked, fashionable, in fashion, stylish, in
             vogue, celebrated, renowned, acclaimed, famous, in demand,
             sought-after, all the rage, Colloq trendy, in, hot:  You would
             become a millionaire overnight if you could accurately predict
             the popular music of the coming year. 2 conventional, stock,
             commonplace, public, normal, standard, general, universal,
             average, everyday, ordinary, routine, common, habitual,
             prevalent, current, prevailing, dominant, predominant,
             predominating, customary:  His films cater to popular tastes in
             science fiction.  3 lay, non-professional, amateur,
             understandable, accessible, popularized, simplified:  He
             presents a popular astronomy programme on TV.

   popularity
             n.  favour, acceptance, approval, esteem, regard, repute,
             reputation, vogue, trend, stylishness, renown, acclaim, fame,
             celebrity, lionization, (hero-) worship, Colloq trendiness:  The
             immense popularity of her novels in America has made her very
             rich.

   popularly adv.  commonly, generally, ordinarily, usually, universally,
             widely, regularly, customarily, prevalently, habitually:  It is
             a popularly held belief among the French that their wine is the
             best in the world.

   populate  v.  colonize, settle, people, occupy; inhabit, dwell in, reside
             in, live in:  Shiploads of families braved the voyage to
             populate the New World.

   population
             n.  people, populace, inhabitants, residents, natives, denizens,
             citizenry, citizens, folk:  In those days there was no one to
             look after the legal rights of the population.

   populous  adj.  crowded, (heavily) populated, peopled, teeming, thronged,
             crawling, swarming, jammed, jam-packed, packed:  The populous
             cities contrast with the sparsely inhabited rural areas.

   pore°     v.  pore over. study, examine, scrutinize, peruse, read, go
             over, Colloq con:  Hamilton sits in the library, day after day,
             poring over books of forgotten lore.

   poreэ     n.  opening, orifice, hole, aperture, vent, perforation,
             Technical spiracle, stoma:  A hot bath opens the pores in the
             skin.

   pornographic
             adj.  obscene, lewd, offensive, indecent, prurient, smutty,
             taboo, blue, dirty, salacious, licentious, nasty, X-rated,
             Colloq porno, US raunchy:  Some prudes consider anything
             concerning sex to be pornographic.

   pornography
             n.  obscenity, smut, filth, dirt, erotica, Colloq porn:  The
             council voted to forbid the sale of pornography within the town
             precincts.

   porous    adj.  spongy, spongelike, permeable, pervious, penetrable:  The
             rainwater runs through the porous rock and collects in the pools
             below.

   port      n.  harbour, haven, seaport; mooring, anchorage; refuge:  We
             were bound east for the port of Cardiff.

   portable  adj.  transportable, manageable, carriable, handy, light,
             lightweight, compact, pocket, pocket-sized, little, small, US
             carry-on, vest-pocket, shirt-pocket:  He needs a van just to
             transport his portable television, portable radio, portable
             hi-fi, portable typewriter, portable computer, and portable
             calculator.

   portentous
             adj.  1 ominous, threatening, momentous, sinister, fateful,
             alarming, menacing, foreboding, ill-omened, inauspicious,
             unfavourable, ill-starred, ill-fated, star-crossed, lowering or
             louring, gloomy, unpromising, unpropitious:  Precisely at
             midnight they appeared with the most portentous news.  2
             extraordinary, amazing, astonishing, astounding, prodigious,
             awesome, awe-inspiring, remarkable, marvellous, phenomenal,
             fabulous, fantastic, mind-boggling, wondrous, miraculous:  The
             coronation of a British monarch is truly a portentous event.

   porter°   n.  bearer, (baggage) carrier or attendant, US airports skycap,
             US railways redcap:  I tipped the porter to carry our bags to a
             taxi.

   porterэ   n.  1 concierge, cleaner, caretaker, Chiefly US and Canadian
             janitor, superintendent, Colloq US super:  When we are away, the
             porter keeps our mail for us.  2 door-keeper, watchman, doorman,
             gatekeeper, concierge, US tiler:  He went to my club, but the
             porter would not let him in.

   portico   n.  porch, veranda or verandah, gallery, colonnade, galilee:  At
             the front of the mansion, six corinthian pillars support a wide
             portico.

   portion   n.  1 segment, part, section, division, subdivision, parcel,
             piece, hunk, chunk, lump, wedge, slice, sliver, fraction,
             fragment, bit, morsel, scrap:  A portion of the masonry fell
             into the street in the earthquake.  2 share, part, allotment,
             quota, ration, apportionment, allowance, allocation, assignment,
             percentage, measure, division, quantity:  The size of an
             investor's portion depends on the amount invested.  3 helping,
             serving; ration, plate, platter:  He complained that the
             portions in nouvelle cuisine are too small.

             --v.  4 Often, portion out. apportion, share out, allocate,
             ration, allot, partition, assign, consign, dole out, deal (out),
             parcel out, distribute, administer, dispense, disperse, divide,
             split up, carve up, cut up, break up, section, Colloq divvy up:
             The conquered territories were then portioned out among the
             victors.

   portrait  n.  picture, likeness, image,sketch, rendering, vignette;
             representation, description, profile, thumbnail sketch,
             portrayal, picturization, depiction; account, story,
             characterization, study, record, file, dossier:  We have the
             culprit's portrait in our rogues' gallery. We need a more
             accurate portrait of the kidnapper.

   portray   v.  1 represent, picture, show, depict, paint, render,
             characterize, describe, delineate:  She is portrayed wearing the
             Castelli tiara. Why must I always be portrayed as the villain? 2
             act or play (the part or role of), take the part or role of,
             represent, pose as, impersonate:  She portrays an aged crone who
             regains her youth in the last act.

   pose      v.  1 sit, model; position, place, arrange, set (up), put:
             Would you let your husband or wife pose in the nude? She posed
             the model standing, looking out of the window. 2 Usually, pose
             as. portray, act or play (the part or role of), take the part or
             role of, represent, impersonate, be disguised as, masquerade as,
             pretend or profess to be, pass (oneself off) as, pass for,
             imitate, mimic; attitudinize, posture, put on airs, Colloq show
             off:  She posed as an art expert from Switzerland. She thinks
             him a rou‚, but he's only posing. 3 set, put, ask, submit,
             broach, posit, advance, present, predicate, postulate:  The
             interviewer posed some questions that were quite embarrassing.

             --n.  4 position, attitude, posture, stance:  Her profile is not
             shown to best advantage in that pose.  5 affectation, act,
             pretence, attitudinizing, affectedness, display, fa‡ade, show,
             ostentation:  His interest in art is just a pose to impress her.

   poseur    n.  posturer, exhibitionist, pretender, impostor, masquerader,
             attitudinizer; fake, faker, dissembler, fraud, Colloq show-off,
             phoney or US also phony:  He talks about literature, but he's a
             poseur who just spouts the opinions of others.

   posh      adj.  (de) luxe, luxurious, elegant, sumptuous, lavish, opulent,
             rich, royal, regal, luxury, grand, fashionable, Colloq swank(y),
             classy, ritzy, Slang snazzy:  You ought to see what a posh
             office my son has!

   posit     v.  postulate, hypothesize, propound, put or set forth, put
             forward, advance, propose, pose, offer, submit, predicate:  If
             we posit a downturn in prices next year, how does that affect
             our profit forecasts?

   position  n.  1 posture, attitude, stance, pose; disposition, arrangement,
             disposal:  Once in a while, he would change his position so that
             he faced the sun. With the pieces in this position the chess
             game is a draw. 2 site, placement, situation, whereabouts,
             placing, emplacement, location:  Those bearings put his present
             position about 20 miles west of C diz. 3 viewpoint, point of
             view, outlook, attitude, angle, slant, stance, stand, opinion,
             inclination, leaning, bent, sentiment, feeling, way of thinking:
             My solicitor is pessimistic about my position in this case.  4
             status, condition, state, circumstances, situation:  Our
             financial position vis-…-vis investment in gilt bonds has
             changed. 5 class, caste, place, rank, standing, station, status,
             importance:  They insist on knowing the social position of the
             girl's family.  6 job, occupation, situation, post, office,
             function, appointment, capacity, place, role, Colloq billet,
             berth, Australian possie or possy My mother's position as
             managing director had nothing to do with my getting a promotion.
             7 hypothesis, thesis, principle, contention, assertion,
             predication, belief, proposition, postulate:  His position is
             based on the implications of the third law of thermodynamics.

             --v.  8 put, place, situate, site, set, fix, settle, dispose,
             arrange:  The pointer is again positioned at zero. Position your
             forces along this ridge and stay on full alert. 9 place, locate,
             establish, determine, fix, localize:  The scientists positioned
             the seismic activity as being along the San Andreas fault.

   positive  adj.  1 sure, certain, definite, unequivocal, categorical,
             absolute, unqualified, unambiguous, unmistakable or
             unmistakeable, clear-cut, clear, explicit, express, decisive,
             indisputable, indubitable, unquestionable, unquestioned,
             incontestable, uncontested, undeniable, reliable, persuasive,
             convincing, irrefutable:  The police have positive evidence that
             the men are innocent of any crime. Spending this evening with
             you has been a positive delight. 2 definitive, emphatic,
             decided, forceful, firm, peremptory, definite:  He gave a
             positive denial when asked if he had agreed to let the hostages
             go. She made a positive commitment to meet me here at noon. 3
             sure, certain, confident, convinced, satisfied:  Are you
             positive that the last train is at midnight?  4 beneficial,
             favourable, complimentary, productive, useful:  I heard many
             positive things about the way she handled herself at the
             interview. 5 overconfident, dogmatic, doctrinaire, pontifical,
             opinionated, pigheaded, stubborn, obstinate, obdurate,
             arbitrary, overweening, arrogant, assertive, dictatorial,
             despotic, imperious, Rare thetic(al):  His problem is that he is
             quite positive about things that simply are not so. 6 practical,
             realistic, utilitarian, productive, functional, pragmatic(al),
             realistic, matter-of-fact, Colloq hard-nosed:  They have taken a
             positive approach to studying the economics of small businesses.
             7 encouraging, supportive, constructive, reassuring,
             enthusiastic, favourable, affirmative, yes, confirming:  Our
             plan to buy out the company has received a positive reaction
             from our bankers. Asked if they would buy our product,
             businessmen gave a positive response. 8 auspicious, promising,
             propitious, encouraging; optimistic, favourable, cheerful,
             confident; Colloq bullish, upbeat:  In the long run, the picture
             for home-owners looks positive. It pays to maintain a positive
             outlook and not get depressed. 9 complete, utter, total,
             perfect, out-and-out, consummate, unmitigated, thorough,
             thoroughgoing; egregious, glaring, stark, sheer, outright,
             unqualified, unequivocal:  You were a positive idiot not to let
             me know you needed help.  All attempts at reconciliation ended
             in positive disaster.

   positively
             adv.  definitely, absolutely, unquestionably, certainly, (most)
             assuredly, undeniably, undoubtedly, surely, to be sure,
             emphatically, unmistakably or unmistakeably, unqualifiedly,
             categorically, indisputably, beyond or without (a shadow of) a
             doubt, indubitably, beyond question:  The wine list at Le
             MaЊtre's is positively the best in the area.

   possess   v.  1 be possessed or in possession of, have, own, enjoy, be
             blessed or endowed with:  In the 19th century, the family
             possessed great wealth.  2 have, be born or gifted or endowed
             with, contain, embody, embrace, include:  He possesses a talent
             to amuse people. Man does not possess as keen a sense of smell
             as many animals. 3 dominate, control, govern, consume, take
             control of, preoccupy, obsess; charm, captivate, enchant, cast a
             spell over, bewitch, enthral:  What possessed her to think that
             I could help? He behaves as if he is possessed by the devil. 4
             be possessed with or of. have, be held or influenced or
             dominated by, be imbued or inspired or permeated or affected
             with:  She became possessed with the notion that she could sing.
             Fiona believes herself the only person possessed of reason. 5
             possess oneself of. acquire, achieve, get, come by, gain, come
             into, win, obtain, procure, secure, take, seize, take or gain
             possession of:  Kevin has possessed himself of the only
             comfortable bed in the place.

   possessed adj.  obsessed, driven, controlled, dominated, ridden,
             bedevilled, consumed, haunted, pressed, maddened, crazed,
             demented, frenzied, Colloq eaten up:  He behaved like a man
             possessed.

   possession
             n.  1 ownership, title, proprietorship, control, hold, tenure,
             keeping, care, custody, guardianship, protection:  The paintings
             are now in my possession.  2 holding, territory, province,
             dominion, colony, protectorate:  How long will the Falkland
             Islands remain a possession of the Crown? 3 possessions.
             belongings, property, effects, chattels, assets, worldly goods,
             things:  The prison clerk placed all my possessions in an
             envelope, explaining that they would be returned when I was
             released. 4 take or gain possession of. seize, capture, take,
             conquer, occupy, acquire, win, possess oneself of, secure,
             obtain; repossess:  The raiding party gained possession of the
             port and surrounding area. The finance company has taken
             possession of my car.

   possessive
             adj.  1 greedy, unyielding, selfish, ungiving, ungenerous,
             stingy, niggardly, materialistic, covetous, acquisitive:  He
             refuses to see anyone, as he is very possessive of his time.  2
             overprotective, controlling, grasping, dominating, domineering,
             overbearing:  Anyone with a possessive parent finds it difficult
             to leave home.

   possibility
             n.  1 chance, odds, prospect, conceivability, feasibility,
             plausibility, likelihood, admissibility:  There is a possibility
             of my leaving work early to meet you. What is the possibility
             that he might be honest? They deny even the possibility of God's
             existence. 2 Often, possibilities. opportunity, potentiality,
             potential, capacity, promise:  The old house has many large
             rooms and offers great possibilities.

   possible  adj.  1 feasible, plausible, imaginable, conceivable, thinkable,
             credible, tenable, reasonable, admissible:  It is remotely
             possible, though improbable, that she committed the crime. 2
             realizable, practicable, workable, practical, doable,
             achievable, attainable, reachable, accomplishable, viable,
             Colloq on:  In the present state of the art, a fully interactive
             computer, operating in real time, is still not possible.

   possibly  adv.  1 maybe, perhaps, God willing, Deo volente, if possible,
             Archaic or literary perchance, mayhap, peradventure:  She is
             possibly the best person for the job.  2 in any way, under any
             circumstances, by any chance, by any means, at all:  Could you
             possibly help me find my contact lens? The weather forecast
             couldn't possibly be correct.

   post°     n.  1 pole, stake, upright, column, pillar, pale, picket, shaft,
             standard, newel, pier, pylon, pile, piling, strut, shore,
             stanchion, leg, prop, stay, support, brace:  A huge central post
             held up the roof.

