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We the  People  of the United States,  in Order to form a more
perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility,
provide for common defence,  promote the general Welfare,  and
secure  the  Blessings  of  Liberty  to  ourselves   and   our
Posterity,  do  ordain and establish this Constitution for the
United States of America.


Section 1.  All legislative Powers  herein  granted  shall  be
vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist
of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2.  The House of Representatives shall be composed  of
Members  chosen every second Year by the People of the several
States,  and  the  Electors  in  each  State  shall  have  the
Qualifications  requisite  for  Electors  of the most numerous
Branch of the State Legislature.

  No Person shall be a  Representative  who  shall  not  have
attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years
a Citizen of the  United  States,  and  who  shall  not,  when
elected,  be  an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be

  Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among
the  several  States  which may be included within this Union,
according  to  their  respective  Numbers,  which   shall   be
determined  by  adding  to  the  whole Number of free Persons,
including those bound to Service for  a  Term  of  Years,  and
excluding  Indians  not  taxed,  three  fifths  of  all  other
Persons.  The actual Enumeration shall be  made  within  three
Years  after  the  first Meeting of the Congress of the United
States, and within every subseque t Term of ten Years, in such
Manner   as   they   shall   by  Law  direct.  The  Number  of
Representatives  shall  not  exceed  one  for   every   thirty
Thousand,   but   each   State   shall   have   at  Least  one
Representative;  and until such enumeration shall be made, the
State  of  New  Hampshire  shall  be  entitled to chuse three,
Massachusetts eight,  Rhode-Island and Providence  Plantations
one,   Connecticut   five,  New-York  six,  New  Jersey  four,
Pennsylvania eight,  Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten,
North Carolina five, S uth Carolina five, and Georgia three.

  When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State,
the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of  Election
to fill such Vacancies.

  The House  of Representatives shall chuse their speaker and
other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

Section 3.  The Senate of the United States shall be  composed
of  two  Senators  from each State,  chosen by the Legislature
thereof for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

  Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of
the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be
into three Classes.  The Seats of the Senators  of  the  first
Class  shall  be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year,
of he second Class at the Expiration of the fourth  Year,  and
of  the  third  Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year,  so
that one third  may  be  chosen  every  second  Year;  and  if
Vacancies  happen  by  Resignation,  or otherwise,  during the
Recess of the Legisl ture of any State,  the Executive thereof
may  make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the
Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

  No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to
the Age of thirty Years,  and been nine Years a Citizen of the
United  States,  and  who  shall  not,  when  elected,  be  an
Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

  The Vice  President of the United States shall be President
of the Senate,  but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally

  The Senate  shall  chuse  their other Officers,  and also a
President pro tempore,  in the Absence of the Vice  President,
or  when  he  shall  exercise  the  Office of President of the
United States.

  The Senate  shall  have  the  sole   Power   to   try   all
Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on
Oath or Affirmation.  When the President of the United States
is  tried,  the  Chief  Justice shall preside:  And no Person
shall be convicte without the concurrence of  two  thirds  of
the  Members present.  Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall
not  extend  further  than  to  removal  from   Office,   and
disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust
or Profit under the United States  but  the  Party  convicted
shall  nevertheless  be  liable  and  subject  to Indictment,
Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to law.

Section 4.  The Times,  Places and Manner of holding Elections
for Senators and Representatives,  shall be prescribed in each
State by the Legislature thereof;  but the Congress may at any
time  by Law make or alter such Regulations,  except as to the
Pla es of chusing Senators.

  The Congress shall assemble at least once  in  every  Year,
and  such  Meeting  shall  be on the first Monday in December,
unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

Section 5.  Each House shall be the Judge  of  the  Elections,
Returns and Qualifications of its own Members,  and a Majority
of each shall constitute  a  Quorum  to  do  business;  but  a
smaller  Number  may  adjourn  from  day  to  day,  and may be
authorized to com el the Attendance of absent Members, in such
Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

  Each House  may  determine  the  Rules  of its Proceedings,
punish its Members for disorderly  Behaviour,  and,  with  the
Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

  Each House  shall  keep  a journal of its Proceedings,  and
from time to time publish the same,  excepting such  Parts  as
may  in their Judgment require Secrecy;  and the yeas and Nays
of the Members of either House on any question shall,  at  the
Desire  of  one  fifth  of  those  Present,  be entered on the

  Neither House,  during  the  Session  of  Congress,  shall,
without the Consent of the other,  adjourn for more than three
days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses
shall be sitting.

Section 6.  The  Senators  and Representatives shall receive a
Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and
paid  out of the Treasury of the United States.  They shall in
all Cases,  except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be
pr  vileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session
of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from
the same;  and for any Speech or Debate in either House,  they
shall not be questioned in any other Place.

  No Senator or Representative shall,  during  the  Time  for
which  he was elected,  be appointed to any civil Office under
the Authority of the United  States,  which  shall  have  been
created,  or  the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased
during such time;  and no Person holding any Office under  the
United  States,  shall  be a Member of either House during his
Continuance in Office.

Section 7.  All Bills for raising Revenue shall  originate  in
the  House  of Representatives;  but the Senate may propose or
concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

  Every Bill  which  shall   have   passed   the   House   of
Representatives  and  the Senate,  shall,  before it become a
Law,  be presented to the President of the United States;  If
he  approve he shall sign it,  but if not he shall return it,
with his Objections t that  House  in  which  it  shall  have
originated,  who shall enter the Objections at large on their
Journal,  and  proceed  to  reconsider  it.  If  after   such
Reconsideration  two thirds of that House shall agree to pass
the Bill, it shall be sent, together wi
h the  Objections,  to  the  other  House,  by  which it shall
likewise be reconsidered,  and if approved by  two  thirds  of
that House,  it shall become a Law.  But in all such Cases the
Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and
the  Names f the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall
be entered on the Journal of each House respectively.  If  any
Bill  shall  not  be returned by the President within ten Days
(Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to  him,
the  Same  shall be a Law,  in like Manner as if he had signed
it,  unless the Congress  by  their  Adjournment  prevent  its
Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

  Every Order,  Resolution,  or Vote to which the Concurrence
of the Senate and House of Representatives  may  be  necessary
(except  on  a  question of Adjournment) shall be presented to
the President of the United States;  and before the Same shall
take Ef ect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by
him,  shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and  House
of  Representatives,  according  to  the Rules and Limitations
prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8.  The Congress shall have Power To lay  and  collect
Taxes,  Duties,  Imposts  and  Excises,  to  pay the Debts and
provide for the common Defence  and  general  Welfare  of  the
United  States;  but all Duties,  Imposts and Excises shall be
uniform throug out the United States;

       To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

       To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations,  and  among
the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

       To establish  an  uniform Rule of Naturalization,  and
uniform Laws on the subject  of  Bankruptcies  throughout  the
United States;

       To coin  Money,  regulate  the  Value thereof,  and of
foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

       To provide for the Punishment  of  counterfeiting  the
Securities and current Coin of the United States;

       To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

       To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by
securing for  limited  Times  to  Authors  and  Inventors  the
exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

       To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

       To define  and  punish Piracies and Felonies committed
on the high Seas, and Offences against the Law of Nations;

       To declare War,  grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal,
and make rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

       To raise  and support Armies,  but no Appropriation of
Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

       To provide and maintain a Navy;

       To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the
land and naval Forces;

       To provide  for  calling  forth the Militia to execute
the Laws  of  the  Union,  suppress  Insurrections  and  repel

       To provide for organizing,  arming,  and disciplining,
the Militia,  and for governing such Part of them  as  may  be
employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the
States respectively,  the Appointment of the Officers, and the
Autho   training  the  Militia  according  to  the  discipline
prescribed by Congress;

       To exercise  exclusive  Legislation   in   all   Cases
whatsoever,  over  such  District  (not  exceeding  ten  Miles
square),  as may,  by Cession of particular  States,  and  the
Acceptance  of Congress,  become the Seat of the Government of
the United States,  a ercise like Authority  over  all  Places
purchased  by  the  Consent of the Legislature of the State in
which the Same shall be for the Erection of Forts,  Magazines,
Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;--And

       To make  all  Laws which shall be necessary and proper
for carying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other
Powers  vested  by  this Constitution in the Government of the
United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any
of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall
not be prohibited by the  Congress  prior  to  the  Year  one
thousand  eight  hundred and eight,  but a Tax or duty may be
imposed o such Importation,  not exceeding  ten  dollars  for
each Person.