             --v.  2 advertise, announce, proclaim, publish, circulate,
             propagate, promulgate; put or pin or tack or stick or hang up,
             affix:  The notice of the meeting has been posted for all to
             see.

   postэ     n.  1 assignment, appointment, position, situation, job, place,
             duty, role, function, employment, work, task, chore:  Clarke was
             given a post as consul in some forgotten country.

             --v.  2 place, put, station, assign, appoint, position, situate,
             set, locate:  Guards have been posted around the enclosure.

   post°     n.  1 postal service, mail; delivery; collection:  I am
             expecting an important letter in the post. It hasn't come in the
             first post.

             --v.  2 send, dispatch or despatch, transmit, Chiefly US and
             Canadian mail:  I posted your cheque this morning.  3 record,
             enter, register, list:  We post the daily receipts in this
             ledger.  4 keep (someone) posted. inform, advise, brief, notify,
             Colloq fill (someone) in on:  Our observers have kept me posted
             as to your whereabouts every step of the way.

   poster    n.  placard, notice, bill, advertisement, announcement,
             broadside, broadsheet; circular, flier:  Who designed that
             striking poster for the new play?

   posterior adj.  1 hind, rear, back, after, hinder, rearward, Nautical aft:
             The posterior legs are somewhat longer.  2 later, after, latter,
             ensuing, following, succeeding, subsequent:  Analysis has
             yielded evidence of the posterior origin of the lava.

             --n.  3 buttocks, bottom, rump, seat, derriЉre, Colloq behind,
             rear, backside, tail, Colloq hinie, Slang Brit bum, Taboo slang
             Brit arse, US ass, butt, Yiddish tokus or tochis or tuchis:  The
             term describing a person with a fat posterior is 'steatopygous'.

   posterity n.  descendants, successors, heirs, children, offspring, issue,
             progeny:  It is good that these buildings will be preserved for
             posterity.  Posterity will be the judge of our success.

   post-haste
             adv.  quickly, at once, without delay, immediately, directly,
             straightaway, right away, promptly, speedily, swiftly,
             instantly, before one can say 'Jack Robinson', before you can
             say 'knife', rapidly, at full tilt, in a wink, in a trice, in
             the twinkling of an eye, Colloq pronto, chop-chop, p.d.q. (=
             'pretty damned quick'), US and Canadian lickety-split, like
             greased lightning:  He got me the report post-haste.

   post-mortem
             n.  1 autopsy, necropsy:  We'll know the cause of death after
             the post-mortem.  2 review, analysis, Slang US Monday-morning
             quarterbacking:  We can do without the post-mortem on every
             bridge hand.

   postpone  v.  delay, adjourn, defer, keep in abeyance, put off or aside,
             lay aside, suspend, shelve, put or keep on ice, temporize,
             dally, Colloq put on the back burner, US table:  We ought to
             postpone further discussion till we have the facts.

   postponement
             n.  delay, adjournment, abeyance, suspension, stay, deferment,
             deferral, moratorium:  There has been a postponement of the
             meeting till Monday.

   posture   n.  1 pose, position, attitude, stance, appearance, carriage:
             She stood there in a defiant posture, with arms akimbo.  2
             position, condition, situation, state, disposition; arrangement,
             organization, layout, array, format:  The government adopted a
             conciliatory posture in the matter.  3 attitude, stance,
             position, feeling, sentiment, outlook, (point of) view,
             viewpoint, orientation, disposition, frame of mind, mood:  The
             interviewer tried to determine the general's posture on
             disarmament.

             --v.  4 pose, attitudinize, affect, put on a show, do for
             effect, Colloq show off:  Despite all her posturing, we believe
             her to be sincere.

   pot       n.  1 pan, saucepan, cauldron, cook-pot, stewpot; kettle:  How
             many politicians have promised the people 'a chicken in every
             pot'? 2 jackpot, bank, kitty:  You will have to add њ5 to the
             pot to see my hand.  3 pot-belly, paunch, gut, Colloq
             corporation, beer belly, spare tyre, US bay window:  If he
             exercised more, Patrick wouldn't have such a pot.

   potent    adj.  1 powerful, strong; mighty, vigorous, forceful,
             formidable, authoritative, influential, Literary puissant:  A
             potent poison will kill those weeds. We have to reckon with an
             enemy that is quite potent. 2 effective, convincing, cogent,
             persuasive, compelling, efficacious, telling, sound, valid,
             impressive:  Their argument is potent enough to convince the
             biggest sceptics.

   potential adj.  1 possible, likely, implicit, implied, imminent,
             developing, budding, embryonic, dormant, hidden, concealed,
             covert, latent, quiescent, passive, future, unrealized,
             undeveloped:  We are dealing with a potential threat to our
             liberty.

             --n.  2 capacity, capability, possibility, aptitude, potency,
             Colloq the (right) stuff, what it takes:  All teenagers have
             potential; the problem is to teach them to exploit it to the
             best advantage.

   potion    n.  draught, brew, beverage, drink, philtre, potation, elixir,
             tonic, cup, dose, concoction, decoction:  The old crone gave him
             a tiny bottle containing the love potion.

   pot-pourri
             n.  mixture, medley, miscellany, assortment, olla podrida,
             smorgasbord or sm”rg†sbord, gallimaufry, salmagundi, patchwork,
             collection, hotchpotch or US and Canadian hodgepodge, m‚lange or
             melange, motley, pastiche or pasticcio, mishmash, jumble, mess:
             What a pot-pourri of styles is represented in that art gallery!

   potter    v.  Chiefly Brit dabble (in or with), toy with, trifle with,
             fribble, fool (with or about or around), fritter (away), mess
             (about or around or with), tinker (with), meddle (with), monkey
             (about or around or with), fidget (with), US putter (around or
             with), Colloq fiddle (about or around or with), footle (around
             or about):  On Sundays I like to potter about in the garden.

   pottery   n.  earthenware, ceramics, terracotta, crockery, stoneware,
             porcelain, china, delftware:  Ornamented pottery has been found
             in pre-Columbian digs.

   pouch     n.  pocket, sack, bag, purse, reticule, Dialect poke:  A
             Highlander's pouch is called a sporran. As I was going out, I
             filled my tobacco pouch.

   pounce    v.  1 Often, pounce on or upon. spring (on or upon), leap (at or
             on), swoop down (on or upon), fall upon, jump (at or on),
             strike, take by surprise or unawares, attack, ambush, Colloq
             mug:  As I rounded the corner, three youths pounced on me, stole
             my bag, and ran off.

             --n.  2 spring, leap, swoop, jump:  The cat was on the mantel
             shelf in a single pounce.

   pound°    v.  1 beat, batter, pelt, hammer, pummel; thump, belabour,
             thrash, bludgeon, cudgel, maul, strike, Colloq lambaste, Slang
             paste, clobber, work over, give (someone) the works or a
             pasting:  She pounded on the door till someone came. It was
             satisfying to see him pound the class bully into submission. 2
             crush, powder, pulverize, bray, comminute, triturate, mash,
             pulp:  The corn must be pounded into a fine meal before use.  3
             beat, throb, hammer, pulse, pulsate, palpitate:  My heart was
             pounding, waiting to see if the tiger would attack.  4 pound
             into. instil, din into, drill into, drub into, hammer into, beat
             into:  Her parents have pounded into her that she must show
             respect to her elders. 5 pound out. rid, expel, clear, cleanse,
             empty, purge, beat out, hammer out:  The last bit of
             stubbornness was pounded out of me at school.  6 beat out;
             hammer out, produce:  The jungle drums pounded out the message
             that Tarzan was coming.

             --n.  7 pounding, beat, beating, thump, thumping:  The pound of
             horses' hooves heralded the arrival of the cavalry.

   poundэ    n.  enclosure, pen, compound, confine, yard:  My car was towed
             to the pound, and it cost a fortune to retrieve it.

   pour      v.  1 flow, run, gush, rush, flood, stream, course, spout,
             discharge, spurt, spew out, cascade:  Water was pouring from a
             crack in the dam.  2 empty, discharge, let out:  Pour the
             boiling water over the tea leaves and let them steep for a few
             minutes. 3 rain, teem, Colloq come down in buckets or by the
             bucketful, bucket down, rain cats and dogs, US rain pitchforks:
             It poured all night.  4 stream, swarm, crowd, throng, teem,
             emerge, sally forth, issue (forth), go (forth):  The show over,
             people poured into the streets.

   pout      v.  1 mope, brood, sulk, make a moue, pull a long face, frown,
             lour or lower, knit one's brows:  Don't pout - I'll buy you an
             ice-cream.

             --n.  2 frown, moue, long face:  Her pout was occasioned by her
             father's scolding.

   poverty   n.  1 want, penury, indigence, insolvency, destitution,
             pauperism, impecuniousness, neediness, beggary:  Her childhood
             was spent in poverty.  2 scarcity, scarceness, want, need, lack,
             meagreness, insufficiency, shortage, dearth, paucity,
             inadequacy:  They criticized the poverty of talent among the
             current crop of actors.

   powder    n.  1 dust; talc:  I couldn't remember whether the jar contained
             cornflour or baking powder. She dabbed her body all over with
             scented powder. 2 take a (run-out) powder. run away, abscond,
             escape, vanish, disappear, Slang Brit scarper, do a moonlight
             flit, US take it on the lam:  The cops are coming, so I'm taking
             a powder.

             --v.  3 pulverize, bray, grind, crush, pound, granulate,
             triturate, comminute, levigate:  The rocks must first be
             crushed, then powdered.  4 sprinkle, besprinkle, dust, dredge,
             cover, coat:  Lightly powder the top of the cake with icing
             sugar, and it is ready to serve.

   power     n.  1 Sometimes, powers. capacity, capability, ability,
             potential, faculty, competency or competence, faculty,
             potentiality, Colloq what it takes, US the (right) stuff, the
             goods:  Fishes have the power to change their buoyancy. He has
             remarkable powers of observation. 2 control, dominance,
             authority, mastery, rule, influence, sway, command, ascendancy,
             sovereignty, dominion, weight, clout, Colloq pull, US drag:  He
             maintains a Svengali-like power over her. The prime minister has
             the power to appoint and dismiss cabinet ministers. 3 control,
             command, authority:  The party might not be in power for very
             long.  4 strength, might, vigour, energy, force, mightiness,
             potency, forcefulness, brawn, muscle, Literary puissance:  His
             speech was delivered with great power and a certain wit. Has she
             the power it takes to toss the caber? 5 talent, skill, ability,
             faculty, gift, aptitude, genius, knack:  They say that she has
             the power to see into the future.  6 authority, licence, right,
             authorization, privilege, warrant, prerogative:  By the power
             vested in me, I now declare you man and wife. It is within her
             power to grant a stay of execution. 7 Often, powers. activity,
             effectiveness, effect, ability, capacity, active ingredient(s):
             This mushroom has hallucinogenic powers.  8 energy, momentum,
             impetus, drive, force, inertia:  The car rolled halfway up the
             next hill under its own power.  9 (mechanical or electrical or
             atomic) energy, electricity, fuel:  Yesterday there was another
             demonstration against the use of nuclear power. 10 powers that
             be. government, administration, authorities, incumbents:  It is
             up to the powers that be to investigate corruption.

   powerful  adj.  1 potent, strong, mighty, vigorous, robust, energetic,
             sturdy, stalwart, tough, resilient, dynamic:  Leslie has a
             powerful physique. The cities of the Hanseatic League had
             powerful economies. 2 influential, strong, compelling, forceful,
             potent, substantial, weighty, authoritative, effective;
             important, impressive, telling, effectual, formidable,
             persuasive:  Powerful arguments have been brought to bear
             against taking such action. She has many powerful friends. 3
             strong, potent; intense, substantial, great, high:  The drug is
             too powerful to be taken regularly. A powerful electrical charge
             was sent through the wire to test the connection.

   powerless adj.  1 helpless, incapable, unable, unfit, incompetent,
             ineffectual, ineffective:  Without his wand, the magician was
             powerless.  2 incapacitated, helpless, weak, feeble,
             debilitated, crippled, paralysed, disabled:  He is completely
             powerless without the use of his right hand.