       The Privilege  of  the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not
be suspended,  unless when in Cases of Rebellion  or  Invasion
the public Safety may require it.

       No Bill  of  Attainder  or  ex post facto Law shall be

       No Capitation,  or other direct,  Tax shall  be  laid,
unless  in  Proportion  to  the  Census  or Enumeration herein
before directed to be taken.

       No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from
any State.

       No Preference  shall  be  given  by  any Regulation of
Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State  over  those  of
another;  nor shall Vessels bound to,  or from,  one State, be
obliged to enter, clear or pay Duties in another.

       No money shall be drawn  from  the  Treasury,  but  in
Consequence  of  Appropriations  made  by  Law;  and a regular
Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of  all
public Money shall be published from time to time.

       No Title  of  Nobility  shall be granted by the United
States:  And no Person holding any Office of Profit or  Trust
under  them,  shall,  without  the  Consent  of the Congress,
accept of any present,  Emolument,  Office,  or Title, of any
kind whatever, King, Prince, or foreign State.

Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or
Confederation;  grant Letters of Marque  and  Reprisal;  coin
Money;  emit  Bills  of  Credit;  make any Thing but gold and
silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts;  pass any  Bill  of
Attainder,  e post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation
of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

  No State shall,  without the Consent of the  Congress,  lay
any  Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports,  except what may
be absolutely necessary for executing  it's  inspection  Laws:
and  the  net  Produce of all Duties and Imposts,  laid by any
State on I ports or Exports,  shall be  for  the  Use  of  the
Treasury  of  the  United  States;  and all such Laws shall be
subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.

  No State shall,  without the Consent of Congress,  lay  any
Duty  of  Tonnage,  keep  Troops,  or  Ships of War in time of
Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State,
or  with  a foreign Power,  or engage in War,  unless actually
invaded,  or in such imminent Danger  as  will  not  admit  of


Section 1.  The executive Power shall be vested in a President
of  the  United  States  of America.  He shall hold his Office
during the Term of four Years,  and,  together with  the  Vice
President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

  Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature
thereof may direct,  a Number of Electors, equal to the whole
Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may
be  entitled   in   the   Congress:   but   no   Senator   or
Representative, o Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit
under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

  The Electors shall meet in  their  respective  States,  and
vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not
be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves.  And  they
shall  make  a  List of all the Persons voted for,  and of the
Number f Votes for  each;  which  List  they  shall  sign  and
certify,  and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of
the United States,  directed to the President of  the  Senate.
The  President  of  the  Senate shall,  in the Presence of the
Senate and House of epresentatives, open all the Certificates,
and  the  Votes  shall then be counted.  The Person having the
greatest Number of Votes  shall  be  the  President,  if  such
Number   be  a  Majority  of  the  whole  Number  of  Electors
appointed;  and if  there  be  more  than  ne  who  have  such
Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of
Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of  them
for President: and if no Person have a Majority, then from the
five highest on the List the said House shall in  like  Manner
chuse the President.  But in chusing the President,  the Votes
shall be taken by States,  the Representation from each  State
having one Vote;  A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a
Member or Members from two thirds of the States, an
a Majority  of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.
In every Case,  after the Choice of the President,  the Person
having  the  greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be
the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who
h  ve equal Votes,  the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot
the Vice President.

  The Congress  may  determine  the  Time  of   chusing   the
Electors,  and  the  Day on which they shall give their Votes;
which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

  No Person except a natural born Citizen,  or a  Citizen  of
the  United  States,  at  the  time  of  the  Adoption of this
Constitution,  shall be eligible to the Office  of  President;
neither  shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall
not have atta ned to the Age of thirty five  Years,  and  been
fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

  In Case of the Removal of the President from Office,  or of
his Death,  Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers
and Duties of the said Office,  the Same shall devolve on the
Vice President,  and the Congress may by Law provide for  the
Case o Removal,  Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the
President and Vice President,  declaring what  Officer  shall
then   act   as   President,   and  such  Officer  shall  act
accordingly,  until the Disability be removed, or a President
shall be elected.