16.7 practicable...
=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-


   practicable
             adj.  doable, feasible, workable, performable, achievable,
             attainable, accomplishable, possible, viable:  We climbed up the
             glacier as far as was practicable. At last we had a practicable
             flying machine.

   practical adj.  1 pragmatic, useful, usable or useable, functional,
             realistic, reasonable, sound, utilitarian, applicable,
             serviceable, empirical, efficient:  Whether the device is
             practical will depend on its cost effectiveness.  2 sensible,
             reasonable, common-sense or common-sensical, everyday, ordinary,
             down-to-earth, expedient, matter-of-fact, mundane,
             business-like, hard-headed, judicious, Colloq hard-nosed:  Put
             theory aside and focus on a practical solution to the problem.
             3 applied, field, hands-on, personal, everyday:  She has had
             practical experience in nursing the elderly.

   practically
             adv.  1 almost, (very) nearly, wellnigh, virtually, in effect,
             just about, essentially, fundamentally, at bottom, basically,
             when all is said and done, at the end of the day, to all intents
             and purposes:  We are practically there. I have practically
             finished the ironing.  2 realistically, matter-of-factly,
             clearly, simply, reasonably, rationally, sensibly:  Practically,
             there was nothing to be done except let the fire burn itself
             out.

   practice  n.  1 custom, wont, habit, routine, convention, tradition, rule,
             procedure, usage, mode, style, way, modus operandi, technique or
             technic, Formal praxis, Colloq MO (= 'modus operandi'):  She
             makes a practice of swimming for an hour every day. It is our
             practice to get patients out of bed as soon as possible after
             surgery. 2 exercise, discipline, drill, practising, repetition,
             rehearsal, training, preparation; workout, warm-up; application,
             study:  She needs more practice on the beginner's slope before
             going down the main piste. 3 pursuit, exercise, work,
             profession, career, vocation, conduct; business, office:  He
             genuinely enjoys the practice of law. I heard of a veterinary
             practice for sale in Yorkshire. 4 in practice. practically,
             actually, day-to-day, realistically, in real life:  In practice
             no one would ever treat an injury the way this book recommends.
             5 out of practice. inexperienced, unpractised, unaccustomed,
             rusty:  I once played a good game of chess, but I'm out of
             practice now.

   practise  v.  1 drill, exercise, work out, train, prepare, rehearse, run
             through, repeat, study, US practice:  I am practising for
             Sunday's tennis tournament. She practises the piano every day.
             You should practise your routine for the show. 2 carry on, make
             a practice of, perform, do, act, carry out, put into practice,
             US practice:  She practises law. You should practise what you
             preach.

   practised adj.  1 accomplished, proficient, expert, skilled, experienced,
             capable, adept, seasoned, able, qualified, gifted, talented,
             skilful, masterful, consummate, superb, superior, US practiced:
             She is a practised liar.  2 trained, rehearsed, versed,
             cultivated, schooled, finished, perfected, US practiced:  He
             greeted them with the practised air of an veteran diplomat.

   praise    n.  1 acclaim, approval, approbation, applause, plaudits, kudos,
             endorsement, acclamation, tribute, accolade, compliments,
             commendation, encomium, eulogy, panegyric, ovation:  Sheila has
             received well-deserved praise for her work with paraplegic
             children. Would you expect me to sing the praises of my rival? 2
             honour, glorification, adoration, exaltation, devotion, homage,
             worship, veneration, adulation, reverence, glory, hymn or song
             of praise, paean, hosanna:  The king rejoiced and said, 'Praise
             be to God'.

             --v.  3 acclaim, approve, laud, applaud, endorse, pay tribute
             to, compliment, commend, eulogize, extol, honour, sing the
             praises (of):  The speaker praised Read for his many
             contributions to linguistics.  4 worship, revere, reverence,
             exalt, glorify, adore, pay homage to, venerate, give thanks to,
             hallow:  Praise the Lord and pass the ammunition.

   praiseworthy
             adj.  commendable, laudable, admirable, creditable, worthy,
             meritorious, deserving, exemplary:  However praiseworthy your
             motives were, you did not stop to consider the consequences.

   prance    v.  caper, dance, gambol, skip, cavort, romp, leap, frisk, jump,
             spring, bound, Dressage curvet, capriole:  Ahead of the royal
             coach came a dozen riders on prancing horses.

   prank     n.  trick, (practical) joke, frolic, escapade, antic, caper,
             stunt, lark, jest, jape, monkey tricks or esp. US monkeyshines,
             mischief:  Those schoolboy pranks we once thought hilarious now
             seem quite silly.

   prattle   v.  1 prate, babble, blather or blether, blither, gibber,
             jabber, jibber-jabber, palaver, tattle, twaddle, gabble,
             chatter, patter, drivel, twitter, rattle on, go on (and on),
             maunder, Brit natter, Colloq witter (on), gas, gab, spout, gush,
             run (on), US run off at the mouth, Slang jaw, ya(c)k,
             ya(c)kety-ya(c)k, shoot off one's mouth:  Do I have to listen to
             him prattle on and on about his grandchildren?

             --n.  2 prate, prating, babble, babbling, blather or blether,
             blathering or blethering, gibber, gibbering, jabber, jabbering,
             palaver, palavering, tattle, tattling, twaddle, chatter,
             chattering, gabble, gabbling, patter, drivel, twitter,
             twittering, rattling on, going on, maundering, cackle, US
             jibber-jabbering, twattle, clack, Colloq gas, gab, running off
             at the mouth, Slang jawing, ya(c)kety-ya(c)k:  We were treated
             to constant prattle about eating healthy foods.  3 jabberwocky,
             gobbledegook or gobbledygook, mumbo-jumbo, rubbish, balderdash,
             (stuff and) nonsense, humbug, bunkum, tommy-rot, trash, rot,
             foolishness, Colloq pish and tush, hot air, flapdoodle,
             rigmarole or rigamarole, bunk, piffle, moonshine, poppycock,
             claptrap, bull, hogwash, swill, Brit tosh, fiddle-faddle,
             boloney, Chiefly US garbage, horse feathers, Slang crap, hooey,
             guff, Taboo slang bullshit, US crock (of shit):  What they told
             you about guaranteeing your job is just a lot of prattle.

   pray      v.  1 beseech, ask, call upon or on, entreat, implore, request,
             appeal to, plead (with), beg (for), importune, solicit,
             petition, supplicate, Rare obsecrate:  I pray you to find it in
             your heart to approve my work.  2 say one's prayers, offer a
             prayer:  We prayed for her safe return.

   prayer    n.  1 petition, supplication, request, entreaty, plea, suit,
             appeal, Rare obsecration:  Our prayers were answered, and she
             returned safely.  2 devotion, praying, invocation, (divine)
             service, Literary orison:  Man ascends to God through prayer.

   preach    v.  1 deliver a sermon, evangelize, spread the Word or the
             Gospel; catechize:  The Most Reverend John Attwood will preach
             next week at Winchester.  2 moralize, sermonize, advise,
             counsel, admonish, reprimand, lecture, harangue, pontificate;
             urge, inculcate, advocate:  Mother used to preach to us about
             being charitable. Father preached restraint in all things.

   preacher  n.  minister, evangelist, clergyman, clergywoman, cleric,
             ecclesiastic, reverend, divine, Colloq tub-thumper:  He studied
             for many years to become a preacher.

   preamble  n.  introduction, foreword, prologue, preface, Formal proem,
             prolegomenon, exordium:  As a preamble to today's proceedings, I
             should like to welcome our honoured guests.

   precarious
             adj.  uncertain, unreliable, unsure, risky, hazardous,
             unpredictable, insecure, unstable, unsteady, unsettled, shaky,
             doubtful, dubious, questionable, tricky, delicate, ticklish,
             sensitive, slippery, touch-and-go, (hanging) in the balance,
             hanging by a thread, Damoclean, perilous, treacherous,
             dangerous, difficult, problematic, Colloq chancy, Brit dodgy,
             dicey, US iffy, Slang hairy:  If sales continue to drop, the
             company will be in precarious condition.  We followed a
             precarious trail down the mountainside.

   precaution
             n.  1 provision, preventive measure, safety measure, safeguard,
             insurance, protection, cover, escape:  Unfortunately, he had
             failed to take any precautions against storm damage. 2
             foresight, prudence, providence, forethought, caution,
             cautiousness, circumspection, care, attention, watchfulness,
             vigilance, alertness, wariness, chariness, apprehension,
             far-sightedness, anticipation:  Precaution is wiser than
             hindsight.

   precede   v.  come or go or proceed before or first, go ahead or in
             advance (of), lead (the way), pave the way (for), herald, usher
             in, introduce, antecede; foreshadow, antedate, predate:  His
             wife preceded him into the room. The Decameron preceded The
             Canterbury Tales by about fifty years.

   precedence
             n.  precedency, priority, pre-eminence, superiority, supremacy,
             preference, privilege, prerogative, importance, rank, position,
             primacy:  Your school work must take precedence over football
             practice.

   precedent n.  prototype, model, example, exemplar, pattern, paradigm,
             yardstick, criterion, standard, lead:  The French considered the
             War of American Independence a precedent for their revolution.

   preceding adj.  foregoing, former, previous, above, prior, earlier,
             above-mentioned, aforementioned, above-stated, above-named:  The
             defendant in the preceding action was remanded in custody for a
             week.

   precept   n.  1 rule, guide, principle, unwritten law, canon, guideline,
             dictate, code, injunction, law, commandment, instruction,
             injunction, directive, prescription, mandate, charge; statute,
             regulation, edict, ukase, decree, order, fiat, ordinance:  The
             Ten Commandments provide basic precepts of moral behaviour.  2
             maxim, proverb, axiom, motto, slogan, saying, byword, aphorism,
             apophthegm or apothegm:  Does anyone follow the precepts set
             forth in Scripture?

   precinct  n.  1 Usually, precincts. area, territory, region, province,
             environs, purlieus, borders, bounds, confines:  Does he have any
             authority outside the precincts of the city?  2 sphere,
             neighbourhood, zone, sector, section, quarter, district, locale:
             In some US cities, the area covered by a police station is
             called a precinct.

   precious  adj.  1 dear, dearest, costly, expensive, high-priced, valuable,
             invaluable, prized, priceless, irreplaceable, Colloq pricey:
             The entire cabinet was filled with precious jewels.  2 esteemed,
             choice, cherished, beloved, idolized, adored, loved, valued,
             prized, revered, venerated, venerable, hallowed:  The church
             keeps its most precious relics in a special vault.  3 precise,
             exquisite, overrefined, chichi, over-nice, studied, artificial,
             effete, affected, overdone, pretentious, euphuistic,
             alembicated, Colloq Brit twee, Slang US cutesy:  His style is
             characterized by somewhat precious language.

   precipice n.  cliff, escarpment, bluff, crag:  We looked nervously over
             the edge of the precipice at the raging sea below.

   precipitate
             v.  1 accelerate, hasten, speed (up), advance, hurry, quicken,
             expedite, bring on or about, trigger, provoke, instigate,
             incite, facilitate, further, press, push forward:  The rise in
             interest rates precipitated many bankruptcies.  2 hurl, fling,
             cast, launch, project:  The force of the impact precipitated him
             through the windscreen.

             --adj.  3 headlong, violent, rapid, swift, quick, speedy,
             meteoric, fast:  A powerful counter-attack brought about the
             enemy's precipitate rout. 4 sudden, abrupt, unannounced,
             unexpected, unanticipated:  Today's fall in share prices was as
             precipitate as yesterday's rise. 5 rash, impetuous, hasty,
             volatile, hotheaded, careless, reckless, incautious,
             injudicious, foolhardy, impulsive, unrestrained:  The selection
             of a career should not be a precipitate decision.

   precipitation
             n.  showers, drizzle, downpour, rain, rainfall, snow, snowfall,
             hail, sleet:  Precipitation can be expected in advance of the
             low-pressure area pushing down from the north.

   precipitous
             adj.  1 abrupt, steep, perpendicular, sheer, bluff, acclivitous,
             declivitous:  I cannot see how anyone can climb up the
             precipitous face of that crag. 2 See precipitate, 5, above.

   pr‚cis    n.  outline, summary, synopsis, aper‡u, r‚sum‚, conspectus,
             survey, overview, abstract, abridgement, digest, compendium,
             recapitulation; table of contents:  As I haven't the time to
             read the entire study document, let me have a pr‚cis of it.

   precise   adj.  1 correct, exact, definite, well-defined, explicit,
             word-for-word, verbatim, literal, letter-for-letter, literatim,
             faithful, specific, unambiguous, unequivocal, strict, authentic,
             perfect, true, veracious, truthful, unerring, error-free,
             accurate:  Errors show that medieval scribes did not always
             succeed in making precise copies. 2 strict, meticulous,
             scrupulous, careful, conscientious, exact, unconditional,
             rigorous, rigid, puritanical, unbending, inflexible, unyielding,
             demanding, severe, prim, absolute:  He has been very precise
             about dates and facts. Margaret is precise in insisting on
             obedience to her orders. 3 fastidious, particular, finicky,
             finical, fussy, meticulous, scrupulous, careful, conscientious,
             nice, exacting, critical, demanding:  Painting miniatures is
             very precise work.  4 exact, very:  This is the precise spot
             where I found the body.

   precisely adv.  1 exactly, just, strictly, Colloq on the nail, smack,
             slap, on the nose, Brit bang on, spot on:  His view is precisely
             the opposite of hers. We left precisely at five o'clock. You
             phoned, and that is precisely why I came. The two paintings are
             not precisely the same. 2 exactly, exactingly, correctly,
             rigorously, absolutely, punctiliously, minutely, carefully,
             meticulously, scrupulously, conscientiously, strictly, rigidly,
             inflexibly; in all respects, in every way:  This judge follows
             the letter of the law precisely.

   precision n.  1 correctness, exactness, fidelity, faithfulness,
             exactitude, preciseness, accuracy, rigour, perfection,
             flawlessness, faultlessness, literalism, faithfulness,
             unerringness:  This copy follows the original with precision.  2
             definiteness, care, nicety, meticulousness, rigorousness,
             rigour, fastidiousness, punctiliousness, scrupulousness,
             unambiguousness, nicety, strictness, explicitness:  The
             precision of the wording leaves no doubt about what the writer
             intended.

   preclude  v.  obviate, bar, prevent, stop, exclude, prohibit, shut out,
             forestall, rule out, debar, check, block, obstruct, avert,
             avoid, thwart, frustrate, impede, inhibit, hinder, interfere
             with:  To preclude misunderstanding, please repeat what you
             said. They may not engage in activities that preclude them from
             performing their regular duties.

   precocious
             adj.  advanced, mature, bright, gifted, intelligent, smart,
             quick:  It is hard to believe that Oliver was a precocious
             child.

   preconceived
             adj.  beforehand, predisposed, prejudged, predetermined,
             prejudiced, biased, anticipatory:  He has many false
             preconceived notions about people.

   preconception
             n.  predisposition, prejudgement, predetermination, prejudice,
             bias, presumption, presupposition, assumption, id‚e fixe,
             prepossession, preconceived notion or idea:  This production of
             King Lear will challenge your preconceptions of the play.

   precondition
             n.  prerequisite, stipulation, condition, essential, must, sine
             qua non, imperative, requirement, proviso, provision,
             qualification, necessity:  The release of the prisoners is a
             precondition for talks. Is great humanity a precondition of
             great music, or is it just a matter of the notes?

   precursor n.  1 harbinger, herald, vanguard:  The glow on the eastern
             horizon is the precursor of another day.  2 See predecessor, 1,
             below

   predatory adj.  1 predacious or predaceous, carnivorous, preying,
             raptorial:  Despite domestication, dogs and cats are predatory
             animals.  2 rapacious, ravenous, plundering, robbing, pillaging,
             marauding, despoiling, looting, piratical, vulturine,
             avaricious, greedy, voracious, larcenous, thieving,
             extortionate, usurious:  Predatory pirates once ravaged the
             Mediterranean. Keep out of the hands of predatory money-lenders,
             my son.

   predecessor
             n.  1 forerunner, predecessor, antecedent:  I could not match
             the accomplishments of my predecessor in this post. 2 forebear,
             forefather, ancestor, antecedent:  Can you name the Tudor
             predecessors of Elizabeth I?

   predestination
             n.  destiny, future, lot, fortune, kismet, karma; doom, fate;
             foreordainment, foreordination:  Meeting like this must have
             been predestination.

   predetermined
             adj.  1 fixed, prearranged, pre-established, set (up), foregone,
             preplanned, pre-set:  A predetermined amount of milk is
             automatically poured into each cup of coffee. 2 fated, doomed,
             destined, ordained, foreordained, Colloq cut and dried, Brit on
             the cards, US in the cards:  One gets the feeling that the
             outcome was predetermined.

   predicament
             n.  dilemma, quandary, difficulty, trial, situation, state,
             condition, imbroglio, emergency, crisis, impasse, Colloq pickle,
             jam, fix, pinch, scrape, spot, bind, corner, hole, mess, US box:
             I was hoping that you might help me out of a very awkward
             predicament.

   predict   v.  foretell, prophesy, forecast, foresee, augur, prognosticate,
             forewarn, presage, vaticinate; portend, foreshadow, foretoken,
             forebode; intimate, hint, suggest:  My mother predicted that
             there would be moments like this. If only I could predict the
             winner of the 2.30!

   predictable
             adj.  foreseeable, foreseen, probable, likely, liable, expected,
             anticipated, (reasonably) sure or certain, Colloq Brit on the
             cards, US in the cards:  Her angry reaction at being dismissed
             was quite predictable.

   prediction
             n.  forecast, prophecy, augury, prognosis; intimation, hint,
             suggestion:  The weatherman's predictions are more accurate than
             one might think. The prediction that he might be released the
             next day did not come true.

   predominance
             n.  predominancy, superiority, influence, dominance,
             pre-eminence, preponderance, ascendancy, precedence, power,
             supremacy, hold, sway, hegemony, leadership, mastery, control,
             dominion, sovereignty, transcendence or transcendency,
             authority, the upper hand, the whip hand, advantage, the edge:
             We must re-establish the predominance of intellectual vigour
             over crass commercialism.

   predominant
             adj.  dominant, predominating, controlling, sovereign, ruling,
             pre-eminent, preponderant, ascendant, superior, supreme,
             leading, paramount, main, chief, transcendant, important,
             telling, influential, primary, prevailing, prevalent:  England
             was the predominant power in the world during the 19th century.
             The phlogiston theory was once predominant among scientists.

   predominate
             v.  Often, predominate over. dominate, control, rule, reign,
             preponderate, outweigh, obtain, prevail, overshadow, get or have
             the upper hand, lord it over, hold sway, overrule:  Though the
             American president is a Republican, the Democrats predominate in
             Congress.

   pre-eminence
             n.  1 See predominance, above.  2 peerlessness, magnificence,
             excellence, distinction, eminence, inimitability, superiority:
             There is no gainsaying the pre-eminence of Shakespeare as a poet
             and playwright.

   pre-eminent
             adj.  1 See predominant, above.  2 peerless, excellent,
             distinguished, eminent, inimitable, superb, unequalled,
             matchless, incomparable, outstanding, unique, unrivalled,
             unsurpassed, supreme, superior:  In her opinion, Craig is the
             pre-eminent authority on the subject.

   pre-eminently
             adv.  primarily, principally, by far, far and away, manifestly,
             eminently, notably, conspicuously, prominently, signally,
             uniquely, extraordinarily, supremely, superbly, matchlessly,
             incomparably, outstandingly:  There is no doubt that Nathalie is
             pre-eminently qualified to direct the play.

   pre-empt  v.  appropriate, usurp, arrogate, take over, assume, take
             possession of, seize, acquire, take, possess, expropriate:  All
             the seats on the committee had been pre-empted by the ruling
             faction.

   preen     v.  1 trim, clean, plume, groom:  The gliding swans stopped now
             and then to preen their feathers.  2 primp, dress up, titivate
             or tittivate, prettify, beautify, prink, spruce up, deck (out),
             Colloq doll up, Brit tart up:  He made Sonia wait while he
             preened himself before the mirror.

   preface   n.  1 introduction, foreword, prologue, preamble, Formal proem,
             prolegomenon, exordium:  By way of preface, I should like to say
             how happy I am to be here.  The preface to the book is far too
             long.

             --v.  2 precede, introduce, prefix, begin, open:  The speaker
             prefaced his acceptance speech with a tribute to his
             predecessor.

   prefatory adj.  opening, introductory, preliminary, preparatory:  Would
             you like to make a few prefatory remarks introducing this
             evening's speaker?

   prefer    v.  1 favour, like better, fancy, lean or incline towards or on
             the side of, be inclined, be partial to, pick, select, opt for,
             choose, single out, take a fancy to, embrace, espouse, approve,
             esteem:  Which flavour do you prefer, chocolate or coffee? I
             should prefer to take my own car. 2 present, offer, propose,
             proffer, advance, submit, tender, put forward, file, lodge,
             enter:  They preferred charges against the hooligans for
             criminal damage.

   preference
             n.  1 favourite, choice, selection, desire, option, pick:  My
             preference is the Dover sole meuniЉre.  2 partiality,
             proclivity, prejudice, favouritism, predilection, liking, fancy,
             predisposition, bent, inclination, leaning:  She shows a marked
             preference for short men.

   preferential
             adj.  advantageous, biased, prejudiced, favourable, privileged,
             partial, better, favoured, superior:  What entitles her to
             preferential treatment?

   pregnant  adj.  1 gravid, parturient, expectant, (heavy) with child,
             enceinte, Colloq expecting, in a family way, Brit preggers,
             Slang having a bun in the oven, Brit in the (pudding) club, up
             the spout:  Her twins are only seven months old and now she's
             pregnant again.  2 charged, fraught, loaded, weighty,
             significant, meaningful, suggestive, eloquent, expressive,
             pointed:  Although she said nothing, her smile was pregnant with
             meaning.  3 fruitful, teeming, fertile, fecund, rich, abounding,
             replete, productive:  My mind was so pregnant with ideas that I
             couldn't wait to get down to work.

   prehistoric
             adj.  1 primordial, primal, primeval, primitive, earliest,
             early, antediluvian, Noachian or Noachic, fossil, ancient:  The
             prehistoric remains of yet another skeleton have been found in
             the peat bogs. 2 antiquated, out-dated, old-fashioned, pass‚:
             My mother makes me wear these absolutely prehistoric clothes to
             school.

   prejudice n.  1 partiality, preconception, prejudgement, bias, leaning,
             warp, twist, preconceived notion, predisposition, predilection,
             jaundiced eye, jaundice:  The judge showed an unfortunate
             prejudice against my client.  2 bigotry, unfairness, bias,
             partisanship, favouritism, cronyism, discrimination,
             intolerance, inequality; racism, racialism, apartheid, Jim
             Crowism, sexism, (male) chauvinism:  There is still prejudice
             against many minority groups in society.

             --v.  3 bias, influence, warp, twist, distort, slant; colour,
             jaundice, poison:  Stop trying to prejudice me against the book,
             and let me form my own opinion. Are you prejudiced in favour of
             Anita's getting the job?

   prejudiced
             adj.  1 unfair, one-sided, biased, jaundiced, opinionated,
             predisposed, partial, partisan, non-objective, unobjective:  The
             prosecution objected to him as a prejudiced witness.  2 bigoted,
             intolerant, narrow-minded, closed-minded, parochial, sexist,
             racist, chauvinistic:  We have no room in our organization for
             people who are prejudiced.

   prejudicial
             adj.  injurious, damaging, detrimental, harmful, unfavourable,
             inimical, deleterious, disadvantageous, counter-productive,
             pernicious:  Such an investment decision might prove prejudicial
             to her financial security.

   preliminary
             adj.  1 advance, prior, introductory, beginning, initial,
             opening, preparatory, prefatory, preceding, antecedent,
             forerunning; premonitory; Formal or technical prodromal or
             prodromic:  The preliminary design for the swimming-pool is
             ready. After some preliminary remarks, the ceremonies got under
             way.