  The President  shall,  at  stated  Times,  receive  for his
Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor
diminished  during  the  Period  for  which he shall have been
elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other
Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

  Before he  enter  on the Execution of his Office,  he shall
take the following Oath or Affirmation:- "I do solemnly  swear
(or  affirm)  that  I  will  faithfully  execute the Office of
President of the United States,  and will to the  best  of  my
Ability,  pre erve, protect and defend the Constitution of the
United States."

Section 2.  The President shall be Commander in Chief  of  the
Army and Navy of the United States,  and of the Militia of the
several States,  when called into the actual  Service  of  the
United States;  he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the
princi al Officer in each of the executive  Departments,  upon
any  Subject  relating  to  the  Duties  of  their  respective
Offices,  and he shall  have  Power  to  grant  Reprieves  and
Pardons  for  Offences  against  the United States,  except in
Cases of Impeachment.

  He shall have Power,  by and with the Advice and Consent of
the  Senate,  to  make  Treaties,  provided  two thirds of the
Senators present concur;  and he shall nominate,  and  by  and
with  the  Advice  and  Consent  of the Senate,  shall appoint
Ambassadors, ot er public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the
supreme  Court,  and  all other Officers of the United States,
whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided for,  and
which shall be established by Law: but the Congress may by Law
vest the Appointme t of such inferior Officers,  as they think
proper,  in the President alone,  in the Courts of Law,  or in
the Heads of Departments.

  The President shall have Power to  fill  up  all  Vacancies
that  may happen during the Recess of the Senate,  by granting
Commissions which shall  expire  at  the  End  of  their  next

Section 3.  He  shall  from  time to time give to the Congress
Information of the State of the Union,  and recommend to their
Consideration  such  Measures  as he shall judge necessary and
expedient;  he may,  on extraordinary Occasions,  convene both
Houses,  r either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between
them,  with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn
them  to such Time as he shall think proper;  he shall receive
Ambassadors and other public Ministers;  he  shall  take  Care
that the Laws e faithfully executed,  and shall Commission all
the Officers of the United States.

Section 4.  The  President,  Vice  President  and  all   civil
Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on
Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other
High Crimes and Misdemeanors.


Section 1.  The judicial Power of the United States,  shall be
vested  in  one supreme Court,  and in such inferior Courts as
the Congress may from time to time ordain and  establish.  The
Judges,  both  of the supreme and inferior Courts,  shall hold
their ffices during  good  Behaviour,  and  shall,  at  stated
Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall
not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.

Section 2.  The judicial Power shall extend to all  Cases,  in
Law and Equity,  arising under this Constitution,  the Laws of
the United States,  and Treaties made, or which shall be made,
under  their Authority;  --to all Cases affecting Ambassadors,
other  public  Ministers  and  Consuls;  --to  all  Cases   of
admiralty  and  maritime  jurisdiction;--  to Controversies to
which the United States shall be a Party;  --to  Controversies
between  two  or  more States;-between a State and Citizens of
another  State;  --betwe  n  Citizens  of  different   States;
--between  Citizens  of  the  same  State claiming Lands under
Grants of different  States,  and  between  a  State,  or  the
Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

  In all Cases affecting Ambassadors,  other public Ministers
and Consuls,  and those in which a State shall be  Party,  the
supreme  Court  shall  have original Jurisdiction.  In all the
other Cases before mentioned,  the supreme  Court  shall  have
appellate  Jurisdiction,  both  as to Law and Fact,  with such
Exceptions,  and under such Regulations as the Congress  shall

  The Trial  of  all Crimes,  except in Cases of Impeachment,
shall be by Jury;  and such Trial shall be held in  the  State
where the said Crimes shall have been committed;  but when not
committed within any State,  the Trial shall be at such  Place
or Plac s as the Congress may by Law have directed.

Section 3.  Treason  against the United States,  shall consist
only in levying War against them,  or  in  adhering  to  their
Enemies,  giving  them  Aid  and  Comfort.  No Person shall be
convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two  Witnesses
to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

  The Congress  shall have Power to declare the Punishment of
Treason,  but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of
Blood,  or  Forfeiture  except  during  the Life of the Person


Section 1.  Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State
to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every
other  State.  And  the Congress may by general Laws prescribe
the Manner in which such Acts,  Records and Proceedings  shall
be proved, and the Effect thereof.

Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all
Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

  A person charged in any  State  with  Treason,  Felony,  or
other  Crime,  who  shall  flee from justice,  and be found in
another State,  shall on Demand of the executive Authority  of
the State from which he fled,  be delivered up,  to be removed
to the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

  No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the
Laws thereof,  escaping into another,  shall in Consequence of
any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service
or  Labour,  but shall be delivered upon on Claim of the Party
to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

Section 3.  New States may be admitted by  the  Congress  into
this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within
the Jurisdiction of any other State;  nor any State be  formed
by  the  Junction  of two or more States,  or Parts of States,
without  the  Consent  of  the  Legislatures  of  the   States
concerned as well as of the Congress.

  The Congress  shall  have  Power to dispose of and make all
needful Rules and  Regulations  respecting  the  Territory  or
other Property belonging to the United States;  and nothing in
this Constitution shall be so construed as  to  Prejudice  any
Claims of he United States, or of any particular State.

Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in
this Union a Republican Form of Government,  and shall protect
each  of  them  against  Invasion;  and  on Application of the
Legislature,  or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot
be co vened) against domestic Violence.


The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it
necessary,  shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or,
on the Application of the Legislatures of two  thirds  of  the
several   States,   shall  call  a  Convention  for  proposing
Amendments,  which,  in either Case,  shall be  valid  to  all
Intents  and  Purposes,  as  Part  of this Constitution,  when
ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of  the  several
States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one
or the other Mode of Rat  fication  may  be  proposed  by  the
Congress;  Provided  that no Amendment which may be made prior
to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in  any
Manner  affect  the  first  and  fourth  Clauses  in the Ninth
Section of the first Article;  and that o State,  without  its
Consent,  shall  be  deprived  of  its  equal  Suffrage in the


All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into,  before the
Adoption of this Constitution,  shall be as valid against  the
United   States   under   this   Constitution,  as  under  the

  This Constitution,  and the Laws of the United States which
shall be made in Pursuance thereof;  and all Treaties made, or
which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States,
shall be the supreme Law of the Land;  and the Judges in every
S ate shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or
Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

  The Senators and Representatives before mentioned,  and the
Members of the several State Legislatures,  and all  executive
and  judicial  Officers,  both of the United States and of the
several States,  shall be bound by  Oath  or  Affirmation,  to
support t is Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be
required as a Qualification to  any  Office  or  public  Trust
under the United States.


The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States,  shall  be
sufficient  for the Establishment of this Constitution between
the States so ratifying the Same.

       done in Convention by the  Unanimous  Consent  of  the
States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of
our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty  seven  and  of
the  Independence  of the United States of America the Twelfth
In witn eof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,


New Hampshire:                                Delaware:

New York:                                        Virginia:
New Jersey:
       WIL: LIVINGSTON                North Carolina:

Pennsylvania                                South Carolina:


Congress shall make no  law  respecting  an  establishment  of
religion,   or  prohibiting  the  free  exercise  thereof;  or
abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right
of  the  people  peaceably  to  assemble,  and to petition the
Government for a edress of grievances.


A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a
free State,  the right of the people to keep  and  bear  Arms,
shall not be infringed.


No Soldier shall,  in time of peace be quartered in any house,
without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a
manner to be prescribed by law.


The right of the People to be secure in their persons, houses,
papers,  and  effects,  against  unreasonable   searches   and
seizures,  shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue,
but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and
particu  arity  describing  the place to be searched,  and the
persons or things to be seized.


No person shall be held to answer for a capital,  or otherwise
infamous crime,  unless on a presentment or  indictment  of  a
Grand  Jury,  except  in  cases  arising  in the land or naval
forces,  or in the Militia,  when in actual service in time of
War or publ c danger;  nor shall any person be subject for the
same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;  nor
shall  be  compelled  in  any  criminal  case  to be a witness
against  himself,  nor  be  deprived  of  life,  liberty,   or
property, without due proces
of law;  nor shall private property be taken for public  use,
without just compensation.


In all criminal prosecutions,  the  accused  shall  enjoy  the
right  to a speedy and public trial,  by an impartial jury of
the State and district wherein  the  crime  shall  have  been
committed,   which   district   shall  have  been  previously
ascertained by law, an to be informed of the nature and cause
of  the  accusation;  to  be  confronted  with  the witnesses
against  him;  to  have  compulsory  process  for   obtaining
witnesses in his favor, and to have Assistance of Counsel for
his defence.