             --n.  2 introduction, beginning, opening, preparation,
             groundwork, prelude, precedence; overture:  We insist on
             rigorous training as a preliminary to working in the field. 3
             prelims. Rarely, preliminaries. introduction, preface, foreword,
             preamble, prologue, front matter, Formal proem, exordium,
             prolegomenon, prodromus, prodrome:  The manuscript is finished
             and we are waiting for the prelims.

   premature adj.  1 immature, undeveloped, underdeveloped, unfledged,
             untimely, unready, early, unripe, green:  Much premature fruit
             has been blown down in the winds.  2 hasty, untimely, ill-timed,
             too early, too soon, beforehand, unseasonable, overhasty,
             impulsive, inopportune:  The post may be slow, but still I think
             September a bit premature to send Christmas cards. The discovery
             that money was missing accounts for his premature departure.

   prematurely
             adv.  1 untimely, too soon, too early:  He died prematurely at
             the age of 46.  2 rashly, (over-)hastily, at half-cock,
             half-cocked:  She dismissed him prematurely, before he had the
             time to prove himself. The gun went off prematurely, with no
             chance to aim it.

   premeditated
             adj.  planned, conscious, intentional, intended, wilful,
             deliberate, studied, purposive; contrived, preplanned,
             calculated, preconceived:  The murder was coldly premeditated. I
             admit to being wrong, and I have no premeditated excuses.

   premier   n.  1 prime minister, PM, head of state, chief executive,
             president, chancellor:  The premiers of the Commonwealth met at
             Kuala Lumpur in 1989.

             --adj.  2 first, prime, primary, chief, principal, head, main,
             foremost, top-ranking, highest-ranking, ranking, leading, top,
             pre-eminent:  He is the premier expert in his field.

   premiЉre  n.  1 premiere, first night, opening (night), debut:  The
             premiЉre of A‹da was at the opening of the Suez Canal.

             --v.  2 open, debut:  The film will premiЉre at the Festival
             Cinema tomorrow.

             --adj.  3 opening, debut, first, original, initial:  The
             premiЉre West-End performance is scheduled for May after a
             provincial tour.

   premise   n.  1 premiss, assumption, proposition, postulate, hypothesis,
             conjecture, assertion, supposition, thesis, presupposition,
             proposal, theorem, surmise, basis, ground:  He started out with
             the premise that time had a beginning and will have an end.

             --v.  2 assume, propose, postulate, hypothesize, hypothecate,
             conjecture, posit, assert, suppose, presuppose, theorize,
             surmise, put or set forth, predicate, argue:  If you accept what
             Einstein premised in the Special Theory of Relativity, then you
             accept that space is curved.

   premium   n.  1 bonus, extra, dividend, prize, award, reward, perquisite:
             In our slimming competition, a premium will be paid for each
             pound that you lose beyond five. 2 incentive, inducement,
             stimulus, incitement, lure, bait, spur, goad, reward, Colloq
             come-on, Slang US and Canadian freebie:  Many Building Societies
             offer premiums to first-time buyers.  3 value, importance,
             regard, stock, store, appreciation:  We place a premium on the
             way our staff treat customers.  4 at a premium.  a scarce, rare,
             scant, scanty, sparse, hard to come by, in short supply, Colloq
             scarce as hen's teeth, Chiefly Brit thin on the ground:
             Proficient, literate, experienced editors are at a premium these
             days. b costly, expensive, dear, high-priced, Colloq steep,
             stiff:  The convertible model of this car is at a premium.

   premonition
             n.  intuition, foreboding, presentiment, forewarning, suspicion,
             feeling, hunch, Colloq funny feeling, sneaking suspicion:  I had
             a premonition that something terribly evil was lurking in store
             for me.

   preoccupied
             adj.  1 engrossed, lost in thought, rapt, thoughtful, pensive,
             absorbed, cogitating, cogitative, meditating, musing,
             reflecting, reflective, contemplative, contemplating, pondering,
             brooding, ruminating, in a brown study:  John is preoccupied,
             thinking about the speech he has to deliver tonight. 2 vague,
             offhand, far-away, absent-minded, abstracted, oblivious,
             unaware, wrapped up, immersed, inattentive, distracted,
             distrait, Colloq turned off, US out of it:  From her preoccupied
             air it was obvious that something was wrong.

   preparation
             n.  1 Often, preparations.  a groundwork, spadework,
             provision(s), foundation, preparing, measures, proceedings:
             Nothing will interfere with our preparation for the royal visit.
             b plans, arrangements:  We are making preparations to leave
             tomorrow.  2 fitness, readiness, readying, preparing, training,
             education, teaching, instruction, instructing, tuition,
             briefing, grooming, Colloq gearing up, prep, US prepping:  The
             preparation of the students was your responsibility.  3 drawing
             up, draughting, planning, setting up, putting together,
             organizing, organization, composing, making:  How is your
             preparation of the new proposal coming along?  4 work,
             preparing, getting ready, study, studying, practising, practice,
             Colloq cramming, Brit swotting:  All my preparation for the exam
             was to no avail.  5 substance, compound, concoction, mixture,
             product, material, stuff, composition:  This preparation is a
             furniture wax, not a suntan lotion.

   preparatory
             adj.  1 preparative, preliminary, introductory, prefatory,
             opening:  After some preparatory warnings about safety, the
             scuba-diving lessons began. 2 elementary, basic, essential,
             fundamental, primary, rudimentary:  His preparatory training
             left him ill equipped to deal with such a major problem. 3
             preparatory to. before, in preparation for, preceding:
             Preparatory to the mission, we were briefed by MI5.

   prepare   v.  1 (get or make) ready, prime, arrange, (put in) order,
             organize, provide for, make provision(s) for, lay the groundwork
             (for), (make) fit, fit (out), equip, outfit, adapt:  Have you
             prepared adequately for the meeting? We prepared the house to
             receive guests. 2 train, (get or make) ready, study, practise,
             Colloq cram, Brit swot, get up:  He is preparing to take an
             exam.  3 train, educate, teach, (get or make) ready, groom,
             brief, develop:  Her mother is preparing her for the next
             Olympics.  4 cook (up), make, do, Colloq whip up, US and
             Canadian fix:  I shall prepare dinner for eight o'clock.  5
             manufacture, fabricate, produce, make, put out, build,
             construct, assemble, put together, turn out, fashion, forge,
             mould:  Our company prepares components for the printing
             industry.  6 brace, strengthen, steel, fortify, ready:  When I
             saw the doctor's face, I prepared myself for bad news.  7
             process, produce, make, treat, change, modify, transform:  This
             fabric has been specially prepared to repel stains.

   prepared  adj.  1 ready, set, advance, prearranged, planned:  We have six
             prepared questions for the interview.  2 treated, processed,
             modified, changed:  Using an etching needle, incise the lines on
             the prepared surface of the steel plate. 3 willing, disposed,
             predisposed, able, inclined, of a mind; ready, (all) set:  Are
             you prepared to apologize?  4 oven-ready, microwave-ready,
             microwavable, instant, convenience, ready-to-eat,
             ready-to-serve, precooked, ready-made:  He lives alone and
             usually buys prepared dinners that just need reheating.

   preparedness
             n.  vigilance, alertness, readiness, fitness:  The armed forces
             were kept in a continuous state of preparedness.

   preponderance
             n.  1 majority, greater part, bulk, mass, lion's share:  The
             preponderance of voters want a change of government.  2 weight,
             influence, weightiness, superiority, supremacy, predominance,
             primacy, ascendancy, sway, strength, force, power, advantage,
             control, authority, hegemony, leadership, rule:  Good has always
             appeared to have an incontestable preponderance over evil.

   prepossessing
             adj.  attractive, appealing, pleasing, favourable, engaging,
             charming, captivating, fascinating, winsome, winning, magnetic,
             alluring, bewitching, taking, fetching, inviting, good-looking,
             handsome, lovely, beautiful:  She is a woman of prepossessing
             appearance and a delightful nature.

   preposterous
             adj.  absurd, ridiculous, ludicrous, laughable, risible,
             asinine, foolish, senseless, irrational, nonsensical, fatuous,
             fatuitous, mindless, insane, crazy, crack-brained, mad, idiotic,
             moronic, imbecilic, incredible, unbelievable, outrageous,
             extravagant, extraordinary, extreme, exorbitant, outlandish,
             outr‚, weird, bizarre, Slang barmy, nutty, screwy, batty, dotty,
             wacky, loony, cuckoo, US balmy:  To claim that it is all my
             fault is simply preposterous!

   prerequisite
             adj.  1 essential, necessary, requisite, imperative,
             indispensable, obligatory, required, called-for, demanded:
             Naval service is a prerequisite condition for joining the club.

             --n.  2 precondition, requirement, qualification, requisite,
             condition, sine qua non, proviso, provision, necessity:  A
             thorough grounding in mathematics is a prerequisite for the
             study of advanced physics.

   prerogative
             n.  privilege, right, liberty, power, due, advantage, licence,
             franchise, claim, sanction, authority, authorization:  As
             managing director, she exercises her prerogative to park her car
             closest to the door.

   prescribe v.  ordain, order, direct, dictate, demand, decree, require,
             enjoin, rule, set (down), stipulate, command, instruct, define,
             specify, impose, lay down, exact, constrain:  The doctor
             prescribed rest. An independent journalist, Healey would not let
             anyone prescribe what he could or could not write.

   prescription
             n.  1 formula, recipe, instruction, direction:  The prescription
             is for three tablets a day, and this dose must not be exceeded.
             2 remedy, medication, medicine, drug, preparation, medicament:
             That prescription had no effect at all on my headache.

   prescriptive
             adj.  dictatorial, constrictive, didactic, restrictive,
             dogmatic, authoritarian, overbearing, autocratic, imperious:  As
             grammar is a description of how language works, it cannot be
             prescriptive.

   presence  n.  1 proximity, nearness, closeness, adjacency, vicinity,
             Formal propinquity:  The presence of a hospital near her home
             made Aunt Mary feel more secure. 2 attendance, company,
             companionship, society, association, existence, manifestation,
             manifestness, being:  The Queen honoured us by her presence at
             the unveiling of the plaque. 3 poise, self-assurance, bearing,
             self-possession, confidence, mien, carriage, comportment,
             deportment, air, personality, aspect, aura, appearance:  When
             Geoffrey entered, his presence created quite a stir.  4 spirit,
             wraith, spectre, shade:  I had the vague but pervading sense
             that a unidentifiable presence was with me in the empty room. 5
             presence of mind. aplomb, sophistication, coolness,
             cool-headedness, composure, imperturbability, phlegm,
             sang-froid, self-possession, self-assurance, calm, equanimity,
             level-headedness, quick-wittedness, alertness, Colloq cool:
             With great presence of mind, Grainger walked up to the man and
             took the gun from him.

   present°  adj.  1 current, contemporary, present-day, existing, existent,
             up to date, Colloq now:  Do you understand the present
             generation?  2 nearby, nearest, immediate, closest, adjacent,
             proximate, propinquitous; close, remaining; accounted for:
             Everybody has been awful to me - present company excepted.  All
             those present heard what she said to me.

             --n.  3 at present. (right or just) now, for the time being, for
             the present, today, these days, Non-Standard presently, Colloq
             at this point in time:  I am not ready to invest at present.  4
             the present. the time being, the moment, the hour, the nonce,
             this juncture, these days, our times; today, (right) now,
             nowadays; Colloq this point in time:  She lives for the present,
             and never thinks of the consequences.

   presentэ  n.  1 gift:  May I open my birthday presents now?  2 donation,
             offering, bounty, grant, largesse, contribution, endowment:
             I'll make you a present of the painting if you like it.  3 tip,
             gratuity, pourboire, baksheesh or backsheesh, bonus; alms,
             hand-out, dole, aid, allowance:  She gave the maЊtre d'h“tel a
             present for looking after us so well.

             --v.  4 introduce, acquaint with, make known:  I'd like to
             present my wife, Cordelia, who has been looking forward to
             meeting you. 5 offer, give, stage, show, exhibit, put on (show),
             mount, produce:  The local players will present a new production
             of Blithe Spirit tonight.  6 give (out), award, confer (on),
             bestow (on), turn or hand over, grant, provide, furnish;
             dispense, distribute, dole out, pass out, deal out, mete out:
             They presented her with a prize for the best poem. Is it tonight
             that they present the awards? 7 offer, bring (in or up),
             proffer, tender, introduce, produce, submit, set or put forth,
             put forward, adduce; register, file, record:  The lawyer for the
             defence presented evidence of his client's alibi. 8 introduce,
             announce, Brit compЉre, Colloq emcee:  And here, to present our
             show, is the inimitable Reginald Norton!

   presentable
             adj.  1 fit, fitting, suitable, acceptable, satisfactory,
             adequate, passable, tolerable, admissible, all right, allowable,
             up to par or standard or the mark, good enough, Colloq up to
             scratch, OK or okay, up to snuff:  Whether that argument is
             presentable in a court of law is disputable.  2 decent, proper,
             polite, decorous, respectable, well-bred, well-mannered, fit to
             be seen:  After a bath, shave, and change of clothing he looked
             quite presentable.

   presentation
             n.  1 giving, bestowal, offering, proffering, presenting, award,
             awarding, conferral, conferring, delivery; donation:  The
             presentation of the prizes will be at the annual dinner.  2
             appearance, image, display, visual(s), spectacle, show,
             performance, demonstration, production:  The text of the
             proposal was fine, but the presentation could be improved. 3
             debut, launch, introduction, unveiling, disclosure:  We attended
             the presentation of the latest electric car.

   presently adv.  soon, by and by, in a little while, shortly, after a short
             time, in due course, after a while or a time, before long, in a
             moment or a minute or a while, Archaic or literary anon, Colloq
             in a jiffy, in two shakes (of a lamb's tail), Non-Standard now,
             at present:  The show opens presently in the West End. I shall
             be with you presently.

   preservation
             n.  1 upkeep, maintenance, care, conservation:  The preservation
             of old paintings has become an art in itself.  2 keeping,
             retention, retaining, perpetuation, perpetuating, continuation,
             safe keeping, security, safeguarding, protection, protecting,
             conservation:  Several charities are dedicated to the
             preservation of our heritage.

   preserve  v.  1 keep safe, protect, guard, take care of, care for,
             safeguard, watch over, shield, shelter, defend, spare:  What can
             we do to preserve ourselves from this terrible pestilence?  May
             God preserve me, I never expected to see you again! 2 keep (up),
             maintain, conserve, spare, perpetuate; continue, support,
             sustain, save:  We developed a technique to preserve antique
             furniture. The sea preserves much of the heat it absorbs in the
             summer. It is difficult to preserve one's sanity in this
             madhouse. 3 conserve, put up, pickle, cure, smoke, kipper, salt,
             corn, marinate, can, freeze, freeze-dry, refrigerate, dry,
             dehydrate, vacuum-pack; embalm, mummify:  The berries were
             preserved by bottling and freezing. Some of the remains were
             preserved for hundreds of years.

             --n.  4 Often, preserves. conserve(s), jam, jelly, confiture,
             marmalade:  Susan likes thick toast with butter and preserves
             for tea.  5 (game) reserve, reservation, sanctuary, Brit park:
             No hunting is allowed in this preserve.

   preside   v.  supervise, run, oversee, direct, operate, lead, head (up),
             govern, rule, manage, handle, control, direct, chair,
             administer, administrate, regulate, officiate:  Melissa presides
             over the meetings of the board.

   press     v.  1 subject to or exert pressure or force, force, push, impel,
             thrust, bear (on), weigh on or upon, jam, cram, crush; pressure
             or Brit also pressurize:  The crowd was pressing against the
             door. Although hard pressed at first, we eventually won. 2
             squeeze, compress, depress, push:  When the picture is in focus,
             press this button to release the shutter. 3 squeeze, crush,
             compress, mash:  After harvesting, the grapes are pressed to
             extract the juice.  4 iron, smooth, flatten, put through a
             mangle; steam:  I shall have to press my jacket before going out
             to dinner.  5 clasp, embrace, hug, hold (close or tight(ly)),
             take in one's arms, throw one's arms about or around, cleave to,
             Archaic clip:  She pressed the child to her with great
             affection.  6 constrain, urge, force, pressure, compel, demand,
             persuade, induce, prod, provoke, importune, beseech, ask,
             request, beg, entreat:  They pressed me to tell where the money
             was hidden.  7 crowd, flock, gather, mill, swarm, throng,
             seethe, cluster, congregate, meet, converge, huddle:  The
             reporters pressed round the chancellor to catch every word.

             --n.  8 crowding, gathering, thronging, converging, convergence,
             crowd, throng, swarm, cluster, huddle, pack, herd, host,
             multitude, horde, mob, crush:  When the doors opened, the huge
             press of people pushed onto the train. 9 urgency, haste, hurry,
             hustle, bustle, pressure, stress:  The press of business
             required me to postpone my trip to Paris.  10 the press.  a
             newspapers, the papers, Fleet Street, the fourth estate, the
             media, the wire or news services, broadcasting, television,
             radio:  The press will have a field-day when this news gets out.
             b newspaper people, newspapermen or newspaperwomen, newsmen or
             newswomen, reporters, correspondents, ladies or gentlemen of the
             press, journalists, commentators, paparazzi, Brit
             leader-writers, US editorial writers, Colloq news-hounds, Brit
             journos:  The doors were opened and the press were invited in.

   pressing  adj.  urgent, compelling, crucial, pivotal, burning, grave,
             serious, major, important, vital, high-priority, critical,
             portentous, momentous, profound, significant:  Some pressing
             matters kept me late at the office.

   pressure  n.  1 force, compression; weight, power, strength:  The air
             pressure in your tyres is low. The pressure of the water burst
             the pipe. 2 compression, pressing, squeezing, compressing,
             tension, stress, crushing:  The pressure of a tourniquet has to
             be loosened now and then.  3 affliction, oppression, press,
             weight, burden, load, albatross, strain, stress, urgency,
             demands, exigency or exigencies, vexation, distress, trouble(s),
             adversity, difficulty or difficulties, straits, constraint(s),
             problem(s):  Pressure of work prevents me from taking any time
             away from the office. When interest rates increase, we all feel
             financial pressure. 4 influence, power, sway, constraint,
             insistence, coercion, intimidation, arm-twisting; inducement,
             persuasion, urging, pressing:  Without more pressure from local
             residents, the roadworks will not be completed in time.

             --v.  5 persuade, influence; prevail upon or on, press, urge,
             sway, intimidate, bring pressure to bear (on), apply pressure
             (on or to), coerce, force, compel, constrain, require, demand,
             make, insist upon or on, Brit pressurize, Colloq twist
             (someone's) arm, lean on, turn the heat on, Slang put the screws
             on or to:  They pressured him to take the assignment in New
             Zealand.

   prestige  n.  status, reputation, standing, rank, stature, importance,
             significance, eminence, esteem, pre-eminence, prominence,
             predominance, primacy, superiority, supremacy, ascendancy,
             distinction, renown, regard, fame, cachet, repute, celebrity,
             glamour, stardom:  To raise money, someone with prestige must be
             found to serve as director of the charity.

   prestigious
             adj.  important, significant, eminent, estimable, imposing,
             impressive, pre-eminent, prominent, distinguished, august,
             dignified, renowned, famous, famed, well-known, illustrious,
             acclaimed, respected, celebrated, noted, notable, noteworthy,
             outstanding, glorious, honoured, glamorous:  She may be a
             prestigious author, but she does not live at a very prestigious
             address.

   presumably
             adv.  probably, in all likelihood, (very or most) likely, in all
             probability, seemingly, doubtless(ly), indubitably, no doubt,
             undoubtedly, unquestionably, without a doubt, surely, certainly,
             on the face of it, all things considered, all things being
             equal:  Presumably, you have heard the one about the colonel's
             poodle.

   presume   v.  1 assume, take for granted, suppose, surmise, infer,
             suppose, presuppose, take it, gather, understand, think,
             believe, imagine, suspect, fancy, conjecture, postulate, posit,
             theorize, speculate, hypothesize, hypothecate, US and Canadian
             guess:  For some unaccountable reason, we presumed that your
             train would arrive on time. Dr Livingstone, I presume? 2 dare,
             take the liberty, be so presumptuous as, make (so) bold (as),
             have the audacity or effrontery, go so far as, venture:  Who is
             he to presume to judge others?  3 Often, presume on or upon.
             encroach (on or upon), impose (on or upon), take liberties
             (with), intrude (on or upon or into):  I hate to presume on our
             friendship, but could you lend me some money?

   presumption
             n.  1 arrogance, pride, effrontery, audacity, boldness,
             brazenness, impudence, impertinence, insolence, temerity,
             overconfidence, presumptuousness, forwardness, immodesty, Colloq
             pushiness, cheek, cheekiness, nerve, gall, chutzpah, brass, Brit
             brass neck:  He had the presumption to ask my age.  2
             assumption, supposition, presupposition, preconception, premise
             or premiss, surmise, proposition, postulation; probability,
             likelihood, plausibility, feasibility:  The presumption of the
             innocence of a person accused of a crime is established in law.
             3 assumption, stand, position, inference, feeling, deduction,
             conclusion, conviction, bias, guess, theory, hypothesis,
             conjecture, belief, thought; suspicion:  Having examined the
             evidence, the pathologist's presumption was that the victim had
             died of natural causes. 4 ground(s), reason, basis, evidence:
             What is your presumption for thinking that you might win the
             lottery?

   presumptive
             adj.  1 likely, reasonable, plausible, tenable, believable,
             credible, conceivable, acceptable, justifiable, sensible,
             rational, sound:  There is strong presumptive evidence, but we
             need proof.  2 inferred, presumed, assumed, supposed,
             understood, predicted, predicated:  As King Richard was
             childless, his brother was heir presumptive to the Crown.

   presumptuous
             adj.  arrogant, proud, prideful, audacious, bold, brazen, saucy,
             impudent, impertinent, insolent, temerarious, brash,
             overconfident, overweening, forward, presuming, immodest,
             egotistical, Colloq pushy, cheeky, too big for one's boots, Brit
             uppish:  He is presumptuous enough to think he can do no wrong.

   presuppose
             v.  See presume, 1, above.

   presupposition
             n.  See presumption, 1, 2, above.

   pretence  n.  1 show, display, pretension, ostentation, airs, front,
             fa‡ade, appearance, make-believe, fiction, hypocrisy, fakery,
             faking, feigning, humbuggery, humbug, deception, artifice,
             pretext, posturing, pretentiousness, pretending, camouflage,
             cover-up:  Her charming manner was all pretence, for in reality
             she despised him. 2 hoax, humbug, artifice, pretext, sham, show,
             pose, fa‡ade, front, cover-up, cover, cloak, veil, mask,
             masquerade, disguise, guise, deception, ruse, dodge, blind,
             fabrication, invention, fiction, story, fable, make-believe,
             fairy tale, figment, falsification, impression:  His loyalty was
             a pretence under which he carried on many liaisons.  3 excuse,
             pretext, pretension:  They would ring for the butler on the
             slightest pretence, just to impress us.

   pretend   v.  1 feign, profess, represent, allege, make believe, make out:
             Let's pretend that we are royalty. Often, he pretends to be me.
             2 try, attempt, endeavour, venture, presume, undertake:  I could
             not pretend to guess the number of people attending last night's
             meeting. 3 make believe, act or play, play-act, fake, feign, put
             on an act, dissemble, sham, sail under false colours:  Is she
             serious about wanting you to leave or was she just pretending?

   pretended adj.  so-called, alleged, asserted, reputed, professed,
             ostensible, purported, so-called, imaginary, make-believe,
             fictitious, fictional, sham, false, fake, feigned, bogus,
             counterfeit, spurious, Colloq phoney or US also phony, pseudo,
             pretend:  So this is the pretended hero of yesterday's battle!

   pretender n.  claimant, aspirant, candidate, suitor, rival, seeker:  He
             was the pretender to the Scottish throne.

   pretension
             n.  1 Often, pretensions. claim(s), pretence(s), aspiration(s),
             ambitiousness, ambition(s):  He is known to have pretensions to
             the chancellorship.  2 pretext, pretence, pretentiousness,
             ostentation, pretending, affectation, hypocrisy:  Gladys has
             behaved without pretension and with great sincerity.

   pretentious
             adj.  1 ostentatious, showy, superficial, pompous, arrogant,
             bombastic, inflated, high-flown, exaggerated, vainglorious,
             fastuous, grandiose, grandiloquent, extravagant, magniloquent:
             The minister's pretentious language is a bit too much to take.
             2 snobbish, lofty, haughty, flaunting, Colloq high and mighty,
             highfalutin or hifalutin, hoity-toity, high-hat, Slang snotty,
             Brit toffee-nosed:  That new couple next door are so pretentious
             - they think that nobody is good enough to associate with them!

   pretext   n.  1 pretence, excuse, camouflage, guise, disguise, cover,
             veil, cloak, colour:  They carried on the surveillance under
             pretext of working on the sewer. 2 ruse, red herring, cover
             (story), rationale, pretence, rationalization, explanation:
             What pretext did the thief use that made you let him in?

   pretty    adj.  1 comely, attractive, good-looking, nice-looking,
             appealing, lovely, cute, mignon(ne), graceful, fair, bonny,
             fetching, charming, winsome, beautiful, pulchritudinous, Colloq
             easy on the eye(s):  A pretty girl is like a melody. That's a
             very pretty cottage.  2 tuneful, melodic, melodious, dulcet,
             musical, lyrical, harmonious, catchy, mellifluous, euphonious:
             He played a pretty tune on the piano.