In Suits  at common law,  where the value in controversy shall
exceed twenty dollars,  the right of trial by  jury  shall  be
preserved,  and  no  fact tried by a jury,  shall be otherwise
re-examined in any Court of the United States,  than according
to the ru es of the common law.


Excessive bail shall not  be  required,  nor  excessive  fines
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.


The enumeration in the Constitution,  of certain rights, shall
not  be  construed to deny or disparage others retained by the

AMENDMENT X  The  powers not delegated to the United States by
the Constitution,  nor prohibited by it  to  the  States,  are
reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

AMENDMENT XI (Ratified in 1795.)

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed
to  extend  to  any  suit  in  law  or  equity,  commenced  or
prosecuted against one of the United  States  by  Citizens  of
another  State,  or  by  Citizens  or  Subjects of any Foreign

AMENDMENT XII (Ratified in 1804.)

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by
ballot for President  and  Vice-President,  one  of  whom,  at
least,  shall  not  be  an  inhabitant  of the same state with
themselves;  they shall name in their ballots the person voted
for as Pres dent, and in distinct ballots the person voted for
as Vice- President,  and they shall make distinct lists of all
persons  voted for as President,  and of all persons voted for
as Vice- President, and of the number of votes for each, which
lists they sh ll sign and certify,  and transmit sealed to the
seat of the government of the United States,  directed to  the
President  of  the Senate;--The President of the Senate shall,
in the presence of the Senate and  House  of  Representatives,
open  all  the  certifi  ates  and  the  votes  shall  then be
counted;--The person having the greatest number of  votes  for
President,  shall  be  the  President,  if  such  number  be a
majority of the whole number of Electors appointed;  and if no
person have such majority, then from th
persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the
list   of   those   voted  for  as  President,  the  House  of
Representatives  shall  choose  immediately,  by  ballot,  the
President.  But in choosing the President,  the votes shall be
taken by states,  he representation from each state having one
vote;  a  quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or
members from two-thirds of the states,  and a majority of  all
the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of
Representatives sha l not  choose  a  President  whenever  the
right of choice shall devolve upon then, before the fourth day
of March next following,  then the Vice-President shall act as
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional
disability of the Presid nt. -- The person having the greatest
number    of   votes   as   Vice-President,   shall   be   the
Vice-President,  if such number be a  majority  of  the  whole
number  of  Electors  appointed,  and  if  no  person  have  a
majority,  then from the two highest numbers on the l st,  the
Senate  shall  choose  the  Vice-President;  a  quorum for the
purpose shall consist of two-thirds of  the  whole  number  of
Senators,  and  a  majority  of  the  whole  number  shall  be
necessary  to  a  choice.  But  no   person   constitutionally
ineligible  to  the  office  of President shall be eligible to
that of Vice-President of the United States.

AMENDMENT XIII (Ratified in 1865.)

Section 1.  Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude,  except
as a punishment for crime whereof the party  shall  have  been
duly convicted,  shall exist within the United States,  or any
place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2.  Congress shall have power to enforce this  article
by appropriate legislation.

AMENDMENT XIV (Ratified in 1868.)

Section 1.  All persons born  or  naturalized  in  the  United
States,  and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens
of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.  No
State  shall  make  or enforce any law which shall abridge the
privile es or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor
shall  any  State  deprive  any  person of life,  liberty,  or
property,  without due process of law;  nor deny to any person
within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2.  Representatives  shall  be  apportioned  among the
several States according to their respective numbers, counting
the  whole number of persons in each State,  excluding Indians
not taxed.  But when the right to vote at any election for the
choi  e  of  electors  for President and Vice President of the
United States,  Representatives in Congress, the Executive and
Judicial   officers   of  a  State,  or  the  members  of  the
Legislature thereof,  is denied to any of the male inhabitants
of such State,  being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of
the  United  States,  or  in  any  way  abridged,  except  for
participation  in  rebellion,  or  other  crime,  the basis of
representation therein shall  be  reduced  in  the  proportion
which the number of such male citizens s all bear to the whole
number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3.  No person shall be a Senator or Representative  in
Congress,  or elector of President and Vice President, or hold
any office,  civil or military,  under the United  States,  or
under any State,  who,  having previously taken an oath,  as a
member f Congress,  or as an officer of the United States,  or
as  a  member of any State legislature,  or as an executive or
judicial officer of any State,  to support the Constitution of
the  United  States,  shall  have  engaged  in insurrection or
rebellion against the same,  or given aid or  comfort  to  the
enemies  thereof.  But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of
each House, remove such disability.