             --adv.  3 rather, quite, fairly, moderately, reasonably,
             tolerably; somewhat; very, extremely, unbelievably, incredibly:
             The children put on a pretty good performance, I thought. He had
             become pretty fat since we last saw him.

   prevail   v.  1 hold sway, win (out), predominate, succeed, triumph, gain
             or achieve a victory, prove superior, gain mastery or control:
             It is sometimes disappointing to learn that right does not
             always prevail. 2 predominate, be prevalent or widespread or
             current, preponderate, dominate, be the order of the day:  As
             usual during Oktoberfest in Bavaria, revelry prevailed.  3
             prevail on or upon. persuade, induce, influence, sway, dispose;
             incline, win over, bring round, convince:  We prevailed on the
             guard to let us through the gate.

   prevailing
             adj.  1 dominant, predominant, prevalent, main, chief,
             principal, common(est), usual, customary, universal:  The
             prevailing winds are westerlies.  2 influential, effective,
             effectual, dominating, affecting, powerful, potent, forceful,
             ruling, telling, main, principal:  The prevailing religion there
             is Buddhism.

   prevalence
             n.  1 prevalency, frequency, commonness, currency, universality,
             ubiquitousness, ubiquity, pervasiveness, omnipresence,
             extensiveness; predominance, practice, acceptance, popularity:
             The prevalence of disease among the population is distressing.
             2 sway, control, rule, primacy, ascendancy, mastery,
             predominance:  The prevalence of bushido in Japan has diminished
             little since 1945.

   prevalent adj.  universal, catholic, common, frequent, prevailing,
             current, ubiquitous, pervasive, omnipresent, general, usual,
             customary, commonplace, extensive, widespread, established,
             ascendant, dominant, predominant, governing, ruling:  A desire
             for change is prevalent throughout the country.

   prevent   v.  anticipate, preclude, obviate, forestall, avert, avoid,
             prohibit, ban, bar, forbid, interdict, taboo, enjoin, proscribe,
             foil, frustrate, obstruct, debar, intercept, nip in the bud,
             abort, thwart, check, block, ward or fend or stave off, baffle,
             balk or baulk, (put a) stop (to), arrest, (bring to a) halt,
             hinder, impede, curb, restrain, hamper, inhibit, delay, retard,
             slow, mitigate, control:  Some diseases can be prevented by
             inoculation or vaccination.  There is nothing to prevent us from
             leaving. The barrier was built to prevent flooding.

   prevention
             n.  preventing, anticipation, preclusion, obviation,
             forestalling, avoidance, avoiding, prohibition, prohibiting,
             ban, banning, bar, barring, forbiddance, forbidding,
             interdiction, interdicting, taboo, tabooing, enjoining,
             injunction, proscription, proscribing, foiling, frustration,
             frustrating, obstruction, obstructing, debarment, debarring,
             interception, intercepting, abortion, aborting, thwarting,
             checking, check, blocking, block, warding or fending or staving
             off, balk or baulk, balking or baulking, stopping, arrest,
             arresting, halt, halting, hindrance, hindering, impedance,
             impeding, curb, curbing, restraint, restraining, hampering,
             inhibition, inhibiting, delay, delaying, retardation, retarding,
             slowing, mitigation, mitigating, control, controlling:  The
             first item on the agenda is the prevention of cruelty to
             children.  As the total prevention of crime is impossible, we
             must at least try to curb it.

   preventive
             adj.  1 preventative, preventing, hindering, impeding,
             restraining, hampering, inhibitive or inhibitory, inhibiting,
             restrictive:  We must take preventive steps to ensure the
             stability of the rate of exchange. 2 preventative, prophylactic,
             precautionary, anticipatory or anticipative, protective,
             counteractive:  Preventive means are available to limit heart
             disease.

             --n.  3 preventative, hindrance, curb, inhibition, impediment,
             block, barrier, obstacle, obstruction:  Caffeine is one of the
             most powerful preventives of sleep that exists. 4 preventative,
             prophylactic, protection, shield, safeguard, prevention,
             countermeasure, counteractant, counter-agent, inoculum or
             inoculant, vaccine, serum, antidote, remedy:  Heart specialists
             have recommended an aspirin every other day as a preventive to
             arterial blood clotting.

   preview   n.  advance showing, private showing; opening, vernissage:  We
             saw the Picasso exhibition at a preview held for friends of the
             gallery.

   previous  adj.  1 former, prior, past, earlier, one-time, foregoing,
             sometime, erstwhile, preceding, Literary quondam, Archaic
             whilom:  A previous owner of the house filled in the fish-pond.
             2 prior, former, foregoing, above, preceding, Formal antecedent,
             anterior, aforementioned, above-mentioned, before-mentioned,
             aforesaid, above-named:  Please see the previous examples in the
             Foreword.  3 premature, untimely, too soon or early:  Isn't
             putting up Christmas decorations in October being a bit
             previous? 4 previous to. previously to, before, prior to,
             preceding, anterior to, antecedent to:  Previous to the advent
             of motor cars, we had traffic jams of horse-drawn vehicles.

   previously
             adv.  before, once, formerly, earlier, at one time, then,
             beforehand, heretofore, theretofore, hitherto, thitherto, in the
             past, in days gone by, in days of old, in days or time past, in
             the old days, some time ago, a while ago, once upon a time,
             yesterday, Literary in days of yore, in olden days or times:
             The same thing had happened previously when I was in London.
             Previously, people lived more relaxed lives - or so we like to
             think.

   prey      n.  1 quarry, kill, game, objective, target:  The lioness
             singled out her prey from the herd of zebra.  2 victim, target,
             objective; dupe, Colloq mark, Slang fall guy, pushover, Brit
             mug:  A public company with huge cash reserves, United Vector
             seemed easy prey for a take-over bid.

             --v.  3 prey on or upon.  a live off, feed on or upon, eat,
             consume, devour, kill, destroy, stalk, pursue, hunt, seize:
             These snakes prey mostly upon other snakes.  b victimize, go
             after, exploit, use, take advantage of, intimidate, bully,
             cheat, dupe, swindle, gull, trick, snooker, defraud, outwit,
             outsmart, outfox, hoodwink, Literary cozen, Colloq rook,
             bamboozle, flimflam:  An unscrupulous gang is preying on the
             elderly, persuading them to invest in non-existent properties. c
             oppress, weigh on or upon, burden, depress, distress, strain,
             vex, worry:  His wretched condition preyed very much on her
             mind.

   price     n.  1 charge, cost, expense, expenditure, outlay, payment,
             amount, figure, fee; quotation, appraisal, value, valuation,
             evaluation, worth:  The price of this lamp is too high. What is
             the price of that box? Can he afford the price of a ticket? The
             current price of a London flat is out of my reach. 2 sacrifice,
             toll, penalty, cost, consequence:  Loss of his freedom was too
             high a price for standing by his principles.  3 reward, bounty,
             premium, prize, payment, bonus, honorarium, Literary guerdon:
             The gunfighter had a price of њ1000 on his head.  4 without
             price. See priceless, 1, below.

             --v.  5 value, evaluate, rate, assay, assess, cost (out):  How
             would you price a piece of furniture like this chair?

   priceless adj.  1 costly, dear, expensive, high-priced, valuable,
             invaluable, precious, inestimable, incalculable; irreplaceable,
             unique:  The vaults in the Vatican contain a king's ransom in
             priceless jewels. 2 hilarious, riotous, (screamingly) funny,
             side-splitting, hysterical, droll, comical, amusing:  The
             expression on his face when he realized it was a joke was
             priceless.

   pricey    adj.  pricy, expensive, dear, costly, exorbitant, outrageous,
             excessive, extortionate, Colloq steep, Brit over the odds:  The
             restaurant where she took him was certainly pricey, but the food
             was excellent.

   prick     n.  1 puncture, pinhole, pinprick; hole, perforation:  For the
             blood test, the doctor made a tiny prick in my finger with a
             needle. 2 sting, pinch, twinge, prickle, tingle, pain:  The
             teacher leapt from her chair the instant she felt the prick of
             the tack.

             --v.  3 puncture, pierce, stab, jab, punch, perforate, riddle;
             lance:  Using a pin, prick tiny holes in the paper to let the
             steam escape.  The doctor pricked a boil on my neck. 4 stab,
             sting, hurt, prickle, pinch, bite, smart:  The hypodermic needle
             really pricked me when it went in.

   prickle   n.  1 spine, bristle, barb, thorn, bur, needle, tine, spike,
             spur, prong:  The prickles make the brambles cling to your
             clothes.  2 pricking, prickliness, itch, itchiness, sting,
             tingling, tingle:  I felt the prickle of the rough wool against
             my skin.

             --v.  3 tingle, sting, itch, smart:  Sloane complained that the
             beard he had to grow for the pirate role made his face prickle.
             4 stick, jab, prick:  The child's hands had been prickled by the
             chestnuts.

   prickly   adj.  1 bristly, thorny, brambly, spiny, barbed, briery,
             spinous, spiky, Technical setaceous, setose, acanthoid,
             aciculate, aculeate, muricate, spiculate:  Dad's face is all
             prickly when he hasn't shaved.  2 tingling, stinging, pricking,
             prickling, itchy, crawly, crawling:  The squeak of the chalk on
             the blackboard gives me a prickly feeling.  3 touchy, irritable,
             petulant, cantankerous, testy, waspish, bad-tempered, peevish,
             fractious, short-tempered, curmudgeonly, Colloq cranky:  Moira
             gets a bit prickly if you ask her why she married Noel.  4
             nettlesome, thorny, ticklish, touchy, troublesome, intricate,
             complicated, complex, knotty, hard, difficult, contentious:  The
             prickly problem of how to pay for the university must still be
             faced.

   pride     n.  1 honour, proudness, self-esteem, self-respect, amour
             propre, dignity:  It is gratifying to be able to look with pride
             on one's children's achievements. 2 conceit, egotism,
             self-importance, vanity, hubris, arrogance, overconfidence,
             overweeningness, self-admiration, self-love, self-importance,
             smugness, haughtiness, hauteur, snobbery, snobbishness, Colloq
             uppitiness:  Pride goeth before a fall. Her pride stems from an
             exaggerated notion of her own worth. 3 boast, flower, best,
             prize, pride and joy, treasure, jewel, gem:  Those model railway
             trains are Eustace's pride and joy.

             --v.  4 Usually, pride oneself on. be proud of, take pride in,
             delight in, revel in, celebrate, glory in:  Irena prides herself
             on having made her own way in life, without anyone's help.

   priest    n.  priestess, clergyman or clergywoman, ecclesiastic, cleric,
             churchman or churchwoman, reverend, vicar, divine, man or woman
             of the cloth, man or woman of God, curate, confessor, minister
             (of the Gospel), servant of God, father, mother, holy man or
             woman, preacher, missionary, evangelist, abb‚, abbot or abbess,
             Colloq padre:  The high priest muttered some incantations over
             the body of the sacrificial victim.

   priestly  adj.  clerical, ecclesiastic, pastoral, hieratic, sacerdotal;
             ministerial, canonical, missionary:  She has taken her priestly
             vows.

   prig      n.  (ultra-)conservative, prude, purist, pedant, school-ma'm,
             puritan, (Mrs) Grundy, Grundyite, Grundyist, precisionist,
             precisian, conformist, formalist, Colloq stuffed shirt,
             stick-in-the-mud, goody-goody:  A terrible prig, the headmaster
             forbade even the slightest hint of slang usage.

   priggish  adj.  (ultra-)conservative, prim, demure, prudish, purist,
             puristic, pedantic, school-marmish, strait-laced, hidebound,
             stiff-necked, puritanical, conformist, (Mrs) Grundyish,
             punctilious, formal, formalistic, strict, severe, fastidious,
             fussy, particular; precious, pr‚cieux or pr‚cieuse,
             niminy-piminy, over-nice, Colloq stick-in-the-mud, goody-goody,
             prissy, old-maidish, stuffed-shirt, stuffy, uptight,
             nit-picking, Brit twee:  Victorians were less priggish in their
             private behaviour than in their public image.

   primarily adv.  1 principally, mainly, chiefly, especially, at bottom,
             particularly, first of all, pre-eminently, basically,
             essentially, fundamentally, on the whole, for the most part,
             mostly, predominantly or predominately, generally:  The rain in
             Spain falls primarily in the plain.  2 initially, originally,
             from or at the start, first (and foremost, in the first
             instance, ab initio:  The colonists, primarily refugees from
             England, began to settle the New World in the 17th century.

   primary   adj.  1 first, prime, principal, chief, main, leading,
             pre-eminent, cardinal, fundamental, basic, essential,
             predominant, elementary, elemental, underlying:  The primary
             reason I want to see you is to discuss your future with the
             company. The primary meaning of a word is given first. 2
             earliest, first, original, initial, primitive, primeval,
             primordial, embryonic, germinal, beginning, ultimate:  The
             primary source of life was possibly a sort of soup containing
             proteins and other molecules. 3 firsthand, direct, immediate:
             Bauxite is the primary source of aluminium ore.  4 elementary,
             basic, rudimentary, fundamental:  One of the primary lessons we
             are taught is consideration for others. 5 unmixed,
             unadulterated, pure, simple, rudimentary, fundamental,
             principal:  The primary colours in art are red, yellow, and
             blue.

   prime     adj.  1 See primary, 1, above.  2 best, foremost, chief;
             first-rate, first-class, choice, select, superior, pre-eminent,
             leading, ranking, predominant, unparalleled, matchless,
             peerless, noteworthy, outstanding, admirable, worthy,
             exceptional, excellent, extraordinary, exceptional:  She is a
             prime example of the results of a modern education. Arthur is
             certainly a prime candidate for the position. 3 original,
             fundamental, basic, elemental, elementary:  The prime cause of
             scurvy is lack of fresh fruit and vegetables.

             --n.  4 youth, springtime; best years, heyday, pinnacle, acme,
             peak, zenith:  Some people reach the prime of life at 60.

             --v.  5 (make or get) ready, prepare, educate, teach, instruct,
             coach, train, tutor, drill:  Has Sonia been fully primed to take
             over the chairmanship when Sir William steps down? 6 inform,
             advise, notify, apprise, brief:  Having read your book, I am
             fully primed on American history.

   primitive adj.  1 first, original, aboriginal, earliest, primordial,
             primal, primeval or Brit also primaeval, pristine, prehistoric;
             antediluvian, Noachian or Noachic, old, ancient:  In its most
             primitive state, life probably originated from some random
             strings of molecules. The most primitive farming tools date from
             some 10,000 years ago. 2 crude, rude, unrefined, raw, barbaric,
             uncultured, barbarian, coarse, rough, uncivilized, savage,
             uncultivated, unsophisticated, uncouth:  I cannot tolerate
             Nigel's primitive table manners.  3 simple, basic, simplistic,
             na‹ve, childlike, unsophisticated, uncultivated, unrefined,
             unpolished, rough, untutored, untaught, untrained, unschooled,
             undeveloped:  Gary collects paintings of the primitive school
             and has one by Grandma Moses.

   primp     v.  preen, prink, prettify, titivate or tittivate, plume, dress
             up, groom, Colloq doll up, get (all) dolled up, spruce up, put
             on one's best bib and tucker, Chiefly Brit tart up, get (all)
             tarted up, Slang deck out, trick out or up, put on one's glad
             rags, Brit fig out, US gussy up, get (all) gussied up, dude up:
             She was primping before the mirror, awaiting the arrival of her
             beau.

   princely  adj.  1 lavish, bountiful, generous, liberal, ample,
             substantial, huge, enormous:  They paid a princely sum for their
             stately home in Surrey.  2 lavish, magnificent, splendid,
             luxurious, majestic, royal, regal, sumptuous, superb, Colloq
             ritzy, swank(y), posh, plush:  The hotel laid on princely
             accommodation for us with rooms overlooking the sea. 3 royal,
             noble, regal, sovereign, of royal or noble blood or rank:  Who
             would have thought that our humble home would ever shelter a
             princely guest?

   principal adj.  1 chief, primary, prime, paramount, main, first, foremost,
             ranking, pre-eminent, predominant, dominant, prevailing;
             leading, starring:  The principal reason I'm here is to see you.
             The principal food of the people is corn. The principal role was
             sung by Pavarotti. 2 important, prominent, leading, key,
             cardinal:  Cuba is a principal source of sugar.

             --n.  3 owner, proprietor, chairman, chairwoman, chairperson,
             (managing) director, head, president, chief, chief executive
             officer, CEO, manager or Brit manageress, superintendent,
             supervisor, Colloq boss, US (head or chief) honcho:  We should
             talk to the principals about buying that company.  4 dean,
             director, Chiefly Brit headmaster, headmistress, master, rector,
             (vice-)chancellor:  His appointment as principal is for a
             two-year period.  5 (working) capital, capital funds, resources,
             investment, backing, (cash) reserve(s), assets; money:  She is
             fortunate to be able to live on the income from her investments,
             without touching the principal. 6 star, lead, heroine, hero,
             leading lady or man, leading role, main part; diva, premiЉre
             danseuse, premier danseur, prima donna, prima ballerina:  The
             principal in the ballet company was a Russian.

   principally
             adv.  chiefly, mainly, first (and foremost), primarily, above
             all, in the main, mostly, for the most part, largely,
             predominantly, on the whole, at bottom, in essence, essentially,
             basically, fundamentally; especially, particularly:  He seems to
             be interested principally in money, with little regard for
             anything else.

   principle n.  1 truth, given, precept, tenet, fundamental, grounds, law,
             rule, dictum, canon, doctrine, teaching, dogma, proposition,
             (basic) assumption, postulate, axiom, maxim, truism, guide,
             standard, criterion, model:  The perpetual-motion machine
             violates a basic principle of physics.  2 Often, principles.
             philosophy, code, attitude, (point of) view, viewpoint,
             sentiment, belief, credo, creed, idea, notion, ethic, sense of
             right and wrong:  He cynically conducts his life on the
             principle, 'Do unto others before they do unto you'. I am not
             sure I can condone his principles. 3 (sense of) honour,
             uprightness, honesty, morality, morals, probity, integrity,
             conscience:  If you don't think him a man of principle, don't do
             business with him. 4 in principle. on principle, in theory,
             theoretically, basically, fundamentally, at bottom, in essence,
             essentially, ideally:  I like your plan in principle, but in
             practice it cannot be accomplished that way.

   principled
             adj.  moral, righteous, right-minded, virtuous, noble,
             high-minded, ethical, honourable, proper, correct, right, just,
             upright, honest, scrupulous:  Michael is too highly principled
             to take bribes.

   print     v.  1 impress, imprint, stamp, publish, issue, run off, put out;
             copy; (pull a) proof:  We decided to print 500 copies of the
             book. You may have your name printed on the cover for an
             additional amount.

             --n.  2 reproduction, copy, replica, facsimile; positive,
             photograph, etching, (steel or wood-)engraving, lithograph,
             woodcut, linocut, silk screen, rotogravure, Trade Mark Xerox;
             picture, illustration; Colloq photo, cut, pic (pl. pix):  Today,
             a good print of a Picasso costs more than an original did fifty
             years ago. 3 text, printed matter, type, writing; language,
             wording, (choice of) words, phrasing:  You'd be well advised to
             read the small print before signing the agreement.

   prior     adj.  1 former, previous, earlier, one-time, ex, erstwhile; old,
             last, late, latest, Literary quondam, whilom:  If you overdraw
             your account without prior arrangement, you will automatically
             be charged a higher rate of interest. 2 prior to. before,
             previous to, previously to, till, until, preceding:  Prior to
             the earthquake, Valdivia was a river port.

   priority  n.  precedence, precedency, primacy, urgency, immediacy,
             predominance, pre-eminence, preference, rank, superiority,
             prerogative, right, seniority, importance, weight, immediacy:
             The applications for aid will be processed in order of priority.

   prison    n.  jail or Brit also gaol, dungeon, oubliette, lock-up, penal
             institution, house of correction, correctional institution,
             reformatory, house of detention; confinement, detention;
             Old-fashioned reform school, Military guardhouse; Brit remand
             centre, detention centre, remand home, community home, Military
             glasshouse, Formal CHE (= 'community home with education on the
             premises'), Old-fashioned approved school; US penitentiary,
             Military brig; Archaic Brit bridewell; Slang clink, can, cooler,
             jug, stir, Brit quod, chokey or choky, US and Canadian pokey or
             poky; US pen, calaboose, slammer, hoosegow, Old-fashioned big
             house:  He was released from prison last Friday after serving
             six months for burglary.

   prisoner  n.  convict, trusty; internee, detainee; Colloq jailbird or Brit
             also gaolbird, lifer, Slang con, Brit (old) lag, Old-fashioned
             ticket-of-leave man, US two-time or three-time loser:
             Prisoners' letters were censored.

   prissy    adj.  fussy, precious, over-nice, finicky or finical,
             strait-laced, school-marmish, prim (and proper), prudish,
             squeamish, fastidious, Colloq old-maidish:  He is awfully prissy
             about changing on the beach.

   pristine  adj.  1 original, primal, basic, primeval or Brit also
             primaeval, primitive, primordial, earliest, first, initial:  It
             is impractical to try to return the world to what some regard as
             its pristine purity. 2 uncorrupted, pure, unsullied, undefiled,
             virginal, virgin, chaste, untouched, unspoiled, unpolluted,
             untarnished, spotless, immaculate, natural:  One must travel far
             today to experience the pristine beauty of nature. The car was
             in pristine condition.

   privacy   n.  1 seclusion, retirement, solitude, isolation, retreat,
             sequestration, reclusiveness, reclusion, solitariness;
             monasticism:  Coleman very much enjoys the privacy of living
             alone.  2 secrecy, secretiveness, clandestineness,
             confidentiality, surreptitiousness, covertness, concealment:
             Many feel that the questions on census forms invade their
             privacy.

   private   adj.  1 (top) secret, confidential, undisclosed, hidden,
             clandestine, concealed, covert, surreptitious, off the record,
             not for publication, unofficial, Colloq hush-hush:  I think our
             relationship should be kept private for the time being.  What I
             am about to tell you is strictly private. 2 privileged,
             restrictive, restricted, exclusive, special, reserved, personal,
             inaccessible, non-public; hidden, secluded, concealed, secret,
             sneaking:  The house is situated on a private road. I had a
             private suspicion that they would cancel their trip. 3 personal,
             individual, own, intimate, particular:  My private affairs are
             none of your business.  4 solitary, seclusive, reclusive,
             withdrawn, retiring, reticent, ungregarious, non-gregarious,
             unsocial, unsociable, antisocial, reserved, uncommunicative,
             hermitic(al), hermit-like, eremitic(al); sequestered, secluded,
             retired:  You have to bear in mind that Edmund is a very private
             person.

             --n.  5 private soldier, infantryman, foot-soldier, US enlisted
             man, Colloq Brit Tommy, Tommy Atkins, squaddie, US GI (Joe),
             Slang US grunt:  Before cashiering him, they reduced him from
             colonel to private.  6 in private. in secret, secretly,
             privately, sub rosa, personally, confidentially, behind closed
             doors, in camera, off the record, US on the q.t.  or Q.T.;
             clandestinely, secretively, sneakily, sneakingly,
             surreptitiously, furtively, covertly, on the sly:  Family
             matters should be discussed only in private. They met in private
             with agents of the rebel forces. 7 private parts or privates.
             genitals, sexual or sex organs, genitalia.  The natives wore
             loincloths to cover their private parts.

   privation n.  need, neediness, want, deprivation, hardship, indigence,
             necessity, poverty, penury, destitution, strait(s), pauperism,
             beggary; distress, misery:  The lower classes in Victorian
             England suffered terrible privation.

   privilege n.  benefit, advantage, right, prerogative, concession,
             allowance, indulgence, immunity, exemption, dispensation,
             freedom, liberty, franchise, permission, consent, leave,
             authorization, sanction, authority, licence, carte blanche:  The
             children were given the privilege of choosing where the family
             should go on holiday.

   privileged
             adj.  1 favoured, advantaged, indulged, entitled, ‚lite,
             special, honoured:  John was one of the privileged few to be
             told her private telephone number. 2 protected, exempt(ed),
             immune; licensed, empowered, admitted, permitted, sanctioned,
             authorized, enfranchised, chartered:  This is a privileged
             institution as far as the dispensation of grants is concerned. 3
             powerful, ruling; wealthy, rich:  He despised the privileged
             class till he became wealthy enough to be a member of it. 4
             confidential, secret, private, privy, inside, off the record,
             not for publication, restricted, Colloq hush-hush:  What I am
             about to tell you is privileged information.

   privy     adj.  1 See privileged, 4, above.  2 privy to. aware of, in on,
             on to or onto, sharing (in), cognizant of, apprised of, informed
             or advised about or of, informed on, knowledgeable about, Colloq
             in the know about, Slang hip to, wise to, Old-fashioned hep to:
             Was the minister's wife privy to what was discussed at cabinet
             meetings?

             --n.  3 lavatory, (outside or outdoor) toilet, latrine,
             water-closet, WC, US outhouse, Colloq chiefly Brit loo, Slang
             Brit bog, US crapper, Taboo slang US shithouse:  In those days,
             almost every home had an outside privy, as there was no interior
             plumbing.

   prize°    n.  1 reward, award, trophy, premium; honour, accolade, Literary
             guerdon:  The first prize was a week's holiday in the Bahamas.
             2 winnings, jackpot, purse, receipts, gain, windfall, stakes,
             Colloq haul, Chiefly US take:  He used his prize from winning
             the lottery to buy a new car.  3 aim, goal:  The prize they all
             strove for was a grant to carry on lexicographic research. 4
             loot, booty, spoil(s), trophy, plunder, pickings:  The pirates
             took the galleon as their prize.

             --adj.  5 choice, excellent, (prize)winning, best, champion,
             outstanding, select, superior, superlative, first-rate:  This
             dairy owns a prize herd of Guernseys.

   prizeэ    v.  value, treasure, esteem, cherish, appreciate, rate highly,
             hold dear:  I prize your friendship above all things.

   probability
             n.  likelihood, likeliness, odds, expectation, chance(s),
             (distinct) possibility, presumption:  There is a high
             probability that it will rain.<