Section 4.  The validity of the  public  debt  of  the  United
States,  authorized  by  law,  including  debts  incurred  for
payment of pensions and bounties for services  in  suppressing
insurrection  or  rebellion,  shall  not  be  questioned.  But
neither the United States nor any State shall  assume  or  pay
any  debt  or  obligation  incurred  in aid of insurrection or
rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss
or emancipation of any slave;  but all such debts, obligations
and claims shall be held i legal and void.

Section 5.  The Congress  shall  have  power  to  enforce,  by
appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

AMENDMENT XV (Ratified in 1870.)

Section 1.  The right of citizens of the United States to vote
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any
State on account of race,  color,  or  previous  condition  of

Section 2.  The  Congress  shall  have  power  to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.

AMENDMENT XVI (Ratified in 1913.)

The Congress  shall  have  power  to  lay and collect taxes on
incomes,  from whatever source derived,  without apportionment
among the several States,  and without regard to any census or

AMENDMENT XVII (Ratified in 1913.)

The Senate  of  the  United  States  shall  be composed of two
Senators from each State,  elected by the people  thereof  for
six years;  and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors
in each State shall  have  the  qualifications  requisite  for
electors of he most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

  When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in
the Senate,  the executive authority of such State shall issue
writs of election to fill such vacancies:  Provided,  That the
legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof  to
ma   e  temporary  appointments  until  the  people  fill  the
vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

  This amendment shall not be so construed as to  affect  the
election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid
as part of the Constitution.

AMENDMENT XVIII  (Ratified  in  1919.)  (Repealed  in  1933 by
Amendment XXI) Section 1. After one year from the ratification
of  this article the manufacture,  sale,  or transportation of
intoxicating liquors within,  the importation thereof into, or
the  exportation  thereof  from  the  United  States  and  all
territory subject to the  jurisdiction  thereof  for  beverage
purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2.  The  Congress  and  the  several States shall have
concurrent  power  to  enforce  this  article  by  appropriate

Section 3.  This  article shall be inoperative unless it shall
have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by  the
legislatures   of  the  several  States  as  provided  in  the
Constitution,  within  seven  years  from  the  date  of   the
submission hereof o the States by the Congress.

AMENDMENT XIX (Ratified in 1920.)

The right of citizens of the United States to vote  shall  not
be  denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
account of sex.

   Congress shall have  power  to  enforce  this  article  by
appropriate legislation.

AMENDMENT XX (Ratified in 1933.)

Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall
end  at  noon  on  the  20th day of January,  and the terms of
Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January,
of  the  years  in  which  such terms would have ended if this
article  ad  not  been  ratified;  and  the  terms  of   their
successors shall then begin.

Section 2.  The Congress shall assemble at least once in every
year,  and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d  day  of
January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term
of the President,  the President elect shall  have  died,  the
Vice  President  elect shall become President.  If a President
shall not have been chosen  before  the  time  fixed  for  the
beginning  of  his term,  or if the President elect shall have
failed to qualify,  then the Vice President elect shall act as
President  until  a  President  shall have qualified;  and the
Congress may by law provide for the  case  wherein  neither  a
President   elect  nor  a  Vice  President  elect  shall  have
qualified,  declaring who shall then act as President,  or the
manner in which one who is to act shall be selected,  and such
person  shall  act  accordingly  until  a  President  or  Vice
President shall have qualified.

Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the
death  of  any  of  the  persons  from  whom  the   House   of
Representatives  may  choose a President whenever the right of
choice shall have devolved upon them,  and for the case of the
death  of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a
Vice  President  whenever  the  right  of  choice  shall  have
devolved upon them.

Section 5.  Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day
of October following the ratification of this article.

Section 6.  This article shall be inoperative unless it  shall
have  been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the
legislatures of three-fourths of  the  several  States  within
seven years from the date of its submission.

AMENDMENT XXI (Ratified in 1933.)

Section 1.  The  eighteenth  article  of  amendment   to   the
Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Section 2.  The  transportation or importation into any State,
Territory,  or possession of the United States for delivery or
use therein of intoxicating liquors,  in violation of the laws
thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Section 3.  This article shall be inoperative unless it  shall
have  been  ratified  as  an  amendment to the Constitution by
conventions  in  the  several  States,  as  provided  in   the
Constitution,   within  seven  years  from  the  date  of  the
submission hereof to t e States by the Congress.

AMENDMENT XXII (Ratified in 1951.)

Section 1.  No  person  shall  be elected to the office of the
President more than twice,  and no person  who  has  held  the
office of President,  or acted as President, for more than two
years of a  term  to  which  some  other  person  was  elected
President shall be elected to the office of the President more
than once.  But this Article shall not  apply  to  any  person
holding the office of President when this Article was proposed
by the Congress,  and shall not prevent any person who may  be
holding the office o
President, or acting as President,  during  the  term  within
which  this  Article becomes operative from holding the office
of President or acting as President during  the  remainder  of
such term.

Section 2.  This  Article shall be inoperative unless it shall
have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by  the
legislatures  of  three-fourths  of  the several States within
seven years from the date of its submission to the  States  by
the Co gress.

AMENDMENT XXIII (Ratified in 1961.)

Section 1.  The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

  A number of electors of President and Vice President  equal
to  the  whole  number  of  Senators  and  Representatives in
Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a
State,  but  in  no event more than the least populous State;
they shall b in addition to those appointed  by  the  States,
but  they  shall  be  considered,  for  the  purposes  of the
election of President and  Vice  President,  to  be  electors
appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District and
perform such duties as provide  by  the  twelfth  article  of

Section 2.  The  Congress  shall  have  power  to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.

AMENDMENT XXIV (Ratified in 1964.)

Section 1.  The right of citizens of the United States to vote
in any  primary  or  other  election  for  President  or  Vice
President,  for  electors for President or Vice President,  or
for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied
or  abridg  d  by  the United States or any State by reason of
failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Section 2.  The Congress shall  have  power  to  enforce  this
article by appropriate legislation.

AMENDMENT XXV (Ratified in 1967.)

Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office
or  of  his  death  or  resignation,  the Vice President shall
become President.

Section 2.  Whenever there is a vacancy in the office  of  the
Vice President,  the President shall nominate a Vice President
who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote  of
both Houses of Congress.

Section 3.  Whenever  the President transmits to the President
pro tempore of the Senate and the  Speaker  of  the  House  of
Representatives  his  written declaration that he is unable to
discharge the powers and duties of his office,  and  until  he
transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary,  such
powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as
Acting President.

Section 4.  Whenever  the  Vice  president  and  a majority of
either the principal officers of the executive departments or
of  such other body as Congress may by law provide,  transmit
to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of
the  Hous  of  Representatives their written declaration that
the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of
his  office,  the Vice President shall immediately assume the
powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

  Thereafter, when the President transmits to  the  President
pro  tempore  of  the  Senate  and the Speaker of the House of
Representatives his  written  declaration  that  no  inability
exists,  he  shall  resume the powers and duties of his office
unless the Vi  e  President  and  a  majority  of  either  the
principal  officers  of  the  executive  department or of such
other body as Congress may by  law  provide,  transmit  within
four  days  to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the
Speaker  of  the  House  of  Represe  tatives  their   written
declaration  that  the  President  is  unable to discharge the
powers and duties of  his  office.  Thereupon  Congress  shall
decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that
purpose if not in session.  If the Congress, wit in twenty-one
days after receipt of the latter written declaration,  or,  if
Congress is not  in  session,  within  twenty-one  days  after
Congress  is  required  to assemble,  determines by two-thirds
vote of both Houses that the President is unable to dischar  e
the powers and duties of his office,  the Vice President shall
continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise,
the  President  shall  resume  the  powers  and  duties of his

AMENDMENT XXVI (Ratified in 1971.)

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are
eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or
abridged  by  the  United States or by any State on account of

Section 2.  The Congress shall  have  power  to  enforce  this
article by appropriate legislation.

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